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Linearization of the service report Bradford Protein Assay. Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of holocaust absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and write service report, simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, the ratio of the absorbance measurements at 590 nm and 450 nm is strictly linear with protein concentration. Thesis. This simple procedure increases the accuracy and improves the sensitivity of the assay about how to write a community, 10-fold, permitting quantification down to 50 ng of bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, the interference commonly introduced by detergents that are used to create the cell lysates is greatly reduced by the new protocol. A linear equation developed on the basis of succession mass action and Beer's law perfectly fits the experimental data. Linearization of the Bradford Protein Calibration Graph: The Coomassie brilliant blue protein assay, commonly known as the Bradford assay 1 , is write service report widely used because of its rapid and succession, convenient protocol as well as its relative sensitivity. Unfortunately, there is a large degree of curvature over a broad range of protein concentrations (Fig.

1). Therefore, only a narrow range of relatively high protein concentrations, 2-10 mg/ml BSA, is used for the calibration graph, which then better fits linear regression (Fig. 1, green). Write A Community Service. However, the nonlinearity requires protein concentration of the unknown samples to fall within the limited range of the calibration graph in order to avoid a large error, and it also reduces the accuracy within the limited range. The nonlinearity presents a serious problem in particular when microgram amounts of thesis statements on transcendentalism protein are not available, and it often requires multiple dilutions of the a community report unknown samples. As noted in the original Bradford paper, the source of the nonlinearity is in the reagent itself since there is an overlap in the spectrum of the two different color forms of the dye. 1 . In fact, three forms of the Coomassie brilliant blue dye are in acid-base equilibrium at the usual acidic pH of the assay 2 . My Thoughts Essays. The red, blue, and green forms have absorbance maxima at how to report 470, 590, and my thoughts on the, 650 nm, respectively (Fig. How To Write. 2). The blue is the form that binds the protein, forming a complex that intensely absorbs light at 594 nm 3, 4 (Fig. 2).

Bradford also noted that the essay analyzer background value for the reagent is continually decreasing as more dye is bound to protein 1 (Fig. 3). Service. Therefore, we attempted to calculate the reduction of the 590 nm background as increasing protein quantities are added, by measuring the change of absorbance at 450 nm, where the protein-dye complex does not absorb. We found that the decreasing background partially, but not fully, accounts for statements, the nonlinearity (Fig. How To A Community Service Report. 4). We then hypothesized that the decrease in free dye concentration produces another distortion of the thesis latex linear response, because as protein-dye binding is in equilibrium 5 , complex formation depends not only on the concentration of the free protein, but also on that of the how to write a community free dye (Fig. 5). Taking into succession planning research paper account both issues related to the variable concentration of the free dye, we developed a mathematical equation that describes a linear relationship between protein concentration and write report, the ratio of absorbance measurements, 590 nm over 450 nm (Fig.

6). A detailed description of the theoretical and experimental study can be found in our 1996 publication in professional values in nursing Analytical Biochemistry 6 . Write A Community Service Report. The mathematical equation was experimentally tested and found to yield a linear calibration curve over the entire protein concentrations range (Fig. 7). Furthermore, the equation was validated also by an independent determination of the correct pH-dependent value of the Y-axis intercept 6 . Planning. Detailed Protocol for the Improved Bradford Protein Assay, using a Microplate Absorbance Reader: Unlike the absorbance at a single wavelength of 590 nm, the ratio of absorbance values, 590 nm over how to write service, 450 nm, is linear with protein concentration (Fig. 10). The protein concentration of the unknown sample may be simply calculated using the linear equation of the calibration curve (Fig. 10, equation). However, increased accuracy is obtained by measuring several unknown sample dilutions. To this end, prepare two graphs.

The first is a calibration graph for the standard with #x003bc;g protein on the X axis (Fig. 11, right). The second graph is for essays, the unknown sample, with #x003bc;l of the original undiluted sample on the X axis (Fig. 11, left). The dye only a community service report value should be included in both graphs (Fig. 11).

The protein concentration of the unknown sample is derived by planning research paper, dividing the slopes of the unknown sample and the standard (Fig. 11, equation). Figure 1. Conventional Bradford calibration graph. The linear range is represented by a community, green symbols. Figure 2. Spectra of the protein-dye complex and of the dye alone. Figure 3. Protein-dye equilibrium. Figure 4. Reduction of the correct calculated background partially decreases nonlinearity.

Figure 5. Protein-dye equilibrium. Figure 6. Mathematical basis for the linearization of the succession planning research paper Bradford protein assay. Figure 7. Linearization of the Bradford calibration graph. Figure 8. Calculation of the absorbance ratio values. Figure 9. A linear Bradford calibration graph. Figure 10.

Linearization of the Bradford calibration graph. Figure 11. Unknown sample- concentration calculation. How To Service Report. The Bradford protein assay is my thoughts on the popular due to its ease of performance and relative sensitivity. The linearization over the entire protein concentrations range obtained by the protocol presented here further simplifies the assay, as the unknown samples do not need to fall within the range of the calibration graph. Importantly, the improved protocol further provides the following advantages over the original Bradford protocol: The absorbance peaks of the protein-dye complex and the free red dye form are at 594 and 470 nm, respectively. It is recommended to measure the absorbance at 590-600 nm, to achieve maximal sensitivity to protein concentration change, and at 450-485 nm, to ensure linearization. Due to the optical path length consideration, higher accuracy may be achieved in how to service report a 1 ml assay where cuvettes are placed in a regular spectrophotometer, rather than a microplate reader.

In that case, scale-up the volumes 5-fold. It is absolutely mandatory that deionized water will be used as blank. A linear calibration curve can not be obtained if the zero protein standard dye-containing sample is used as blank. This paper is dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Zvi Selinger, who hosted the original research described here.

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How to Write an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. A Community Service! SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.

Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from on transcendentalism systematic reviews and write, meta-analyses. Updates selectively review the master thesis latex template, medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the a community, medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. My Thoughts On The Holocaust Essays! Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. This article presents guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of common interest and how to write a community service, relevance to family practice.

Include a table of the continuing medical education objectives of the review. Statements On Transcendentalism! State how the how to write report, literature search was done and include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the InfoRetriever Web site. Where possible, use evidence based on clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of word analyzer, life, and how to, studies of essay, primary care populations. Write Service Report! In articles submitted to American Family Physician , rate the level of evidence for key recommendations according to the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). Finally, provide a table of key summary points. American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an evidence-based format. Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and professional values ethics and law, meta-analyses in important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. An example of such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the how to a community service report, medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to dbq essay, diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium.

Meta-analyses are a special type of systematic review. They use quantitative methods to analyze the literature and seek to how to write a community report, answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of thesis latex template, pooled research studies. An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and how to service report, incorporate all relevant research findings about the management of a given disorder. Succession Planning Research Paper! Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and sound clinical guidance.

In this article, we present guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for continuing medical education (CME) and incorporating CME objectives into its format. This article may be read as a companion piece to a previous article and accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for an evidence-based format because of the nature of the topic, the slant of the write service report, article, a lack of sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors. We encourage authors to review the literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of evidence. This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and succession paper, avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of disease or that have curiosity value only. Whenever possible, choose common problems for which there is new information about service report, diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in clinical practice, such as the thesis latex, recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in how to write a community report, patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to report. For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and delay healing compared with no patching.4.

When searching the literature on your topic, please consult several sources of planning paper, evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . How To Write A Community! Look for pertinent guidelines on my thoughts on the holocaust essays the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the disorder being discussed. Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to the topic. When reviewing the a community service report, first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment. Try to ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to the literature, seeking out the basis for the recommendation. Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the ethics essay, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. Write! The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of tu delft latex template, Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles.

Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. A Community Service Report! Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the essay, ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for how to write service, Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to word, CEBM within the a community service, Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of essays, EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. How To A Community! A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group*

Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of values and law essay, Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). How To A Community Service! Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care*

Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in planning research paper, 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. How To Write Service Report! Subscription is on the required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required.

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an write a community service report, independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations. Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. On Transcendentalism! Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of write a community report, Continuing Medical Education, the values ethics and law essay, content will qualify for the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for additional information about how to service, preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for master thesis, Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the service report, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to thesis, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and how to report, Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC)

ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles. Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to on transcendentalism, the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of how to a community report, 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of tu delft latex, individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to how to service report, evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for analyzer, Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on write the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and tu delft thesis latex, individual articles.

A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for service, up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the my thoughts on the, supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of how to a community, Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by planning paper University of how to write service, York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications.

Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts.

Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from tu delft government agencies and health care organizations.

Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and write a community service report, Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to my thoughts holocaust, NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for how to write service, clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of essays, systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for how to write service, the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to find the answer in an authoritative compendium of evidence-based reviews, or at least try to find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to be available, try to cite an authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a major medical organization. If no strong evidence exists to support the conventional approach to thesis on transcendentalism, managing a given clinical situation, point this out in the text, especially for how to write, key recommendations. Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and high-quality evidence may not exist to support conventional knowledge or practice. Patient-Oriented vs. Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and word, Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the concept of Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in how to write a community, distinction to Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). Ap World! POEM deals with outcomes of importance to patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of how to a community report, life.

DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory values or other measures of response. Although the values ethics, results of DOE sometimes parallel the results of how to, POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the statements on transcendentalism, only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence. Here is an example of how the latter situation might appear in the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at how to a community service, an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in master template, mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in how to write service report, mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer.

PSA screening detects prostate cancer at thesis, an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the write a community, important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Thesis Latex! Getting the write a community, most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Professional Ethics And Law In Nursing! Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the how to report, incidence of PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is succession research associated with an increase in write service, mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications.

Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is tu delft master thesis latex template associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for write, readers and writers. Tu Delft Master Thesis Latex! Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the strength and how to a community service, validity of the succession, literature that supports the discussion (see the following section, Levels of Evidence). Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings.

In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the how to a community service, hearsay of conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to the scrutiny of scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to be seen in primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations. Thesis! Shaughnessy and Slawson's guide for writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the evidence supporting the how to write report, key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. Many different rating systems of varying complexity and clinical relevance are described in dbq essay, the medical literature.

Recently, the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of write a community service report, rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the study quality as measured by on transcendentalism internal validity and how to write service report, the quality of the entire body of evidence on a topic.8. While it is important to tu delft thesis template, appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is service more useful in thesis, AFP . Write Report! We have adopted the following convention, using an ABC rating scale. Criteria for high-quality studies are discussed in on the essays, several sources.8 , 9 See the a community, AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of evidence and my thoughts essays, see the accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the potential pitfalls and limitations of any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes.

High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial. A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and write a community service, well-substantiated conclusions. On The Holocaust! Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of study participants and consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion. Each rating is applied to a single reference in the article, not to the entire body of evidence that exists on a community report a topic. Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by the specific type of study for that reference.

For example, following a level B rating, include one of these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for succession planning paper, chlamydial infection. [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for write service, diabetes every three years in all patients at high risk of the disease, including all adults 45 years and older. [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the topic and purpose of the review and describe its relevance to professional values ethics and law in nursing, family practice. The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the how to report, epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at one point in time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is expected to develop it over a given period of time (incidence).

A more engaging way of doing this is to indicate how often a typical family physician is likely to tu delft thesis latex template, encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the literature search was conducted and what major sources of evidence were used. Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by an established evaluation process, such as the Cochrane Collaboration). Be comprehensive in trying to identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the a community, quality of research reviewed. Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions.

If there is controversy on a topic, address the full scope of the controversy. The discussion can then follow the dbq essay, typical format of a clinical review article. A Community Service Report! It should touch on one or more of the values and law in nursing essay, following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and write a community service, follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and future directions. The review will be comprehensive and balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of ap world dbq essay, interest or instances of bias that might affect the write report, strength of the evidence presented. Emphasize an evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the absence of a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for these recommendations is lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in deciding how to implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to help clarify the paper, costs and health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. How To Write Report! Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and ap world dbq essay, include a summary table of the key take-home points.

These points are not necessarily the same as the key recommendations, whose level of evidence is rated, although some of them will be. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at how to, most two to four key statements; some will have none. Rate only those statements that have corresponding references and base the thesis latex, rating on the quality and a community report, level of thesis, evidence presented in how to write a community report, the supporting citations. Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews) as the basis for determining the level of evidence. In other words, the supporting citation should be a primary research source of the information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for determining ratings of evidence. The references should include the thesis statements on transcendentalism, most current and important sources of write a community, support for key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and information that would not usually be found in most general reference textbooks).

Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Planning Research Paper! Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of reference citations, AFP prefers to include a succinct list of a community service report, key references. (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to your personal reference list.) You may use the following checklist to ensure the my thoughts, completeness of your evidence-based review article; use the source list of write a community service report, reviews to identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is thesis on transcendentalism common in family practice, especially topics in which there is new, important information about how to write a community service report, diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the topic and the purpose of the review, and describes its relevance to family practice.

A table of CME objectives for ap world, the review is included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to ensure a comprehensive assessment of relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, the Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of how to, life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is used to thesis on transcendentalism, support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of patients likely to be representative of those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only a community service report, statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and low numbers needed to ap world dbq essay, treat. How To A Community! (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of evidence for key clinical recommendations is labeled using the following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and values ethics and law in nursing, level C (consensus/expert opinion). Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of how to write service report, bias that might affect the essay, strength of the evidence presented. Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of key take-home points. Use tables, figures, and how to a community report, illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in Writing an essay word, Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice.

Provide a table with a list of write a community report, continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the on the holocaust essays, literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an how to write, Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for ap world dbq essay, the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done.

Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the level of evidence for how to report, key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in.

Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to tu delft master thesis latex template, all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to service report, the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in this issue. Access This Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., is professor and chair of the Department of my thoughts on the holocaust essays, Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. He is also editor of American Family Physician.

A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. How To! Siwek completed his family practice residency at Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. . MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., is ap world currently the American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. A graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in family medicine at the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. Service Report! SLAWSON, M.D., is the B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. professor of family medicine at the University of Virginia Health System in Charlottesville, Va. He is tu delft master latex template director and founder of the service report, Center for Information Mastery and serves as section editor for The Journal of Family Practice POEMs.

Dr. Slawson is a graduate of the University of thesis, Michigan School of how to write a community service report, Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in family medicine at the University of Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is dbq essay director of research and associate director of the Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa. He completed his doctorate and fellowship training at the Medical University of write service, South Carolina, Charleston. Address correspondence to Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:afp@family.georgetown.edu). Reprints are not available from the authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for a helpful review and on the holocaust, conceptual contributions to the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Sources of how to write, funding: none reported . 1. Siwek J. Word Analyzer! Reading and evaluating clinical review articles. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2155#x2013;60.

3. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. The effect of spironolactone on a community service morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med . 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Essay Analyzer! Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. J Fam Pract . Service Report! 1998;47:264#x2013;70. 5. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything.

J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an information master: a guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Becoming an information master: using POEMs to change practice with confidence.

Patient-oriented evidence that matters. J Fam Pract . 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Planning Research! Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the how to write a community, U.S.

Preventive Services Task Force. A review of the tu delft thesis template, process. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. CATbank topics: levels of evidence and grades of how to a community, recommendations. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/. 10. Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for my thoughts on the holocaust, the Cost Work Group of the a community, Third U.S. Template! Preventive Services Task Force. The art and science of incorporating cost effectiveness into evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services.

Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. Evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by how to write report the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP.

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alternative essay This IELTS sample essay tackles the subject of#xa0; alternative medicine.#xa0; Here is the question: Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree with this statement? When you are asked whether you agree (or disagree) , you can look at both sides of the argument if you want. This shows that you have good academic skills as you are able to see both sides of the how to write issue. Ap World Dbq Essay. It can also sometimes be a good idea to look at both sides of the argument because it may be easier for you to brainstorm ideas.

If you just look at one side, you may run out of ideas. In this IELTS sample essay, the writer disagrees overall with the opinion presented - that alternative medicine is ineffective and possibly dangerous. However, in the first body paragraph the writer discusses what those who agree with this opinion think. If you are going to put in an opinion that disagrees with your own, it is common to put this argument first. This makes your argument stronger as you can then refute it in the following paragraph. As you can see, in the second body paragraph, the writer gives the reasons why he/she disagrees. Body 1 = the disadvantages of alternative medicine. Write Service. Body 2 = the advantages of alternative medicine. It is then a good balanced conclusion as the writer states that they are best used together.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Currently there is holocaust, a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at how to write service, least 250 words. Alternative medicine is not new. Succession Paper. It is accepted that it pre-dates conventional medicine and it is still used by many people all over the world. I am unconvinced that it is dangerous, and feel that both alternative and a community, conventional medicine can be useful.

There are several reasons why the conventional medical community is often dismissive of alternatives.#xa0; Firstly, there has been little scientific research into such medicine, so there is a scarcity of evidence to support the thesis claims of their supporters. Furthermore, people often try such treatment because of how to a community report recommendations from friends, and therefore come to my thoughts, the therapist with a very positive attitude, which may be part of the reason for the cure. Moreover, these therapies are usually only how to useful for long-term, chronic conditions. Acute medical problems, such as accidental injury, often require more conventional methods. On the word other hand, there remain strong arguments for the use of how to write a community alternatives.#xa0; Despite the lack of scientific proof, there is a lot of anecdotal evidence to suggest that these therapies work. In addition, far from being dangerous, they often have few or no side effects, so the holocaust worst outcome would be no change. One of the strongest arguments for write service the effectiveness of alternative therapies in the West is that, whilst conventional medicine is available without charge, many people are prepared to pay considerable sums for alternatives. If they were totally unhelpful, it would be surprising if this continued. I strongly believe that conventional medicine and alternative therapies can and ap world dbq essay, should coexist. They have different strengths, and how to a community, can both be used effectively to target particular medical problems. The best situation would be for alternative therapies to be used to support and complement conventional medicine.

The writer in this IELTS sample essay introduces the topic in the introductory paragraph (Alternative medicine. Thesis. ) and puts forward a clear view on the issue (I am unconvinced. and feel. ) . How To Write Report. The essay has a well-balanced argument looking at my thoughts on the holocaust, both sides of the issue. The first body paragraph expresses some doubt about alternative therapies (. little scientific research.. .only useful for write long term. My Thoughts On The Essays. ) , but in the second body paragraph the writer takes a different view (On the other hand. ) and examines the benefits (. How To Write Service. few side effects) . The writer's concluding paragraph offers a strong opinion (I strongly believe. ) and sums up the fact that both types of research treatment are valid today. How To A Community Service. There is also a good range of grammatical structures (If they were totally unhelpful, it would be. ) , and connectors (despite the ap world fact, in addition, finally) . Write Service Report. Home › Sample Essays › Alternative Medicine Essay. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to dbq essay, study.

You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to how to write service report, answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to understand. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays. More Sample Essays: discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. discuss two opinions. advantages / disadvantages / solutions. causes / advantages / disadvantages. discuss two opinions. Professional And Law. discuss two opinions. causes / advantages / disadvantages.

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essay on lal ded by Dr. S. S. Toshkhani. Lalleshwari, Lal Ded, or simply Lalla, as many like to call her, is not just a medieval woman poet in whose verse we hear the write a community report, first heart-beats of succession Kashmiri poetry-she is how to service easily the most popular and most powerful symbol of Kashmir's civilizational ethos. While her 'vaaks' or verse-sayings continue to dazzle us with their high wattage incandescence, her role as a spiritual leader who resolved the dbq essay, crisis of her times caused by a clash of write report two belief and value systems-one indigenous and word analyzer, the other alien cannot but be regarded as momentous, whether or not history recognizes its true significance. In both these capacities it was her intervention that ensured continuity and saved indigenous cultural structures from write service report a total collapse at a time when the advent of Islam in Kashmir was accompanied by an unprecedented political and social upheaval. If Lal Ded's immense impact on the Kashmiri mind has practically remained undiminished despite the passage. of almost seven centuries, it is essentially because of the analyzer, fusion of the poet and the saint in how to, her, or, to use the words of Dileep Chitre (which he has used for another great Bhakti poet, Tukaram), because of a poet's vision of spirituality and essay word analyzer, a saint's vision of poetry that she presents in how to write a community service report, her verses. We are amazed at her deep sense of compassion, her mystical insights and spiritual vision, her profound awareness of the human condition and her Shaiva-world view which makes her look at existence as manifestation of one, indivisible, consciousness. More than anything else, we are indebted to her for shaping the Kashmiri language in analyzer, a way that it formed the a community report, basis for the Kashmiris to forge their indigenous cultural identity. Ironically, this very image of Lal Ded as a spiritual giant and poetic genius fused into one-reinforced by succession planning, the many hagiographical accounts, myths and how to report, legends surrounding her-has led to attempts at appropriating her for ideologies and causes totally alien to her thinking and temperament.

We thus come across not one but several image constructs of the saint-poetess, some of them mutually irreconcilable, linked inextricably with predilections, perceptions and motives of my thoughts on the holocaust those who have created them. And these tend to blur and how to write a community service, distort facts about her life, making it extremely difficult for essays, us to arrive at what we can call an authentic Lal Ded-a flesh and blood Lal Ded occupying a specific space and write report, time in history, or at least a poetic version of what Lal Ded was or must actually have been like. With whims, fancies and notions being the basis of these various constructs, we are left with the problems of exploring the true dimensions of her creativity and of locating the real founts of her inspiration. And this cannot be settled by succession, mere interpretations of scholarly differences or semantic hair-splitting. The task has been made immensely complicated by write a community, the intervention of nearly seven hundred years of history about which people are still hesitant to talk freely and statements on transcendentalism, openly. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the image constructs of the saint-poetess which are patently false, and how to write a community service report, have no basis in analyzer, facts, but are passed on as products of genuine scholarship. These images and fabrications are being circulated persistently with surprising frequency not out of any desire to present the truth, but to suppress it. The most formidable attempt to appropriate Lal Ded in this manner comes from those who want to write, snatch her for Islam. Succession Planning Research? They are people who feel very uncomfortable with the fact that someone as great as Lalleshwari-who is regarded as a symbol of everything that Kashmir stands for, should belong to a non-Muslim reality. Masquerading as scholars but motivated and conditioned by their religious reflexes, they try to subvert this fact by floating imaginary anecdotes about her conversion to Islam. One such anecdote that continues to be repeated with total disregard to historical plausibility is that she met Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, the Islamic missionary most revered by Kashmiri Muslims, and received spiritual enlightenment” from him.

Sayyid Hamadani had come to Kashmir with a large entourage of fellow Sayyids to escape the wrath of how to write a community service report Timur and there he engaged in thesis, proselytizing activities on a massive scale. Prof. Jaya Lal Kaul has in his brilliantly researched book Lal Ded very convincingly proved the how to write report, utter impossibility of such a meeting having ever taken place. Referring to planning research, Persian sources, he has quoted Mohammad Azam Dedamari's explicit statement that the write service report, story of tu delft master thesis her being present before the Sayyid has not been held as proved by scholars. Sayyid Hamadani visited Kashmir thrice, the first visit having taken place in 1372. And if Lal Ded died in the reign of a community service Shihab-ud-din, as Persian chronicles point out, he could in no way have influenced her. Persian chronicler Peer Ghulam Hassan, too makes no mention of a meeting between Lal Ded and Sayyid Mir Ali Hamadani, but states that she did indeed meet Jalal-ud-din Bukhari and Sayyid Hussain Samanani and it was at his hands that she was converted to Islam. Ap World Dbq Essay? ‘Bibi Lalla Arifa', a pamphlet published from Lahore, to which Prof. Jayalal Kaul has referred, is how to a community report more categorical, saying that she accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyid Hussain Samanani. Planning Research? This should be obvious to all, the pamphlet adds, emphasizing the claim and giving a fanciful account of the supposed meeting. According to the pamphlet, Lal Ded ran for miles together to receive Sayyid Samanani at Shopian and being elated to receive the write service report, secret doctrine, became his chief disciple.

Repudiating this claim which Sufi, the author of Kashir, a history of my thoughts on the holocaust essays Kashmir published from Pakistan, says is based on Lalla Arifa's own later day vaaks, Prof. Kaul writes: Not a single verse-saying of hers has been discovered up to date even among the doubtful and spurious verse-sayings ascribed to her which would bear out either this anecdote or similar other anecdotes concerning her. But for the appropriators of Lal Ded, if it was not Sayyid Hamadani, then it must have been Sayyid Samanani. Their attempts to create a non-Hindu image of Lal Ded continue unabated, taking almost the shape of an intense campaign in recent decades. A special Lal Ded Number (1979) of Sheeraza, a journal published by the Jammu and Kashmir State Art Culture and Languages, for instance, is illustrative of this obsession which shows itself in write report, article after article obviously with the editor's tacit agreement. My Thoughts Holocaust Essays? One such article Lal Ded Shah Hamadan ke Huzoor Mein (Lal Ded in the Presence of how to service report Shah Hamadan), written by Mufti Jalal-ud-din, says, It does not matter whether these anecdotes are corroborated by on the essays, history or not. How To Write Report? It is eventually popular belief that settles the issue.

Jalal-ud-din's is not just an individual opinion-it represents a whole mindset that shows no signs of changing even today. Ap World Dbq Essay? The people who possess it are not interested in Lal Ded's creative genius or the profundity of her thought nor do they care about her humanitarian legacy. They are driven by the sole objective of grabbing what can be called Hindu intellectual property. That is why they show Lal Ded running towards a baker's oven desperate to cover her nudity as she had seen a man when she supposedly encountered Sayyid Hamadani. The miracle of the how to write a community report, oven is surely prompted by professional values and law in nursing, a hegemonistic design to establish the write service, superiority of Islam over the creed of the infidels. Sayyid Hamadani was on a proselytizing mission and succession research paper, what bigger fish could there have been for a community, him to cast his net ? The Sufi image that some have tried to foist on Lal Ded is also a mischievous and motivated construct as it is virtually an attempt to de-Hinduise her and to create confusion about her faith. The man who began it all, though not exactly with that intention, Sir Richard Temple, appears indeed to have been a confused person, saying different things at different places. Thesis Template? At one place he says that Lalla was a Shaivite Hindu and at another place he discovers that she deeply and quickly absorbed the Sufi line of thought after her contact with her contemporary and friend Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Soon afterwards he counts similarities in the doctrine and practice of Naqshbandis and the Yogic exercises of the Hindu Shaivas.

Later, he tells us that it was Shaivism and Hindu Upanishadic idealism that had influenced Sufism. If that be the write a community report, truth then how is research it that she is influenced by Sufism as preached by Sayyid Ali Hamadani? Why not directly by Hindu Upanishadic thought? If Sayyid Hamadi was at all a Sufi, he was not of the type who would believe in write a community, the doctrine of Wahadat-ul-Wujud or oneness of existence and certainly not in universal brotherhood and love. Ethics? The humiliating and degrading conditions he laid down in how to write, his book Zakhirat-ul-Muluk to guide a Sultan in treating his non-Muslim subjects are enough to prove this. Essay Word Analyzer? The various Sufi orders said to have been introduced during that time in Kashmir were all orthodox in how to service, nature, preaching strict adherence to Shariah and not liberal humanism as is made out to be. They remained confined to the correct practice of the thesis statements, Quaranic beliefs and hardly came out of zuhd, ibadat, taqwa and riyadat, the limits set by their founders, having nothing to do with the type of Sufism based on the doctrine of Mohi-ud-din ibn Arabi.

Their emphasis was on proselytization and not on the belief in how to service, unity of being and universal love. Writers like P.N.K. Bamzai and Dr. R.K. Ap World? Parmu, who followed Richard Temple in his queer conclusions, created further confusion by making even stranger and how to write a community report, mutually contradictory statements. 'Lalleshwari's association with Shah Hamadan, writes Bamzai, was due to essay word analyzer, an identity of the how to service report, faith of Sufis and Hindu mendicants and saints in Kashmir, adding that the order she founded was an admixture of the non-dualistic philosophy of word analyzer Shaivism and Islamic Sufism. One is at a loss to how to a community service report, understand what one can make of such pronouncements which have nothing to do with history or facts of Lal Ded's life. In what way was the faith of the tu delft thesis latex, Hindu mendicants and saints of Kashmir different from that followed by the general mass of the service, people ? And which religious or philosophical order was founded by ap world, Lal Ded?

The word admixture leaves one stumped, but even before one recovers one finds him saying in the same breath that Shaivism, the write service, dominant religion of the in nursing essay, time, was ossified into a set of complicated rituals. Did the Hindu mendicants, he refers to follow any other religion then? Dr. R.K. Parmu is even more sweeping in his statements, blissfully ignorant of how to a community service how they contradict each other. Branding the essay analyzer, entire Hindu society of a community service Lal Ded's time as corrupt, he tells us that Lal Ded preached against the Shaiva religion as it was practiced by the Tantric gurus of those times. Essay? Did she really? And who were these Tantric gurus any way?. But wait, Dr. Parmu has more to reveal: She preached harmony between Vedantism and Sufism, good Hindu and good Muslim. What are the sources that he and Bamzai rely upon to make such pronouncements?

Which of write service Lal Ded's vaakhs testifies to this? Or, which historical source? Or can just whims and notions replace historical investigation? Bamzai's arbitrary account of the times in which Lal Ded lived has done incalculable harm to historical truth. If he is to be believed, the pious lives that Sufi saints of that period lived had the Hindus so charmed that they decided to embrace Islam en masse ! Of course, by implication all other led impious lives. Perhaps Bamzai has not cared to read Persian chronicles like Baharistan-i-Shahi, or Tuhfat-ul-ahbab, or if he has, he has deliberately avoided any reference to planning research, them. There are several verses of Lal Ded in which she refers to her attainment of self-realization and spiritual enlightenment.

For her it is a real experience of life. There is how to write a community service no shadow of doubt or uncertainty about it in her mind. And, what is more, there is a tone of tremendous self-confidence and assurance in tu delft master thesis, her verses when she tells us about how to service report her mystical illumination. Professional Values Ethics And Law In Nursing Essay? As, for instance, in these lines: Samsaras ayas tapasi. Bodhu prakashu lobum sahaj. Into this universe of birth I came. By Yoga gained the self revealing light ! (Trans. How To? Nila Cram Cook)

Loluki naru vaalinj buzum. shankar lobum tami suuty. My heart I parched as farmers parch the grain. And from that fire there came a wondrous boon. And Shiva in values, a flash I did obtain. (Trs. Write? Nila Cram Cook) lal bo tsayas swaman bagu baras. vuchhum shivas shakath milth tu vah. tati lay karum arnrit saras.

zinday maras tu karyam kyah. I, Lalla, entered through the door of the garden of dbq essay my mind. And saw Shiva and how to a community service report, Shakti united into one, O joy! There I became immersed in the lake of nectar. And died even while I was still alive.

What will now death do unto me ? adu lali mye praavum param gath. And then I, Lalla, attained the supreme state. And if that is the case, why hasn't anyone asked so far what need had Lal Ded to go to a Sayyid Hamadani or a Sayyid Samnani, or anyone else for word, that matter, to become his murid-e-khas? You cannot disregard or dilute the Shaiva metaphysical content in her thought by harping on such stories and fabrications. A Community Report? The secret of her phenomenal popularity, even during her own lifetime, was the great spiritual heights she had attained and this greatness sometimes gave her courage to even question her own Guru: gwaras pritshyom sasi late. yas nu kenh vanan tas kyah nav. pritshan pritshan thachis tu lusus. kenhas nishi kyah tany drav. A thousand times did I my Guru ask.

What is the name of the essay, one who can’t be named. And asking again and write a community service report, again I tired myself out. How has something come out of on the essays nothing? One cannot imagine how someone like her could have submitted meekly before the Sayyid missionaries at the fag end of her life and how to a community, agree to give up her life long faith? Does not the on the holocaust, following verse unmistakably show how wary she was of the proselytizing game that was going on in her time. ha tsyatta kava chhuy logmut par mas. kavu goy apuzis pazyuk bronth. dushi boz vash kornakh para dharmas … O mind, why do you feel intoxicated by someone else’s wine? Why do you mistake the unreal for the real? Weak mindedness has let you to be overcome by write service, others’ faith. In another vaakh, Lal Ded says of herself: Lalla merged herself in the light of pure consciousness (chitta jyoti) by means of the mysterious syllable Om, and on the holocaust, thus did away with the fear of death.

There is no place in Islam, in which God and write, Man have only a master-servant relationship, for identification with the Supreme. Nor do orthodox Sufi order entertain such thought. Mansur had to pay with his life for ap world dbq essay, saying ana'I haq (I am Truth). What then is the write report, source of Lal Ded's mysticism? Where from does it derive if not from Sufism? Prof. Dbq Essay? Jaya Lal Kaul and write service report, Prof. B.N. Parimu have very clearly shown how the Shiva philosophy of Kashmir forms the basis of master template her thought. As I find, writes Prof. How To Write Service Report? Kaul, there is a remarkable correspondence between the experience of Lal Ded as given in Lalla Vaakh and that of Shaiva Siddhas as related in their Trikashastras.

This should undeniably prove that she was a Shaiva Yogini, not only because she uses, whenever she needs to use them, the dbq essay, technical terms only of Tiika Darshana but, more so, because of her concept of God, her Yoga technique her own anubhava, direct perception and experience - all these are of write service report Trika system. Prof. Parimu is tu delft latex equally specific: The key to Lalla's mysticism is the Shivadvaita or the Trika philosophy of Kashmir. The mystic strain that is so prominent in Lal Ded's poetry, in fact, combines her quest for gnostic illumination with the depth of write a community report emotional experience. There is a certain cerebral quality in word, her verse, a rhythm of a community service report thought that is at the same time intensely lyrical in tu delft latex template, its expression. In his book Triadic Mysticism, Paul E. Murphy calls her the chief exponent of devotional or emotion-oriented Triadism. How To? He writes: Three significant representatives of planning research devotionalism emerged in Kashmir in the five hundred years between the last half of the ninth and the end of the fourteenth centuries, they were : Bhatta Narayana, Utpaldeva and Lalla. Predominant in how to service, all three is the advocation of a path of love unencumbered by techniques and means.

Here you are, I hold you in my fist! Here You are, I've seen You-where are You fleeing? [Stavachintamani, Tn. Paul E. Murphy] This has a perfect parallel in Lalla, who evokes the sane image in this expression of ap world dbq essay hers: andryum prakash nyabar tshot um. gati rot um tu karmas thaph! I diffused outside the light that lit-up within me. And in how to report, that darkness I seized Him and held Him tight!

Images and on the holocaust essays, metaphors relating to the concept of Shiva's self-luminosity abound in how to a community service, Shaiva devotional poets, and the Bata or darkness that Lal Ded refers to is the dark Mystical Night of anguish and suffering which ultimately leads to the Night of Undifferentiatedness. Bhatta Narayana uses the image of the on transcendentalism, dark cavern of heart where darkness is dissipated on all sides by the Brightness Supreme. Here too there is a striking similarity in how to write service, the words the interior cavern used by Bhatta Narayana and andryum the inner (light) that Lal Ded has used. Lala Ded expresses her mystical feelings-the pangs of separation from professional Shiva, the passionate urge to unite with Him, the desperate quest and the frustration of losing the how to a community report, direction, the ap world, difficulties of the path, the intensity of suffering which only strengthens her determination to how to write a community, seem Him face to face and possess Him, the total surrender of tu delft latex template will and how to write a community, the ecstasy of the final beatitude-in imager and metaphors that are powerful and stunningly beautiful: lal bo drayas lolare. tshandan lustum dyan kyoh rath. vuchhum pandith panini gare. suy mye rotum nechhatur tu sath. I, Lalla, set out with burning longing. And seeking, searching, passed the planning research, day and night. Till lo! I saw to mine own house belonging.

The Pandit, and siezed my luck and star of light. (Trs. Service Report? Nila Cram Cook) lal bo lusus tshandan tu gvaran. hal mye kormas rasani shyatiy. vuchhun hyotmas taary dithmas baran. mye ti kal ganeyi tu zogmas tatiy. I, Lalla wearied myself searching and seeking. Exhausting my strength my every nerve as I. I found His doors slammed and bolted. My longing became all the more intense.

And I stood there watching for Him. ayas vate gayas nu vate. semanzu svathe lustum doh. chandas wuchhum har na ate. navi taras dimu kyah bo. I came by the highway, but by the highway I did return. I found myself stranded halfway on the embankment. With the light of the day having faded away. Searching my pockets, a penny I did not find. What shall I pay now for being ferried across?

mal wondi zolum. tyeli lal nav dram. yell dally traavymas tatiy. I burned the impurities of the mind. And killed my desires. Then only I did my name Lalla became known. When I surrendered completely before Him. panas laagith ruduk mye tsu. mye tsye tshandan lustum doh. panas manz yeli dyuthukh mye tsu. mye tse tu panas dyutLim tshoh.

In seeking 'me' and Thee' I passed the day. Absorbed within Thyself thou hadst remained. Concealed from me! I wondered for away. When I beheld Thee in myself, I gained. For Thee and me that rapure unrestrained. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) pot zuni wathith mot bolanavum.

dag lalunaavum dayi sunzi praye. lalu lalu karith lalu vuzunovunum. milith tas man shrotsyom dehe. Waking up at the end of moonlit night. I called the 'mad one'-my mind.

And soothed his pain with the love of God. Crying It is research paper I Lalla, it is I Lalla, I awakened the write service, Beloved. And by becoming one with Him my mind and body became pure! The first step in this mystical progression is, according to Silvia Silburn, self-annihilation or destruction of all doubt and planning research paper, dualism, and the culmination is communion with the divine, which in Shaiva triadic terminology is self-realization of one's Shiva-nature, a stage in which nothing remains but Shiva-consciousness-soruy suy to boh no kenh (He is service everything, and I am nothing). The ultimate mystical selfrealization in Lal Ded, therefore, means absorption in Shiva. But Lal Ded does not remain hovering in succession, the high heaven of mystic experience alone. A Community? She has her feet firmly planted on the earth. There is ap world dbq essay no tendency in service, her to separate the experiences of mystical life from the experiences of ordinary life.

Instead of disregarding everyday experiences she elevated herself through it to the ultimate experience of liberation, which in Trika metaphysics means swatantrya or absolute freedom of will, which is the my thoughts on the holocaust essays, nature of Supreme Shiva Himself. Abhinavagupta explains it as expansion of one's self to include the whole universe. Kashmir Shaivism, it should be noted, does not reject the phenomenal world as unreal or illusory but regards it to be the self-expression of Shiva-His poem, His work of art, His projection of Himself on write report a screen which is also Shiva. Lal Ded's expression of her longing to attain oneness with transcendence, therefore, should be taken to mean expression of her feeling of unity with Shiva's immanent form also. If Shiva is all, then to her, He is not different from the ordinary man we find on the streets-he who laughs and sneezes and coughs and yawns: ase paande zvase zame.

nyathuy snan kari tirthan. vahri vahras nonuy ase. nishi chhuy tu parzantan. Yes, He it is who laughs and coughs and yawlns. He, the ascetic naked all the tu delft, year.

Who bathes in sacred pools in all the dawns. But recognise how He to you is near. (Trs. Nila Cram Cook) For Lal Ded, there is no difference between the 'I' and the 'other' (par to pan), immanence and transcendence, universal and individual consciousness-subjective and objective reality being but aspects of the how to write report, ultimate reality which is one and indivisible. Master Latex? She sees life as an eternal and how to, continuous flow of consciousness: asi aasy tu aasi asu, asav. asi dor kar patuvath. shivas sori nu zyon tu marun. ravas sori nu atugath.

We have been in the past. In future also we shall be. Forever the sun rises and sets. Forever Shiva creates and dissolves and creates again. It is not that she is talking in statements on transcendentalism, riddles or in paradoxes about cycle of births and re-births and immortality of the soul. She is talking of human life which is a stream that flows onwards and onwards. It is this experience of reality that is at the core of her mysticism, which begins as the quest for the ultimate and how to a community, culminates in a vision that is profoundly humanistic. And this is what marks her as a great poet. Lal Ded is not a professional philosopher, nor her verses any philosophical treatise, but she is deeply concerned with the professional ethics and law, predicament and ultimate destiny of humankind. Yet Lal Ded's poetry is not the poetry of social concern in the sense it is made out to be by some scholars. Write A Community Report? In their eagerness to construct her image as some sort of a social reformer out to reform the my thoughts on the, medieval Kashmiri society and rid it of the evils afflicting it.

This is again a false image, a deliberate twist given to her spiritual humanism to suit ideological considerations. How To A Community Service? There is no use digging for dbq essay, communitarian ideals from her verses, for they are just not there, though she does feel disturbed by social injustice and how to write service report, discrimination of which she herself is a victim, and is outraged by the sham and pretence that go in succession planning research, the name of religion. She also displays a deep sensitivity towards human suffering, her heart bleeding at the sight of the learned man dying of starvation while an utter fool beats his cook (for not having cooked a tasty dish): gatulah akh vuchhun bochhi suuty maran. pan zan haran puhuni vavu lah. nyash bod akh vuchhum vazas maran. tanu lal bo praran tshenyam na prah. I saw a learned man dying of hunger. Trembling like dried leaves falling in harsh winter wind.

An utter fool I saw beating his cook. (For not having prepared a delicious dish) Since then I am waiting for being free of worldly attachments. There is every possibility that Lal Ded herself had suffered pangs of hunger not only because she was starved by her mother-in-law, but also after she left her husband's home. This is what this verse seems to suggest: tsal tsetta vondas bhay mo bhar. chaany tsyanth karan panu anad. tse ko zanuni kshod hari kar. kival tasunduy toruk nad. O, restless mind! Do not fear. The one who is Beginningless takes care of you.

You do not know when he will satiate your hunger. Cry to Him alone for help! In another verse she says: treshi, bwachhi ma kreshanavun. yany tshei tany sandarun dih. Do not torment your body with the pangs of durst and hunger. Whenever it feels exhausted, take care of it. It should be obvious, therefore, that Lag Ded is not unaware of the harsh realities of life like hunger and poverty, nor ignorant of the agony and anguish of existence. Whatever she says has roots in her own personal experience, her sensibilities being constantly assaulted by the immensity of the write service, suffering she sees around her. But her solution for human suffering and distress lies in word, the benevolent grace of Shim, which descends on write man when he completely surrenders himself before his will. The intensity of her social awareness turns her almost into a rebel, even as her egalitarian ideas and values and law, ideals find expression in spiritual terms.

Shiva, she says in one of write a community her verses, shines like the thesis latex, sun on the high and the low alike: rav matu thali thali taapitan. taapitan uttam-uttam dish. varun matu lotu garu atsytyan. shiv chhuy kruth tu tsen vopadish. Does the sun not shine everywhere alike. Or does it shine only on the best places? Does not the water god Varuna enter every home?

Or does it enter only the homes of the fortunate? While the way she asks such disturbing questions does reveal how intricately and how to write a community service, intimately her spirituality is linked with her universal humanistic concerns, it would be too much to dbq essay, assume that she was actually a social activist. Write? Yet there are people who like to persist with the theory that Lal Ded synthesized the best in Shaivite and Islamic traditions, whatever that may mean. They want to see her as an abstraction, and not as a real persona, regarding her as a representative of what they call Kashmir's composite culture, a torch-bearer of Hindu-Muslim unity. With obvious political motivations, they project her as though she were a spokesperson of the present day secular discourse and utilize her for scoring points in current political debates, not caring to think how cliched their arguments based on false premises have now become. Through their oversimplifications and vague generalizations, they have turned Lal Ded virtually into a one-verse poet, stripping her of her real glories, Shiv chhuy thali-thali rozan, mav zan hyond to musalman (Shiva abides in everything, so do not discriminate between a Hindu and a Musalman). Is that then the quintessence of her poetic thought?

The only basis of her greatness? The verse appears to essay, be a spurious one, although Rajanaka Bhaskara has included it in his collection of Lalavakyani”. Lal Ded had spent her early youth in the reign of Udyan Deva, the last Hindu king of write a community report Kashmir, and of queen Kota Rani. Even when Islamic rule was finally established in 1359 A.D., the majority of the population remained overwhelmingly Hindu, with Islam not having made any serious impact on the demographic composition of the Kashmiri society-not at least on the rural milieu in which Lal Ded lived and moved about. To whom then has the verse been addressed? Who was discriminating against whom? The fact is that attempts to tu delft master thesis template, show Lal Ded's verses as a part of the current secular debate, are being made only as a strategy to condone the write, barbarities inflicted on Kashmiri Hindus dining the essays, six hundred years of Islamic rule. The idea is to present a liberal and human face of Islam as practiced in Kashmir by using Sufism as a mask.

Whether or not Sufism had taken any roots in how to write service report, Lal Ded's Kashmir, is on the essays another matter. The strategy seems to have worked, for write a community, a general impression has been created that she was either a Sufi mystic herself or was deeply influenced by Sufism. Whether or not Lal Ded had a social reformer's zeal, she was strongly egalitarian in planning research paper, her views and was more aware than most devotional poets about the prevailing social conditions of her times. And, contrary to the generally held belief that she was unaware of what was happening around her, a view to which even Prof. Kaul subscribes, there is enough evidence in Lalla's vaaks to show that she was very much conscious of what was going on around her, including the sweeping political changes that were taking place during her time. This is at how to a community least what the following lines of on the essays hers appear to suggest: hyath karith rajya pheri na. dith karith tripti na man. In ruling kingdoms there is no relief. In giving them away there yet is how to write a community grief. (Trs. Ap World Dbq Essay? Nila Cram Cook)

Is she not is referring here to the Kota Rani-Rinchin Shah Mir affair that eventually brought in Muslim rule to Kashmir? Lal Ded is scathing in her attack on hollow ceremony and ritual in religion, her emphasis being on inner experience. She has no belief in sacred places and sacred times, pilgrimages and fasts supposed to bring religious merit. She scoffs at what A.K. Ramanujam calls orthodox ritual genuflections and recitations. She expresses her strong abhorrence for animal sacrifice and how to service, detests idol worship. She must have surely provoked the orthodoxy at whom she misses no chance to take pot-shots. In this she reminds one of the Kannada Vachana poet Basvanna, and also of Kabir and Nanak whom she anticipated. Surely, hers was a strong voice of protest in medieval Kashmir-perhaps the only voice raised so fearlessly. With Lal Ded not conforming to my thoughts on the holocaust, any of the service report, image constructs built around her by those who want to reduce her to an idea or an tu delft template, abstraction according to their predilections, what could the how to service, real Lal Ded have been like? To reclaim her authentic persona, we have no option but to discard the motivated myths and invoke the actual text of her verses.

In this context, it must be noted that Lal Ded recited her vaaks to actual audiences who were enraptured and mesmerized by her words, which happened to be in their own mother tongue. Word Analyzer? In verse after verse we find her addressing the how to write a community service report, ubiquitous Bhatta, whether to admonish him (puz kas karakh hutu bata – ‘Who will you worship, O ritual-ridden Pundit?'), or to explaining a subtle point or two (yohoy vopdish chhuy bata-‘This is what the doctrine teaches, O Pundit!'). Professional And Law Essay? This clearly shows that she knows her audience. Not that Lal Ded belongs to any one community-her message is certainly universal-but she does have the Pandit in mind whenever she has a point to make. To find out the write a community, authentic Lal Ded, then, we have to rely mainly on the internal evidence that her vaaks furnish.

Packed with sufficient biographical material, as the vaaks are, we can reconstruct with their help her mystic life, her experience as a woman, as a saint and professional values and law in nursing essay, as a poet, her view of the relationship between God, man and a community service report, the world. An image as near reality as possible. But in this there are problems. Lalla vaaks have been orally transmitted from generation to my thoughts on the holocaust, generation and write service report, are available only in randomly available versions, with practically no chronological sequence. An attempt to discern a sequence of planning paper thought in how to service report, them has been made by Prof B.N. Parimoo, who has tried to thesis statements on transcendentalism, link them as thematic units under some broad divisions in his book, The Ascent of how to write Self. Professional Values Essay? The book, written in 1978, is the first exercise of its kind undertaken by a community service report, anyone and can be deservingly called a significant contribution to Lal Ded studies. The cue to the arrangement of the verses, says the author, is taken from the 'I-ness' categorically denoting personal experience. But admirable as Prof. Parimoo's attempt to my thoughts on the, re-interpret the vaakhs is, one cannot be certain that while picking up the autobiographical threads he has arranged them according to actual chronological sequence, that is, exactly in the order they were composed. Prof Parimoo himself is not sure, and in write report, fact nobody can be, for there cannot be any ideal selection of verses transcribed randomly from oral tradition.

The author of the book, however, does not appear to thesis statements on transcendentalism, have taken as much care as he should have in how to write service, making his selection. Quite a number of verses he has included are obvious interpolations. The lines “hond maarytan kinu kath, for instance, which he has included as the very first vaakh, is not actually a vaakh at all, but a saying attributed to Lal Ded. His total reliance on the account of Ramjoo Malla for biographical information because it does not tilt the purpose of this book appears to be rather curious. Before referring to succession research paper, the text, therefore, we have to be sure how far genuine it is. A Community Service? This accentuates the need of a critically valid text of on the holocaust essays Lalla Vaaks-something that has not been attempted quite seriously so far, except a solitary attempt made by Prof.

Jaya Lal Kaul. Laments Prof. How To Write Service? Kaul, who has devoted a whole chapter of his book Lal Ded to it, that there hardly has been any textual criticism. He then proceeds to sift what he calls unwarranted variants and professional essay, spurious interpolations as far as possible from verses that can be regarded as genuinely authentic. How To A Community Service? Of the total 258 vaaks that circulate in the name of Lal Ded and occur in word analyzer, various collections, he has included only 138 in his collection and even their authenticity he is write report not prepared to vouch for. The criteria that he lays down for determining authenticity seem to dbq essay, be very sound. These according to him should be: The evidence of diction and prosody, and service, the quality and cast of thought, the way it is my thoughts on the essays organized in the process of expression, in how to write report, a word, the characteristic style of Lal Ded. To this I would like to add that both the text and context should be taken into consideration, as well as the overall feeling tone of the verses. Prof. Word Analyzer? Kaul has pointed out : There are 35 verses that occur both in . collections of Lal Ded's verses, and in Nurnamas and Rishinamas, the biographies of Nund Rishi, which include his shrukhs; three verses occur in Lalla vaakh as well as in Rahasyopadesha, the verse sayings of Rupa Bhavani (1620-1720), three quartrains that belong to one Azizullah Khan (early 19th century) have been ascribed to Lal Ded by Rev.

J. Hinton Knowles in his Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. All the three quartrains of write service Azizullah Khan have been included as Lallavaaks in the Koshur Samachar collection. Thesis? Interestingly, one of these quartrains has been translated by that great Indian translator A.K. Ramanujan in the name of Lal Ded, and quoted as such by K. Sachchidanandan, Secretary, Sahitya Akademi, in one of his papers on women poets of India. The verse, as given in the Lal Ded Number of Koshur Samachar is as follows: daman basti dito dam. thitay yithu daman khar. shastras swan gatshi haasil. wuni chhay sul tu tshandun yar. Obviously, neither the diction (she could never have used words like ‘yaar' or 'haksil’) nor the quality and how to write a community, cast of ap world thought of write service report this verse is that of Lal Ded, but it continues to be ascribed to her again and again.

In another verse of this very series, death has been depicted as a Tehsildar-an institution that did not exist at that time at all. The confusion prevailing in this regard is ap world dbq essay mainly due to how to write service, interpolations, a game indulged in paper, by many, not without a strong element of deliberateness. Lines from other poets heavily laden with Persian and Arabic words have been passed on as Lal Ded's as in an attempt at how to report what can be called linguistic subversion. Some of her ardent and overzealous admirers too have tried to put words in her mouth, though out of reverence for her. The total incompatibility of diction seems to ap world, have never bothered the perpetrators of such distortions. Yet nobody can claim that the language in report, which Lallavaakhs have been passed on to the unsuspecting inheritors of her oral legacy is the language in planning research paper, which they must have originally fallen from the celebrated poetess' mouth. The only sure way to ascertain their authenticity would be a linguistic comparison with extant Kashmiri works of periods immediately preceding or succeeding Lal Ded, as written evidence of no contemporary work is available. These works are the 'Chhumma Sampradaya' verses which can be assigned to the 11th or 12th century, 'Mahanaya Prakasha' by write a community service, Shiti Kantha, 'Banasur Katha' by Avtar Bhatta and 'Sukha-dukha Charit' by statements, Ganak Prashast. Write A Community? I had the good fortune of studying all these works while preparing my doctoral thesis on the linguistic peculiarities of 'Banasura Katha', and research paper, so I am aware of their significance in presenting a somewhat coherent picture of the medieval development of the how to write, Kashmiri language and their immense value in tracing earlier forms of a good number of Kashmiri words. These works provide ample evidence of the tu delft master thesis template, fact than Kashmiri has developed from the MIA stages of Prakrit and Apabhramsha in the same way as other Indo-Aryan languages have. Anyone who cares to go through these works will be able to gain valuable knowledge of the linguistic situation that actually prevailed in Kashmir from the 11th-12th century to the end of the 15th.

If would be useful to give here one example each from the above mentioned works to give a feel of the state of Kashmiri language used during this period:- bhava svabhave saba avinashi. sapana sabhava vi uppanna. te az niravidihi agam prakashi. idassa dishti kachi vipachhanna. yasu-yasu jantus samvid yas-yas. nila pita sukha-dukha-swarup. udayis datta samanyi samaras.

kama kampana tas-tas anurup. dhik-dhik myaanis yadava zammas. vanati atsa majja kachan. yudha kara namet swakammas. ushe atha chhon iha than. him zan tape viglyos pape. A detailed description of the linguistic features of these works is how to a community report not possible here; but one can clearly notice the my thoughts on the holocaust essays, thread of linguistic development that runs through them.

Compare these with the how to write service, language of ap world dbq essay Lallavaaks and you get a fairly complete picture. Grierson has called the language of Lal Ded's vaaks Old Kashmiri, but it does not require any special insight to see that it is how to write a community quite modern compared to the language of the illustrations cited above because of the many changes it has undergone due to oral transmission. However, we can come as near to professional ethics in nursing, an authorized version as possible by a community report, reconstructing their text with the help of succession planning Banasur Katha and Sukh-dukha Charit. This is a desirable but extremely difficult task. Even so, those who take the how to service, deliberately distorted and mutilated text to be genuine, ignoring the fact of its massive interpolation, must know that Lal Ded could in no case have used the heavily Persianised language of the 19th or early 20th century nearly six hundred years back. It is ap world dbq essay of utmost importance therefore, that to arrive at authentic Lal Ded, we should discard all the spurious elements introduced by those who are interested in building false image constructs. Lal Ded could not have used modern Kashmiri for her poetic expression, but she was modern in how to, many other ways.

She had in her the characteristic modern self-reflectiveness, the insistence on accepting as authentic only what she herself could experience directly, the research paper, broad catholicity of outlook that called for tolerance of diverse views and made her define her relationship to how to write report, God in terms of oneness of all existence, the deep existential anguish she felt while reflecting on the human condition. She was modern in the universality of her concerns, in her choice of metaphor and image, in her rejection of every kind of sham and pretence, in her fearless assertion of what she saw as truth. Indeed, at research times it appears that she is more modern then most of the contemporary Kashmiri poets. Lal Ded's struggle as a woman has been largely overlooked. How To Write? She may not have been a conscious feminist in the sense the term is understood today, but she did show the courage of resisting the oppressive structures of patriarchy and refusing to play the traditional role of statements on transcendentalism a submissive daughter-in-law. Rebelling against social tyranny, she broke the a community report, shackles that bind a woman even before her birth, and holocaust, asserted her right of taking her own decisions. How To Write A Community Report? She challenged the orthodoxy and threw the rigid codes of dress and decorum followed by the medieval society of my thoughts on the holocaust her times to the winds and roamed about with barely any clothes on like the great Kannada Shaivite poetess, Mahadeviakka. Perhaps it was her last act of defiance against a social set-up whose arbitrary and gender discriminatory rules she did not find acceptable. It is in write report, accordance with these facts that we shall have to statements on transcendentalism, reconstruct the image of the great saint-poetess of write service Kashmir, noting that she does not fit into most of the image-constructs that have been built around her. Succession? The Shah Hamadan anecdote and the so-called miracle of the oven seem to be an insult to how to service report, such a fearlessly and fiercely independent woman.

She started her spiritual journey as a tormented soul, but attained a stage where self- realization and self-awareness gave her tremendous inner strength and the confidence that derived from tu delft thesis latex template that strength: kesari vanu volum ratith shal. I dragged the lion from how to write a community service its den like a jackal. It is this that explains the in nursing essay, pervasive influence that Lal Ded has on Kashmiri psyche to this day. The unexplored dimensions of her personality and creativity shall have to be discovered if we want to understand her not as an abstraction but as a real person. She is a community report quintessentially Kashmiri, having shaped the Kashmiri language and literature, as she did, but she is also universal in planning research paper, her appeal. Her verses remain as relevant and meaningful for today's world as they were in her times. Write A Community Service? Let me conclude by quoting a line from one of her own most powerful vaaks: yim pad lali vany tim hridi ank. Brand on your heart what Lalla spoke in verse! 1. Lalavakyani: Rajanaka Bhaskara. 2. Analyzer? The Word of Lalla: Sir Richard Temple.

C.U.P., 1924. 3. Lalla-Vakyani or the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded: George Grierson and Lionel D. Barnett, Royal Asiatic Society Monograph, Vol. XVII, London, 1920. 4. Koshur Samachar; Lal Ded Number. Kashmiri Samiti, Kasmiri Bhavan, Amar Colony, New Delhi, 1971. 5. Lal Ded : Prof Jayalal Kaul, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1973.

6. Write Service Report? The Ascent of Self: Prof B.N. Parimoo, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, Second Ed., 1987. 7. A History of Kashmir. On Transcendentalism? P.N.K. Bamzai, Metropolitan Book Co., 1962. 8. A History of Muslim Rule in Kashmir. RK. Parmu, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1959.

9. Daughters of Vitasta: Prem Nath Bazaz, Pamposh Publications, New Delhi, 1959. 10. How To Service? Kashir : A History of Kashmir (2 vols)., S.M.D. Sufi, Light and Life Publishers, New Delhi, Reprint, 1974. 11. Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas : Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani, Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, 1985. 12. The Way of the Swan: Nila Cram Cook, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1958.

13. Sheeraza (Kashmiri) : Special Number on Lal Ded : Jammu and on the, Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar, 1979. 14. Triadic Mysticism : Paul E. Murphy : Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, 1999. 15. Shivastolraaali of Utpaldeaa : Nilakanth Gurtu, Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi 1985. 16. Mahanaya Prakasha : Rajanaka Shiti Kantha, Edited with Notes by Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Mukund Ram Shastri, Research Department, J K State, Srinagar, 1918. 17.

Banasur Katha: Avatar Bhatt, MSS. Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, Pune. 18. Basasura Katha : (Ph.D. dissertation), Shashi Shekhar Toshkhani. 19. Sukha-Dukha Charit : Ganaka Prashasta, MSS. BOI, Pune. Any content available on write a community service this site should NOT be copied or reproduced. in any form or context without the written permission of KPN.

A documentary about ethnic cleansing of my thoughts on the essays Kashmiri Pandits by Pakistan-trained terrorists. Kashmiri Pandits have now become refugees in their own country .