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Advantages of case study in qualitative research

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Advantages of case study in qualitative research

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Bank of America to Resume Foreclosures. Study Research? Bank of America said Monday that it plans to rowing resume resume seizing more than 100,000 homes in 23 states next week. It said it has a legal right to foreclose despite accusations that documents used in the process were flawed. Other major leaders have yet to say whether they will follow suit and advantages research, resume foreclosures in rowing resume the states that require a judge's approval. But analysts expect the move by the nation's biggest bank will give way to an industrywide effort to push ahead with a wave of foreclosures that have depressed the housing market.

Banking analyst Nancy Bush of advantages of case study in qualitative, NAB Research said other lenders are likely to follow because foreclosure practices were similar from job interview bank to bank. Advantages Study? We'll be back to square one by the end of the rowing resume, year, she said. The bank's move could mean that the costs of the of case in qualitative, foreclosure document mess will wind up being less than some investors had feared just days ago. Bank shares sank last week after JPMorgan Chase Co. said it set aside $1.3 billion in is my essay good the third quarter to cover legal expenses that include the foreclosure problems. Bank of America Corp. says it's confident of its foreclosure decisions in a majority of its questionable cases. The bank is in qualitative still delaying foreclosures in is my essay good the 27 other states, which don't require a judge's approval. Its move comes two weeks after the bank began halting foreclosures nationwide amid allegations that bank employees signed but didn't read documents that may have contained errors. The basis for our foreclosure decisions is accurate, Dan Frahm, a Bank of America spokesman, said in announcing the bank's new approach. The company said it plans to resubmit documents with new signatures in the 23 states that require a judge's approval to advantages of case in qualitative research restart the foreclosure process. Executive Resume Writing? It will delay fewer than 30,000 foreclosures. Bank of America was the only lender to halt foreclosures in advantages of case study research all 50 states.

Other companies, including Ally Financial Inc.'s GMAC Mortgage unit, PNC Financial Services Inc. and JPMorgan, have halted tens of thousands of foreclosures after similar practices became public. Shares of Charlotte, N.C.-based Bank of America had been flat earlier in the day but jumped on the news. Is My Good? They rose 36 cents, or 3 percent, to close at $12.34. Analysts at FBR Capital Markets said in a note to clients that the bank's announcement demonstrates that the issue may be overblown. Still, more problems surfaced Monday that suggest the controversy may be far from over.

A deposition released by the Florida attorney general's office revealed that the office manager at a Florida law firm under investigation for fabricating foreclosure documents signed 1,000 files a day without reviewing them. The manager also would allow paralegals to sign her name for her when she got tired, the deposition said. Cheryl Salmons, office manager at the Law Offices of David Stern, would sign 500 files in the morning and another 500 files in the afternoon without reviewing them and with no witnesses, said former assistant Kelly Scott in a deposition released by the Florida attorney general's office. Jeffrey Tew, an attorney for advantages of case study in qualitative research, Stern's firm, didn't immediately return a phone call. Government-controlled mortgage buyers Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have stopped referring foreclosures to Stern's firm while they review the firm's filings. In some states, lenders can foreclose quickly on delinquent mortgage borrowers. Rowing Resume? By contrast, the 23 states in advantages which Bank of America is restarting foreclosures use a lengthy court process.

They require documents to verify information on the mortgage, including who owns it. Rowing Resume? Those states are: Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Vermont and Wisconsin. Son of study in qualitative, Sam speaks out: There was a battle going on inside me #8203;CBS News earns 43 Emmy Award nominations. Executive Resume Writing? CBSN: On Assignment ep. Advantages? 4: Hate Rising; Cyber Soldiers; Deadliest Assignment; Climate Refugees.

CBSN: On Assignment ep. 3: The Nightmare Scenario; Inside Instagram; Disappearing Down's; Risky Business. CBSN: On Assignment ep. 2: Guns of is my good, Chicago; Enemy of the State; Muslims Love Me. CBSN: On Assignment ep. 1: Children of ISIS; iRobot; Made in study in qualitative America* Deadliest mass shootings in U.S. history. Florida executes man convicted of 1983 killings. Russian-based Kaspersky software believed to been used to take classified NSA data.

Will NRA support lead to congressional action on bump stocks? Nicholas Kristof explains why he's more alarmed than ever about egyptian pyramid, war with North Korea. Was Paddock targeting other music festivals? Cam Newton apologizes for extremely degrading and disrespectful remark. Advantages Of Case In Qualitative Research? Dreamers face DACA renewal deadline.

DOJ reverses transgender protections. Why the NRA decision on bump stocks is a big deal. Is My? I stabbed her: Slender Man suspect cries, recounts attack. Trump alludes to in qualitative calm before the storm Vegas shooter's girlfriend told investigators she worried about egyptian essays, his mental stability. Advantages In Qualitative Research? Spectacular revelations courtesy of Hubble. Rep. Steve Scalise on surviving: It's a miracle Will Christian Pulisic be the next big name in soccer? Gunman checked out other festivals.

2017 National Book Award finalists revealed. Rowing Resume? What we know about Stephen Paddock, the Las Vegas shooter. Veteran steals truck, speeds dozens to advantages of case in qualitative research hospital after Vegas shooting. A new blueprint for America's construction trades. The most popular Halloween costumes of 2017. Job Interview Questions? America's deadliest mass shootings.

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Implementation of case studies in undergraduate didactic nursing courses: a qualitative study. © Dutra; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013. Received: 28 September 2012. The implementation of unfolding scenario-based case studies in the didactic classroom is associated with learner-centered education. The utilization of learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies, removes the focus from the instructor and instead places it on the student. Learner-centered pedagogies are believed to improve students’ levels of cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine how nurse educators are implementing the advantages study in qualitative pedagogies of case studies in good write their undergraduate didactic courses. The goal was to examine, document, report, and, ultimately, implement the study research strategies. Purposeful sampling was utilized in this qualitative, multisite-designed study.

For each of the four participants, three separate site visits were completed. Observations and post-observational interviews took place at each site visit. Transcribed data from interviews, observations, and course documents were imported into the computer program Nvivo8 . Repetitive comparative analysis was utilized to complete the data coding process. The guiding research question of this study sought to investigate the is my good implementation strategies of case studies in didactic nursing courses. The implementation of case studies by the participants reflected two primary patterns: Formal Implementation (FI) and Informal Implementation (II) of case studies. The FI of case studies was further divided into two subcategories: Formal Implementation of case studies used Inside the advantages study Classroom setting (FIIC) and Formal Implementation of essay, cases studies used Outside of the Classroom (FIOC). Results of this investigation have led to advantages study research an increased understanding of implementation strategies of unfolding scenario-based case studies in executive writing undergraduate nursing didactic courses.

Data collected were rich in the description of specific methodologies for utilization of case studies and may serve as a resource for faculty in development of creative strategies to enhance the didactic classroom experience. The level of study in qualitative research, competency at pyramid essays, which a graduate from nursing school must perform has been raised. This escalation of the competency level for nurses has been attributed to the increase in the complexity of patient conditions and the increase in technological skill required to practice in a complex healthcare environment [ 1 – 6 ]. Historically, nurse educators have relied upon scholastic content that was based primarily on nursing textbooks [ 2 – 4 ] and [ 7 ]. Students listened to lectures for study in qualitative research extended periods of pyramid, time, often for advantages of case study 3 hours straight, with only occasional breaks. This approach was very instructor-centered.

The students’ passive inactivity lead to decreased learning opportunities in seismic thesis the classroom environment (3). The concern now is not that the old pedagogies once relied upon are no longer sound techniques, but that nurse educators have not adapted their pedagogies to include newer methodologies that are believed to enhance their students’ levels of thinking and study, reflect practices in the current healthcare setting [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. Nurse educators need to adapt their pedagogies to include the facilitation of thinking/learning at a higher level [ 1 ]. Learner-centered classroom environments promote learning that is at the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation level of Bloom’s taxonomy of resume writing services, cognitive educational outcomes. Advantages Of Case Study In Qualitative! This level is indicative of good, a higher level of of case study research, cognition and pyramid, is often associated with long-term recall [ 8 ]. An example of a pedagogy that is deemed to be learner-centered is unfolding, scenario-based, case-study analysis [ 1 – 4 ] and [ 9 , 10 ]. The purpose of this study was to of case study examine how nurse educators are implementing the seismic thesis pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The anecdotal documentation of pedagogical implementation of case studies, by exemplar educators, provides a foundation for future investigation of effective teaching strategies, potentially leading to evidence-based practice guidelines for nurse educators. Nursing instructors who are at the forefront of utilizing learner-centered educational strategies that focus on improving learning and thinking skills are of advantages in qualitative research, crucial importance. Paragraph Write! Without the knowledge of how these effective pedagogical components are implemented, the quest to disseminate effective teaching strategies to other nurse educators is at risk of research, being stifled.

The goal of this study was to uncover the pedagogical methods being employed by seismic thesis, those nurse educators who have achieved a learner-centered classroom environment. Advantages Of Case Research! They were identified as lecturers who prescribed to the premise that the teaching method of case studies is needed to improve higher level thinking or, as often termed, critical-thinking [ 1 , 6 , 8 – 10 ]. A growing body of rowing resume, research has been devoted to the need for study in qualitative teaching nursing students how to be critical thinkers. A skill, according to paragraph write nurse leaders, that is necessary to be competent within the complex healthcare environment where nurses practice [ 1 , 6 , 9 , 23 , 25 ]. A need exists, therefore, for nurse educators to improve their students’ critical-thinking or higher level thinking skills. To accomplish the fostering of higher-level thinking, the didactic component of nursing courses needs to be modified. The modification needed is a shift from the focus being on the teacher teaching to the learner learning [ 2 , 5 , 9 ]. A concept pointed out by Bastable (2008) is that students’ critical-thinking capabilities are enhanced if they have a voice in the learning process. An increase in the learning process is purported to be one of the key factors in developing sound, critical-thinking skills. Of Case Study! A voice in the learning process is the basis of rowing resume, a learner-centered educational environment [ 8 ]. A pedagogy associated with a learner-centered classroom environment is case-study analysis [ 2 , 3 , 9 , 11 – 14 ].

To establish an understanding of how effective nurse educators are implementing the teaching strategy of case studies, this study utilized two theoretical constructs: Information Processing Theory (IPT) [ 16 ] and Dimensions of Thinking Framework (DTF), established by Marzano et al. [ 15 ]. Both of these theoretical constructs have been associated with the facilitation of a learner-centered environment that ultimately fosters higher cognitive thinking [ 17 ]. Both constructs were the lens by which this study attempted to conceptualize the teaching pedagogies of participants in this study. The two conceptual frameworks were not meant to in qualitative research be used as an write, evaluation tool of participants’ pedagogies; instead, they were employed as a method to describe the implementation strategies utilized by effective educators and the reasoning behind their utilization. The IPT is a collection of concepts that has its roots within cognitive psychology. It owes its inspiration to such noted psychologists as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Ausubel [ 16 ]. The IPT has a strong foundation within constructivism, and, although it pertains to in qualitative enhancing learning, it serves as a guide upon which instructors base their teaching pedagogies [ 16 ]. The IPT contains six key components, each of which acts as a framework in which to view the specific teaching methods employed by pyramid essays, the studies participants.

First , in order for meaningful learning to be achieved, students must relate the new material being learned to previous schema. Nurse educators who deliberately link knowledge learned in previous courses with current course material have chosen to research adhere to the concept of linking schemas [ 8 ]. Second and resume services reviews, third , a new concept being presented must be organized in its delivery and presented at advantages in qualitative research, the appropriate education level for the students [ 8 ]. Fourth , students can handle only a given amount of new material at a time. Resume Services! If too much material is presented at one time, a situation known as cognitive overload may occur [ 8 ]. Often, didactic nursing courses are 3 hours long. Given the comprehensiveness of the advantages material covered in most nursing classes and executive resume, the length of time students are in class, cognitive overload is all but guaranteed without some sort of advantages study, varied teaching approach. The effective nurse educator attempts to diversify the method of content delivered, thus lessening cognitive overload [ 8 ].

Fifth , what is learned by the student must be constructed by the student, not simply derived from the environment. Sixth , students need to be active in the learning processes. Essay Good Write! The final two components are considered necessary to study in qualitative the enhancement of essay, students’ awareness of how they learn, which in turn improves their learning capabilities [ 16 , 18 ]. Among other pedagogies, the teaching method of case studies is believed to assist nurse educators in allowing student nurses to actively create their own knowledge bases [ 5 ]. When the student creates the knowledge himself or herself, rather than attempting to advantages in qualitative understand through lecture only, learning increases [ 8 , 15 , 17 ]. The use of case studies as a means by which to present a lesson ultimately allows students to good make their own decisions regarding plans of care for advantages of case study patients. An effective nurse educator has a well-designed presentation so that students can arrive at an appropriate plan of care. The next step an effective educator might take is to have the student nurses verbalize how they arrived at their plans of care. Thus, students acknowledge their own leaning processes [ 5 ]. The second conceptual framework that guided this research was developed by Marzano et al. Essay Write! (1988): The Dimensions of Thinking Framework . According to Marzano et al., the identification of advantages of case research, key dimensions of thinking was needed to provide educators with a framework to teach thinking. This framework focuses on rowing resume, four dimensions of thinking.

Although Marzano labeled the advantages of case study dimensions as separate entities, he cautioned they were not designed to offer a hierarchy and actually represent a thinking continuum. Each dimension is seen to overlap and complement one another [ 15 , 17 ]. The four key dimensions are metacognition , critical thinking , creative thinking , and thinking processes [ 15 , 17 ]. Metacognition often has been described as the executive reviews process of being aware of one’s own thought processes. Study In Qualitative! The implication of encouraging students to essay become responsible for the monitoring of their own learning places the focus on the student instead of the teacher; thus is advantages of case study research, believed to be learner centered. The transfer of essay paragraph, responsibility in advantages of case research and of itself constitutes a higher level of cognition. The self-control aspect of the learning process allows students to seek out and work through cognitively weak areas of their comprehension [ 15 , 17 , 19 ]. Essay Paragraph Write! The ability of advantages of case in qualitative research, students to rowing resume evaluate what and how they think establishes a means by which they become lifelong learners, which all nurses ultimately must accept as their destiny [ 1 , 3 ]. According to Marzano, key pedagogies that an study in qualitative, instructor should implement to enhance metacognitive skills include deliberate planning of activities that are designed to rowing resume make the students question, analyze, and research, evaluate a given concept or process [ 15 , 17 ]. The instructor’s facilitation of essay questions, this metacognitive process is an advantages of case in qualitative research, absolute necessity. However, the student is the center of the process. Critical and creative thinking are seen as complementary. They do not represent two divergent thought processes.

For example, pedagogies designed to enhance students’ critical- and creative thinking skills need to rowing resume include exercises that have more than one right answer. Given the fact that the study in qualitative environment that nurses practice in can change instantaneously, the rowing resume need for advantages study instructors to job interview questions have students practice thinking about diverse points of view in the didactic lecture environment enhances the transfer of learning by student-nurse to real-life nursing practice [ 3 , 10 ]. Within the advantages research DTF, the idea of “Thinking Processes” is seen to include simple cognitive skills, such as comprehension of specific principles and further includes the attainment of seismic thesis, more complex cognitive ability, such as researching, composing, and problem solving. When designing curriculum to include all of the advantages thinking processes, the instructor should first establish the key concepts and principles that need to be learned by rowing resume, the students. Marzano believed that establishing the key concepts are only the of case study in qualitative beginning, that the memorization type of teaching strategy employed by some nursing educators is simply not enough [ 17 , 18 ]. It is not feasible to teach all the necessary content that student nurses need to know; therefore, instructors must concentrate, instead, on enhancing each student’s thinking skills so they can ultimately think through future complex situations [ 1 , 3 , 5 , 6 ]. This ideology explicitly pertains to the education of student nurses. The amount of knowledge that a student nurse must master to essay questions practice in the 21st-century healthcare environment is increasing and changing daily. Therefore, according to advantages study research Ironside, instructors need to stop adding content to an already packed curriculum and instead teach student nurses how to think beyond what content there is time to seismic thesis present [ 2 ]. Effective nurse educators who realize the importance of advantages of case study, how information is processed and have an understanding of the dynamic learning phases are a step ahead of other nurse educators when it comes to implementing teaching strategies that lead to higher levels of cognition.

They also are establishing a method for student nurses to continue learning throughout their careers. The use of the IPT and resume reviews, the DTF allowed for advantages study in qualitative the identification of the reasoning behind the methodologies employed by egyptian pyramid essays, participants in this study. Both theories offered a framework for conceptualization of how the of case study effective nurse educators within this study were implementing the pedagogy of case studies. How are effective nurse educators implementing the pedagogy of case studies in undergraduate didactic courses? How do effective nurse educators perceive that case studies enhance learning at a higher level of cognition? The blueprint for this investigation was a qualitative, multisite case-study design. The rationale for utilizing a multisite case-study research design stemmed from the need to document the pedagogical interactions of nurse educators from seismic thesis, a holistic vantage point that facilitated presentation of specific teaching strategies. Viewing the educators holistically, in of case in qualitative their own environments, allowed increased insight into their methodologies of rowing resume, case study implementation. A purposeful sampling of nurse educators who teach didactic courses at California baccalaureate schools of nursing led ultimately to a participant population.

Inclusion in of case study research the study was based upon good write, two criteria: (a) the participant had been referred by an individual who was a current administrator within a California baccalaureate school of nursing (public and study research, private institutions) (It was assumed that participant were utilizing case studies in job interview essay their didactic courses.) and (b) an inventory score on the Orientations to Teaching Questionnaire (OTQ) identified the advantages of case study in qualitative participant as primarily learner-centered in writing services his or her approach to teaching in a didactic educational setting. The OTQ is advantages study research, a tool that was developed by Kember and Gow and identifies the instructor’s orientation or approach to didactic education at the college level [ 21 ]. The two approaches identified by Kember and Gow were (a) learner-centered teaching or (b) knowledge transmission, which is associated with a more traditional teacher-centered orientation to teaching [ 24 ]. Demographics and pseudonyms assigned. Location of University. Highest level of education. Type of course teaching. Semesters teaching course. Note : EdD (c) Doctorate in Education advanced to job interview candidacy.

Collection of data was fourfold. It included (a) one initial interview privately with each participant; (b) three observations of lectures (approximately 2–3 weeks apart) with each participant; (c) debriefings immediately following each observation; and (d) the of case study research obtaining of good, pertinent course documents from each participant, such as course syllabi and case studies. With consent, all interviews and observations were audio-recorded for analysis. Bogdan and Biklen compared a case-study design with that of a funnel [ 20 ]. At the advantages study top of the funnel, at its broadest point, case-study research maintains a holistic view. Questions! Data are collected by observing, interviewing, and reviewing pertinent documents obtained from each case.

As the funnel begins to narrow in width, so does the next step in a case-study design; thus, the research tapering of collected data is initiated. This narrowing of the data is essay, accomplished via coding. In the purest form, a case-study research design that bases its analysis on inductive and constant comparison procedures seeks to discover categories or patterns that develop without any preconceived assumptions [ 21 ]. The use of both the IPT and the DTF as conceptualizations offered this study a focus for gathering data. Their use was not seen as the establishment of preconceived patterns or themes. Their ideologies were utilized as a supportive framework for advantages research data collection rather than a tool for compartmentalization of data. The use of a conceptual framework as a guide for identifying patterns is appropriate, provided that they do not act to suppress naturally occurring themes [ 21 ]. Case-study qualitative research is based on the ideology of a postpositivism viewpoint. The postpositivism view acknowledges that knowledge is relative; its counterpart, the positivism viewpoint, maintains that knowledge is essay, absolute [ 21 ]. Within this type of of case, research design, a specific group of participants are observed in their natural environments [ 20 ]. This study observed in an unobtrusive manner the naturally occurring events that took place in California baccalaureate schools of nursing while effective nurse educators taught their didactic nursing courses. The methodological underpinnings of this study were based on reality-focused research principles [ 20 ]. Each site or participant represented a unique case; however, each case also shared common characteristics.

This researcher’s rationale for utilizing a multisite, case-study research design stemmed from the job interview questions need to document the pedagogical interactions of effective nurse educators from a holistic vantage point, a view that eventually allowed a detailed description to be presented. Following data collection and advantages in qualitative, transcription, organization of field notes into raw data occurred. Open coding was then performed. During this process, raw data were reviewed analytically for repetition of key terms and job interview, phases, within each participant’s responses and also across participants’ responses. Data collected were analyzed by triangulation among the advantages study three data sources: interviews, observations, and course documents. Results reflected coded data that had been collapsed into patterns. A computer software program entitled NVivo 8 was utilized to view data and categorize content. The program allowed raw transcribed data to be organized, stored, and presented in an easily viewed format. The terms that were coded were viewed by the lens of the two theoretical frameworks, ultimately leading to themes that directly answered the two research questions.

As an external verification, a peer-review process was performed. A debriefing with an independent nursing faculty member was performed periodically during the analysis process. The faculty member who reviewed the coding process was a tenured doctorally-prepared individual who has published both qualitative and quantitative investigations. Good! The NVivo files were overviewed on three separate occasions and the coding process was deemed cohesive. In accordance with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at advantages research, the University of San Francisco (USF), San Francisco, California – United States of America and the American Psychological Association’s ethical principles, participants were informed in written form and provided with verbal clarification, as needed, of the study’s details. Egyptian Pyramid! Approval from the Human Subjects IRB at USF was received. Advantages Research! The identification number for essay approval is #11047343. Research question 1. How are effective nurse educators implementing the pedagogy of case studies in advantages study undergraduate didactic courses? Patterns of implementation of case studies in essay questions didactic nursing courses.

1. Formal Implementation of Case Studies (FI) 1a. Of Case Study Research! Inside the Classroom (FIIC) 1b. Rowing Resume! Outside of the Classroom (FIOC) 2. Informal Implementation of Case Studies (II) Patterns and subcategories of of case in qualitative research, formal implementation of case studies in didactic nursing courses. Formal Implementation (FI)

Preplanned written format with due dates some completed as an individual project some as a group. Formal Implementation Inside the Classroom (FIIC) Prearranged Classroom presentations. Group and Individual. Role Playing (Impromptu Structured) Student to Faculty. Student to Student. No prior information – Group Processes. Problem based learning with structure. Faculty as facilitator. Formal Implementation Outside the Classroom (FIOC)

Assigned Case Studies with due dates. Group and Individual projects. Summative and Formative evaluation. Discussion Board Case Studies. Monitored by Faculty. Template specific case study reviews.

Student chooses patient from clinical. Structured assignment format with due dates. Patterns of informal implementation of case studies in didactic nursing courses. Informal Implementation (II) The sharing of personal clinical experiences in an unfolding case study presentation. Not noted in syllabus or power points. Mini case studies.

Anecdotal notes about nurses experiences. Frequently implemented throughout lecture. Link patient symptoms to nursing care. Emphasis on emotional aspect. Repeated use of impromptu cases (planned) Research question 2 : themes presented by conceptual framework. Information processing theory. Dimensions of thinking framework.

“My classes are interactive” “Engage them with active learning” “Students think instead of seismic thesis, just listen” “Stimulate their critical thinking” “Come to their own realizations” Knowledge constructed by student. “Visually connects content to care” “Makes care come alive” “Links lecture to patient care” “Practice thinking their thinking” Examples of advantages of case study in qualitative research, formal implementation of case studies inside the classroom. All of the case studies represented common situations nurses might find when caring for a specific patient population. Amy utilized cases within the classroom by presenting a situation and then having the students carry out the rowing resume case with impromptu role playing. For instance, one of her cases involved the students interviewing an expectant mother regarding illicit drug use before and during her pregnancy. Amy presented the case and then had a student role play the interview process. As the case study unfolded further, she kept the students active in the process by questioning the appropriate nursing interventions and the rationale for each intervention. Betty and Dana used an study in qualitative research, even more formal methodology. Essay! Students brought case studies into class and of case study research, then, as a group, responded to egyptian pyramid essays prearranged questions.

Dana sometimes had the students break into advantages study research, small groups to work through a case; she then had the class come back together as a whole and each group discussed their responses. Carol had a unique approach to formal case studies within the classroom. Within Carol’s syllabus, the session was represented by “case-study day.” Students were told to bring their reference books and good paragraph, laptops to of case study research class. No other information was provided. The class started with Carol having her students break-up into groups. She handed out a case study to each of the student groups. She advised the students there would be no lecture, only a series of case studies that the students were going to analyze and present to seismic thesis the class. Carol termed this case study approach a form of advantages study research, problem-based learning. One example of a case involved a Hispanic male who did not speak English, lived 70 miles away from the nearest hospital, and had to depend on essay good paragraph, family members for transportation. The patient had experienced a myocardial infarction and study research, was also a newly diagnosed noninsulin dependent diabetic. All the cases included information, such as vital signs, medication lists, laboratory results, and job interview essay, radiology findings.

Each group had a different case to present. Study! The instructions were initially to write decide on three potential outcomes for each patient. They then prioritized the nursing interventions for in qualitative each of the potential outcomes. Job Interview Essay! Next, they came up with three questions they wanted to ask the entire class. Carol allowed 60 minutes for the group work, then gave them a break and brought the advantages in qualitative research class back together as a whole. The groups took turns presenting their patients, the outcomes, and egyptian essays, proposed nursing interventions. They led discussions regarding the three questions they asked the class, which were a mixture of of case study in qualitative research, thought-provoking questions and factual questions specific to rowing resume nursing care. This second half of the activity occupied the advantages study in qualitative research remainder of the class time, which was approximately 90 minutes. During the entire class, Carol acted as a facilitator by visiting each group during the seismic thesis group work. Carol related that a group size of 4–5 students was optimal, but not always feasible. Examples of formal implementation of case studies outside of the classroom.

All four faculty utilized case study assignments outside of the advantages classroom. Some of the case studies were assigned with grades given, and questions, some were formative. One method utilized by Dana, Betty, and Amy was discussion board assignments. Case studies were posted on the course management system, Blackboard®. The discussion board responses from the students were monitored for participation points by the instructor.

Carol utilized outside of the of case study classroom assignments in essay good paragraph a slightly different manner. She supplied the students with three case study options from which to choose for analysis. Students took the case studies home and worked on them. She gave each student a template of how the case should be presented. Of Case Research! Carol encouraged study groups to work on the case studies at is my essay, home, but required individual submission of case analysis. Amy’s outside-of-class case studies were termed “concept-analysis assignments.” For this assignment, the students chose a patient they had had in clinical that semester and then wrote a case presentation about a specific concept that they had seen this patient exhibit or not exhibit. According to advantages study Amy, she gave them some ideas of seismic thesis, concepts, such as “self-efficacy,” “diabetic management,” or “hope.” An outline of how to approach the assignment was supplied in Amy’s syllabus. Examples of of case research, informal implementation of case studies. The informal use of is my essay, case studies during lecture took the form of sharing personal clinical experiences (narrative pedagogy) [ 3 ]. The personal clinical experiences reflected impromptu mini-case studies.

Each of the four participants responded that they used personal experiences liberally within their lectures to study present specific concepts. Amy related that she used “anecdotal notes” about seismic thesis personal experiences or experiences of advantages of case in qualitative research, other nurses, which were anonymously represented. She used these experiences in resume services almost every lecture and often multiple times throughout her lecture. Betty stated, “It just happens. Of Case Research! I’m an oncology nurse and I have lots of stories.” She shared with me that she always “links fluid and electrolyte imbalances with her father’s hospitalization experience.” Betty pointed out that she “paints a picture” of what her father’s symptoms looked like to her, so that the students, when they see these symptoms, will link the physiological pathology with their assessments of patients with similar symptoms. Carol stated that her years as a nurse have provided her with many personal stories that she has incorporated into job interview questions, her lecture format. She further explained that it is not only the physiological aspects of her mini-cases that she included in her stories but also “the emotional components of them as well.” Most of the personal experience sharing initially came about spontaneously. However, over time, each participant stated she purposely included the of case study same cases within her lectures repeatedly. As new experiences occurred, they were added to the lectures in executive resume services reviews the same pattern. The educators also stated they often used old experiences, from advantages of case study research, their early days as nurses, as examples of how far nursing has progressed. According to Dana, the sharing of rowing resume, real-life examples provided examples of advantages study in qualitative research, how nursing care constantly changes; she used her old nursing stories to stress the importance of staying current with academic nursing journals and egyptian essays, evidence-based practice.

Carol related, and as demonstrated by the other participants, mini-cases of personal experiences will not appear within PowerPoint® slides, but are imbedded in every lecture. For instance, Carol used her experience as an intensive care nurse to advantages of case study describe the nursing care of a patient with intracranial pressure. The patient was a 16-year-old patient who was left a paraplegic following a motor vehicle accident. Good! She was discussing the purpose of advantages in qualitative, intracranial monitoring and related a specific incident regarding utilizing the essays monometer at the appropriate height. During all 12 site visits, each participant utilized informal case studies during class time. Of Case Study Research! The cases were often brief and appeared to be recited extemporaneously. Upon clarification with each participant, they related that perhaps, initially, their use might have come to them while they were lecturing spontaneously; however, their repetitive use each semester subsequently has continued.

As Carol stated, it was “the real-life personal experiences that keeps them (students) interested during a three-hour lecture.” According to the Amy, the students want to know about questions “real-life” nursing. Research question 2. How do effective nurse educators perceive that case studies enhance learning at a higher level of cognition? Each of the four participants was asked to of case in qualitative research describe her perceived benefits of the implementation of case studies in didactic courses. They were also questioned regarding the factors that influenced their decisions to implement the pedagogy of case studies into their class time.

According to rowing resume the participants, the students were asked to participate in the learning process when they used case studies. They have to “think,” according to Dana. She believed that the advantages of case study in qualitative use of case studies has helped integrate the questions content within the didactic portion of nursing school and advantages study research, the clinical. Betty stated that case studies are “nursing in action.” She further stated that case studies reinforced applications of job interview essay, nursing care, which she believed would enhance knowledge retention. Carol had a term for instructors who adhered to a traditional lecture format in their didactic course and never varied their pedagogies: the talking head . She explained that she had been trying to be more of a guide to learning in study the classroom rather than the person simply standing at the front of the room doing all the essay paragraph write talking. Initially, when she started pulling away from the talking head format, the students rebelled and stated they were confused.

She thought, “Okay, I have to have a portion of the of case in qualitative research talking head in class while saving time for activity (such as case studies) woven into each class”. Betty related that she came to the realization that she needed to combine some “active student-centered” components with her traditional PowerPoint® lecture format when she started paying attention to the distinctive “glazed-eyes-look” that students presented after an hour or so of class. Pyramid! She explained, “I would be throwing words out and hosing them down with the content,” and they would be “zoning out, not getting it.” Betty concurred with Carol that you cannot eliminate completely the traditional lecture format because students have a certain comfort level with this tradition; however, both are quick to defend the addition of an active-learning environment. All four participants stated that part of the problem was the length of class time involved in their courses. All of them had class times that were 3 hours long, once a week. To keep the students active in the learning process, they stated they combined a learner-centered pedagogy and lecture with traditional PowerPoint® presentations on a routine basis. Of Case! Typically, for about 30 to 40 minutes, they lectured in the traditional format and would implement some type of active- learning pedagogy for the rest of the time. The purpose of the investigation was to examine methods of nurse educators who were implementing the pedagogy of scenario-based case studies in their didactic undergraduate nursing courses. When the writing reviews themes of study research, this investigation were matched with the guiding conceptual framework, an association was noticeable. A key component of the Information Processing Theory is the concept of cognitive overload.

A second component is the students’ activity level during the learning process. The greater the activity level of the students, the essay questions more learning potential [ 16 , 18 ]. Study In Qualitative! All four participants emphasized their beliefs that simply lecturing, or as Carol called it, being the talking head, was not compatible with a learner-centered environment. Paragraph Write! The need to have students actively engaged during lengthy class was considered essential by the participants in this investigation. The second conceptual framework that guided this research was developed by Marzano and is entitled The Dimensions of research, Thinking Framework . Is My Essay! Components of this framework are metacognition, critical, and creative thinking [1517]. Study In Qualitative Research! According to the participants within this investigation, it was the transfer of responsibility for learning from rowing resume, teacher to research learner that was evident when case studies were implemented. The transfer of responsibility is what encourages and pyramid, enhances life-long learning for nursing students, thus allowing them to in qualitative research function adequately in the complex healthcare setting upon graduation. The reasons cited for this successful transfer were that student nurses learn to analyze systematically complex situations in a safe environment (classroom) and are able integrate the knowledge into their future practice as nurses with greater ease, which relates to essay paragraph the concepts of metacognition and critical thinking. Qualitative inquiry attempts to generate inductively knowledge regarding specific phenomena. The real world, rather than the study laboratory, is the is my essay setting for this type of research [ 21 ]. Given the nature of case-study research and real-world observational data-collection tools, the of case study in qualitative research questioning of results may be inevitable. The primary limitations lie with the amount of variables that could have influenced the findings.

One variable that could have influenced the results of is my essay, this study was an inaccurate reporting of pedagogies by each participant during the interview process. Of Case Study Research! Another potential limitation was that during the seismic thesis scheduled observation day, any participant could have inflated or exaggerated her performance during the lecture. One other factor that may have affected the results is that of researcher bias. Of Case In Qualitative Research! A last possible limitation is the inability to egyptian pyramid generalize this study’s findings to other nurse educators who might be implementing these same pedagogies. The small sample size (n = 4) is the primary reason for advantages study this. The need for nurses to exhibit a higher standard of clinical competence is a direct result of increased technology, new treatment regimes, and complex co-morbidity disease processes of patients. Contributory disease processes and advanced technology in the acute-care setting have sounded an alarm among nurse leaders with respect to nursing education. This complexity of the hospital setting has caused nursing leaders to look at the need to improve the preparation practices of student nurses [ 22 ]. Nurses need, now more than ever, to be critical thinkers within their practices.

Therefore, the need to adequately prepare student nurses has come under scrutiny. It has been stipulated that exposure in nursing school to the practice of analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, and rowing resume, then responding quickly to patients’ needs should be a priority of nurse educators [ 22 ]. In order to adequately prepare nursing students, it has been suggested that nurse educators incorporate pedagogies that enhance the learning process for student nurses [ 1 – 4 ]. Pedagogies believed to enhance learning at a higher cognitive level are learner centered rather than teacher centered. Thus, pedagogies designed to in qualitative research enhance student nurses’ levels of rowing resume, thinking are those teaching methods that engage student nurses in of case study the learning process. Paragraph Write! To engage student nurses in advantages of case in qualitative research this higher-level learning process, an instructor must utilize learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies [ 1 – 4 ]. The logical first step was to egyptian pyramid examine effective nurse educators in action. Advantages Of Case In Qualitative Research! The explanation of how the participants within this study used the pedagogy of case studies will act as a conduit for essay good other nurse educators attempting to implement learner-centered pedagogies. The themes that developed from this investigation did, indeed, shed light on advantages of case in qualitative, the actual implementation strategies used for the pedagogy of case studies.

The finding that the pedagogy of good paragraph, case studies was implemented each day informally via narrative pedagogy by each of the participants was instructive. The informal implementation of case studies was comparable with the narrative pedagogy described by of case, Ironside [ 2 ]. Each of the participants was aware of the research supporting the use of seismic thesis, these informal cases studies, which are analogues to personal experiences of the educators. Study In Qualitative! They were conscious of the findings that the content presented in the informal cases was the content students cited as remembering most from their coursework [ 2 , 11 , 13 ]. Egyptian! As Carol stated, “Students remember my stories (cases) best because that is what really happens in nursing”. The ability to make declarative statements regarding the sustained improvement in thinking when case studies are implemented has not been proven within this study and advantages of case research, is the executive resume services reviews next recommended area of research. To perform this type of inquiry, both qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed. These investigations would need to take place in schools of nursing, where experimental and comparative groups could be organized. Advantages Of Case! If nurse educators are unable to perform large-scale inquiries into the relationship between case studies and cognition enhancement, smaller-scale investigational studies can be performed. The author would like to thank the four participants for their time and insight. The author declares that he/she has no competing interest.

Del Bueno D: A crisis in good critical thinking. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2005, 26 (5): 278-282. PubMedGoogle Scholar Ironside PM: New pedagogies for teaching thinking: the lived experiences of students and teachers enacting narrative pedagogy. J Nurs Educ. Of Case Study In Qualitative Research! 2003, 42 (11): 509-515. PubMedGoogle Scholar Ironside PM: “Covering content” and teaching thinking: deconstructing the rowing resume additive curriculum. J Nurs Educ. 2004, 43 (1): 5-12. PubMedGoogle Scholar Ironside PM: Teaching thinking and reaching the limits of memorization: enacting pedagogies. J Nurs Educ.

2005, 44 (10): 441-449. PubMedGoogle Scholar Valiga TM: Teaching thinking: is it worth the effort?. J Nurs Educ. 2003, 42 (11): 479-481. PubMedGoogle Scholar Walsh CM, Seldomridge LA: Critical thinking: Back to square two. J Nurs Educ. 2006, 45 (6): 212-219. PubMedGoogle Scholar Keating SB: Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. 2006, New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Google Scholar Bastable S: Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and study in qualitative research, learning for nursing practice. 2008, Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Google Scholar Staib S: Teaching and questions, measuring critical thinking.

J Nurs Educ. 2003, 42 (11): 499-508. Google Scholar Tanner CA: Thinking like a nurse: A research- based model of clinical judgment in nursing. J Nurs Educ. 2006, 45 (6): 204-211. PubMedGoogle Scholar Diekelmann N: Narrative pedagogy: heideggerian hermeneutical analyses of the lived experiences of students, teachers, and clinicians. Adv Nurs Sci. Of Case! 2001, 23: 53-71. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Kern CS, Bush KL, McCleish JM: Mind-mapping care plans: integrating an alternative to traditional care plans. J Nurs Educ. 2006, 45 (4): 112-120.

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2003, 42 (10): 444-448. PubMedGoogle Scholar Marzano RJ: Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. Seismic Thesis! 2001, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, INC. Google Scholar Ormrod JE: Educational psychology: Developing learners(4th ed.). 2003, Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall Google Scholar Marzano RJ, Brandt RS, Hughes CS, Jones BF, Presseisen BZ, Rankin SC, Suhor C: Dimensions of thinking: A framework for curriculum and instruction. 1988, Alexandria, VA: Association for advantages research Supervision and Curriculum Development Google Scholar Shimamura AP: What is metacognition? The brain knows. Am J Psychol. 2000, 113 (1): 142-147. 10.2307/1423465.

View ArticleGoogle Scholar Ausubel DP: The psychology of egyptian pyramid essays, meaningful verbal learning. 1963, New York: Grune Stratton Google Scholar Bogdan R, Biklen S: Qualitative research for education; an introduction to theories and methods. 2007, Boston: Pearson Education Inc. Google Scholar Patton MQ: Qualitative research evaluation methods. 2002, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Google Scholar American Association of in qualitative research, Colleges of Nursing: The essentials of essay good paragraph write, baccalaureate education: For professional nursing practice. 2009, Washington, DC: Author Google Scholar Benner P, Sutphen M: Learning across the profession: the clergy, a case in advantages of case in qualitative point. J Nurs Educ. 2007, 46 (3): 103-108. PubMedGoogle Scholar Kember D, Gow L: Orientations to teaching and executive resume, their effect on the quality of student learning.

J High Educ. 1994, 65 (1): 58-74. 10.2307/2943877. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Kowalczyk RT: Review of study, Teaching Methods Critical Thinking Skills. Seismic Thesis! Radiological Technology. 2011, 83 (2): 120-132.

Google Scholar. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Advantages Research! This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy.

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The case study as a type of qualitative research

2 JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Address Book Reports. This chapter provides report navigation, overview information and a report sample for the following reports: This reports guide discusses reports that are commonly used in of case in qualitative research, the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne system. This reports guide does not provide an inclusive list of good paragraph write every report that exists in the system. This guide is intended to provide overview information for each report. Of Case Study In Qualitative Research? You must refer to the appropriate JD Edwards EnterpriseOne implementation guide for rowing resume complete report information. Advantages In Qualitative Research? 2.1 Bank Account Exception Report (R00310) On the paragraph write Automatic Payment Setup menu (G04411), select Bank Account Exception Report. Use the report to advantages verify that the address book number for each supplier and customer bank record in the Bank Transit Master table (F0030) exists in resume services, the Address Book Master table (F0101). Review the Bank Account Exception report (R00310): 2.2 Address Book Exception Report (R00311A) On the Automatic Payment Setup menu (G04411), select Address Book Exception Report. In Qualitative Research? Use this report to review any suppliers or customers that do not have corresponding bank account information in the Bank Transit Master table (F0030). Review the Address Book Exception report (R00311A): 2.3 Address Book Batch Upload Report (R01010Z) On the A/B Advanced Technical Operations menu (G0131), select Address Book Batch Upload. After you convert address book information from an external source and transfer it to the Address Book - Interoperability table (F0101Z2), use this program to process the information and update these tables: Address Book Master (F0101) Address Book - Who's Who (F0111) Address Book - Phone Numbers (F0115) Address by Date (F0116) Review the services reviews Address Book Batch Upload report (R01010Z): 2.4 Batch Address Book Purge Report (R0101Z1P) On the advantages A/B Advanced Technical Operations menu (G0131), select Address Book Batch Purge.

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Review the A/B with Tax ID, Prsn/Crp Code report (R014032A): 2.13 Address Book with Who's Who Codes Report (R01403W) On the advantages in qualitative Periodic Processing menu (G0121), select Full Address with Codes (Who's Who). Use this report to essay print a list that contains the who's who name, mailing address, and category codes for all address book numbers. Review the study Address Book with Who's Who Codes report (R01403W): 2.14 Address Book - Check for is my Duplicates Report (R014052) On the of case study Periodic Processing menu (G0121), select Check for Duplicates. Use this report to rowing resume verify that you do not have duplicate information in the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Address Book system. Of Case? If you have recently converted to essay paragraph JD Edwards EnterpriseOne, print this report to advantages of case in qualitative verify that you did not create duplicate records during the initial setup of the egyptian essays JD Edwards Address Book system. After reviewing this report, delete any duplicate address book records. Review the Address Book - Check for Duplicates report (R014052): 2.15 Global Category Code Change Report (R01490) On the A/B Advanced Technical Operations menu (G0131), select Global Category Code Update. Advantages In Qualitative Research? After you enter address book records, use this program to make category code changes throughout the JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Address Book system. You can update all address book records with the category codes that you changed or you can update specific address book records and category codes.

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