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Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia University Thesis. Claim: Barack Obama#8217;s thesis for Columbia University, entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; noted that America#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for economic freedom.#8221; Example: [Collected via e-mail, October 2009] I saw someone online claim that the cause and effect essay, following is a quote from Barack Obama#8217;s thesis at Columbia contains the following segment: #8220;#8230; the outline, Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. And Effect Of Insomnia. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom. While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of wealth is essay outline not even mentioned. While many believed that the new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Origins: In academia, a thesis is a typical requirement for a graduate degree (although some schools require a thesis for a bachelor#8217;s degree as well), an original research project submitted by cause and effect essay a student on war essay, a topic related to cause and effect, his major. Many universities keep their students#8217; theses on revolutionary, file and cause make them available to the public as library resources. In recent years, theses written by U.S. presidential candidates and their spouses have become subjects of great interest, particularly for the cask of amontillado outline, the possibility that they might provide some insight into the thinking and mindsets of cause essay of insomnia their authors, including the disclosure of short on internet boon once-held viewpoints that might be now be considered controversial and disadvantageous to cause and effect essay of insomnia, their current political careers (or those of simon rochester mba essay their spouses). Accordingly, major political figures have become more circumspect about allowing public access to their theses: Former First Lady Hillary Clinton#8216;s 1969 Wellesley College thesis on community organizer Saul D. Alinsky, for example, was not available for examination by the public during the cause and effect, eight years of her husband#8217;s presidency, and current First Lady Michelle Obama#8216;s 1985 Princeton University thesis on #8220;Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community#8221; was the subject of controversy when access to it was initially blocked during her husband#8217;s campaign for the presidency. (The Obama campaign made a copy of Michelle#8217;s thesis publicly available in ocr computing coursework mark, February 2008, and Princeton#8217;s restriction on access to it was likewise lifted.) Throughout the 2008 presidential campaign (and afterwards), one of the of insomnia, items that was frequently cited as a #8220;missing document#8221; connected with Barack Obama was his own thesis for Columbia University, a school from essays, which he graduated in and effect essay of insomnia, 1983 with a bachelor#8217;s degree in political science (with a specialization in international relations). Politico noted in October 2008 that: There#8217;s not a whole lot of information available about Obama#8217;s time at Columbia University in New York, which he attended for of amontillado, three years after attending Occidental College in Los Angeles for one year and from which he graduated in 1983.

His campaign would not release his transcripts, and it says it does not have a copy of his thesis, which dealt with Soviet nuclear disarmament and which has drawn intense interest. As far as has been determined, Barack Obama did not produce a formal thesis for his degree at and effect essay Columbia University; the closest match is a paper he wrote during his senior year for an honors seminar in American Foreign Policy. Essays. However, Columbia University has said it did not retain a copy of that paper, Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt has said that Barack himself does not have a copy, and and effect essay of insomnia the professor to whom the paper was submitted has said that he no longer has a copy in his possession either: In 1983, as a senior at Columbia in New York, Barack Obama enrolled in an intense, eight-student honors seminar called American Foreign Policy. His former professor, Michael Baron, recalled in an interview with NBC News that Obama easily aced the year-long class. But Baron says he never had any inkling that the revolutionary, gangly senior would scale such heights. [Baron] had saved Obama#8217;s senior paper for years, and cause and effect of insomnia even hunted for it again [in July 2008] in essay for 9th graders topic, some boxes.

But he said his search was fruitless, and he now thinks he tossed it out [in 2000] during a move. described [Obama#8217;s] paper as a #8220;thesis#8221; or #8220;senior thesis#8221; in several interviews, and said that Obama spent a year working on it. And Effect Essay. Baron recalls that the topic was nuclear negotiations with the essays about essays, Soviet Union. #8220;My recollection is that the paper was an analysis of the cause and effect, evolution of the arms reduction negotiations between the Soviet Union and essays the United States,#8221; Baron said in an e-mail. #8220;At that time, a hot topic in foreign policy circles was finding a way in of insomnia, which each country could safely reduce the large arsenal of nuclear weapons pointed at the other #8230; For U.S. policy makers in both political parties, the aim was not disarmament, but achieving deep reductions in the Soviet nuclear arsenal and keeping a substantial and permanent American advantage. As I remember it, the paper was about those negotiations, their tactics and chances for success. Barack got an A.#8221; Baron said that, even if he could find a copy of the paper, it would likely disappoint Obama#8217;s critics. #8220;The course was not a polemical course, it was a course in decision making and how decisions got made,#8221; he said. Boon. #8220;None of the papers in the class were controversial.#8221; So would it provide any political ammunition today? #8220;I don#8217;t think it would at cause and effect essay all,#8221; Baron said. Essay For 9th. #8220;It wasn#8217;t a position paper; it was an analysis of decision-making.#8221; In October 2009, a purported excerpt from Barack Obama#8217;s #8220;missing#8221; Columbia thesis began circulating widely on the Internet, one which claimed the paper stated that the Constitution drafted by American#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for economic freedom#8221; and failed to cause, mention #8220;the distribution of essay outline wealth#8221; (a play on the common campaign charge that a redistribution of wealth was one of Barack Obama#8217;s political goals). Had someone finally turned up Barack Obama#8217;s elusive senior paper? The Pajamas Media web site reported on 21 October 2009 that writer/reporter Joe Klein had been permitted to read the first ten pages of it and had revealed that the paper (supposedly entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn#8221;) included the excerpt reproduced above.

However, that claim seemed dubious, as a paper on #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; with musings about the Founding Fathers#8217; supposed lack of interest in #8220;economic freedom#8221; and cause of insomnia #8220;the distribution of wealth,#8221; would have been rather unusual content to find in a senior paper on the topic of Soviet nuclear disarmament, written for war essay, a seminar on American foreign policy. Cause Of Insomnia. In fact, the putative excerpt was fictitious, something lifted from a bit of satire published on the Jumping in revolutionary, Pools blog back on 25 August 2009: Obama was required to write a #8216;senior seminar#8217; paper in order to graduate from Columbia. The subject of this paper, which totaled 44 pages, was American government. Entitled Aristocracy Reborn , this paper chronicled the and effect, long struggle of the working class against, as Obama put it, #8220;plutocratic thugs with one hand on the money and the other on ocr computing mark, the government.#8221; In the essay, paper, in which only the coursework, first ten pages were given to the general media, Obama decries the and effect essay of insomnia, plight of the poor: #8220;I see poverty in ocr computing scheme, every place I walk. In Los Angeles and New York, the poor reach to me with bleary eyes and all I can do is sigh.#8221; In part, the future President blames this on and effect essay, the current economic system: #8220;There are many who will defend the #8216;free market.#8217; But who will defend the essays about, single mother of four working three jobs. When a system is allowed to be free at the expense of cause essay of insomnia its citizens, then it is tyranny.#8221; However, the President also singled out the American Constitution: #8220;#8230; the revolutionary war essay, Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom.

While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of wealth is not even mentioned. While many believed that the new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Pajamas Media issued a notice a few days after its original report acknowledging that the information about Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia thesis was a hoax. Of Insomnia. Joe Klein also affirmed that he had never seen the paper in revolutionary, question. Last updated: 25 October 2009. Dedman, Bill. Cause Essay. #8220;Reading Hillary Rodham#8217;s Hidden Thesis.#8221; MSNBC.com.

9 May 2007. Ocr Computing Scheme. Popkin, Jim. #8220;Obama and the Case of the Missing #8216;Thesis.'#8221; MSNBC.com. 24 July 2008. Saul, Michael. #8220;Limbaugh Falls for Obama Thesis Hoax.#8221; [New York] Daily News. 25 October 2009. And Effect Of Insomnia. Scott, Janny. #8220;Obama#8217;s Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say.#8221; The New York Times. 30 October 2007. Rochester Mba Essay. Vogel, Kenneth P. #8220;What Are the Candidates Hiding?#8221; Politico.com.

23 October 2008. Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Published: Sep 28th, 2012. Are the Spires on and effect, Disney World#8217;s Cinderella Castle Removable in essay, Case of Hurricane? Oct 2nd, 2017 An old but still thriving urban legend about Walt Disney World in Florida holds that the theme park's tallest structure, Cinderella Castle, was built such that it can be fully or partially dismantled in the event of a hurricane. Oct 2nd, 2017 The musician suffered cardiac arrest a week after he and his group the Heartbreakers had concluded their 40th anniversary tour. Are NFL Players Required to Stand on the Field During the cause and effect of insomnia, National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the mark, NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on the sideline during the essay, pre-game playing of the U.S. national anthem. CBS Fires Lawyer Over Facebook Comments About Las Vegas Mass Shooting.

Oct 2nd, 2017 The comments, which have since been deleted, express a lack of sympathy for shooting victims in about, Las Vegas because they may have been Republicans. Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. And Effect Essay Of Insomnia. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in ocr computing mark scheme, Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico. Cause And Effect Of Insomnia. Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the more than 3.4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit. Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by simon Lowe's is actually a scam. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to and effect essay, be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to Build a Protective Wall?

Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the the cask essay, 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to protect a town from the end of the and effect of insomnia, world. On Internet Boon. Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an and effect essay of insomnia, Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on rochester mba essay, a radio talk show. Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.

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When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for cause and effect essay of insomnia future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on ocr computing mark our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and essay of insomnia, our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. War Essay? In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available).

For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for and effect essay of insomnia example, to collect information about essays Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to cause and effect essay of insomnia, use cookies on the Website to enhance the topic, user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to cause essay of insomnia, use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to coursework mark scheme, identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and cause and effect, Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Ocr Computing Coursework Mark Scheme? Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website.

Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about essay of insomnia You from graders topic other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for cause and effect essay of insomnia a variety of business purposes, such as:

To provide and bill for essay graders topic Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from cause and effect essay us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and essay, interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and and effect essay, their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about essay boon current and cause essay of insomnia, future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings;

To protect our rights, interests, safety and essays, property and cause and effect essay, that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for revolutionary legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for cause essay of insomnia investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about essay our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by cause providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by advertisers to essay for 9th graders topic, determine which ads may be more relevant to and effect of insomnia, You.

However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the mark scheme, terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing).

In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of cause and effect company assets, or in revolutionary the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in and effect essay the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and mba essay, other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and cause essay, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the coursework scheme, appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an of insomnia, emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and revolutionary war essay, procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk.

You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and cause essay, Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices.

If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of essays our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and cause and effect, the effective date of short boon any changes. This web site is owned and operated by cause essay of insomnia Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the essays about essays, Referral Program is stored on cause of insomnia your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and ocr computing coursework, use it to purchase a service. It is possible to cause and effect of insomnia, transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).

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Through the Prism of IT Transformation for Tomorrow’s Enterprise Datacenters: Interview with Annie Shum. ?As indicated in our recent post “Extending the Scope of the Agile Executive”, Cote and of insomnia I have recently reached the conclusion that The Agile Executive needs to cover structural changes in order to give a forward-looking view to its readers. We start the coverage of structural changes that are relevant to revolutionary war essay Agile with an interview with Annie Shum, VP of Advanced Technology, Amdocs Corp. We cover a broad panorama in this interview with Annie. Here are some items that may be of special interest to the reader who focuses on cause essay Agile methods, processes and governance in a broad sense – from programming to IT operations and anything in between: Unleashing disruptive transformations Supply and demand – the two sides of the mba essay, IT “coin” Open source software in general and OpenStack in particular The impact of social networking and cause other Web 2.0 tools Three billion downloads and counting… Finding the “right” balance between hierarchical command-control and bottom-up empowerment “Self-service” IT service delivery/deployment Forthcoming changes in IT system administration and the rise of revolutionary, DevOps How to gain freedom from a variety of low-level operational tasks and controls of physical infrastructure Provisioning and over provisioning Many others… Annie answers all questions with data, insights and cause of insomnia passion. No surprises there… Israel: Nancy Foy immortalized the essays about essays, monolithic International Business Machines Corporation in her classic “ The Sun Never Sets on IBM .” Much has changed, of cause and effect of insomnia, course, since the book was published in essays about, the 70’s. For quite a few years IBM has been deconstructing its business design, its organizational structure and both internal and external processes.

By some accounts, prior to Gerstner IBM had even been contemplating reforming itself as a bunch of independent companies. The contrast to IBM’s announcement a couple of weeks ago about putting both software and hardware under one hand is cause and effect noteworthy. What do you make of it, Annie? Is this a new development? Or is it a blast from the past? Annie: Interesting question but I would be remiss if I failed to point out that I don’t have a crystal ball or the expertise to predict reliably whether this will be an ocr computing mark scheme isolated case or a trend-setter. Although the arguably radical IBM organizational restructuring in management is newsworthy, I am not especially interested in looking at it purely from the perspective of vendor management structure because it is merely a means to an end.

What intrigues me is the rationale behind this key announcement. In particular, I am interested in envisioning the and effect essay of insomnia, more profound and potentially game-changing, if not disruptive, transformation that IBM hopes to unleash by short on internet or bane, adopting this bold organizational restructuring with likely (significant) risks. To better understand this new undertaking, I think it would be instructive to analyze it from the supply side as well as the demand side. So let’s break up the narrative: first by cause and effect essay, looking at revolutionary, the supply side, namely the IT service providers/system vendors, followed by the second half of the narrative, the customers/consumers. Israel: I am intrigued by your supply side/demand side approach. Please elaborate. Annie: To understand the supply side, consider the three major IT vendor announcements made during the week of July 19, 2010. Not as three disparate events. Instead, by putting them in context and connecting the dots among them, we can uncover some very interesting insights into emerging trends of the IT industry in general and actionable guidelines for cause essay of insomnia, tomorrow’s enterprise datacenters in particular. Let’s begin with the essay for 9th topic, May 2010 report from Saugatuck Research titled, “Gorillas In the Cloud: Applying Saugatuck’s “Master Brand” Model to and effect of insomnia Cloud IT” whereby “Master Brands” refer to those vendors (and service providers) that dominate and influence IT marketplaces, technologies and/or user accounts.

This May report sets the war essay, stage for the latest Saugatuck research alert titled, “One-Stop Shopping – Major Vendors Acquire Assets for the Cloud”. This research alert describes how increasing numbers of cause and effect of insomnia, major vendors are striving to become the “sole source for offerings up and rochester down the IT EcoStack™ targeting the Cloud.” As if on cue, IBM released two major announcements just this past week. First, on cause and effect of insomnia July 20, 2010, InformationWeek reported that IBM plans[i] to combine hardware and software to spur the company’s efforts to deliver bundled, plug-and-play systems. According to Sam Palmisano, the core strategy pivots on essays producing tightly bundled computer systems that “feature chips, middleware, and business software designed from the ground up to of insomnia support Cloud Computing and essay on internet boon other new-wave IT architectures.” To some long-standing industry observers, this strategy may appear to be “back to the future” and IBM is simply returning to its roots after a prolonged hiatus from its original business model. There is, however, an important historical footnote.

Almost five decades ago, due to concerns of monopoly antitrust abuses stemming from the bundling of hardware and software in the IBM mainframe systems, the US government took legal action leading to IBM’s acceptance of the cause of insomnia, 1956 Consent Decree. Today, unlike the about, past, IBM no longer dominates the computer systems market. In fact, there is a growing trend towards bundled systems, mainly by the “Master Brands”, to cause and effect essay “mask” complexity for customers as they embark on implementing complex IT endeavors including key programs such as datacenter consolidation, server/storage virtualization, predictive analytics, SOA/BPM, Cloud Computing (public, private or hybrid), and Green IT. For example, Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems in the cask, 2009 for $7.4 billion to support what InformationWeek described as Larry Ellison’s “applications-to-disk” strategy, while HP and Microsoft earlier this year unveiled a multi-million dollar initiative under which they will jointly engineer servers and software. It is likely that the essay of insomnia, timeline of the rochester, July 19 IBM announcement was influenced (perhaps even pressured) by its rivals taking a similar approach to cause and effect essay of insomnia address evolving enterprise datacenters. To expedite this strategy to deliver bundled “plug-and-play” systems, IBM first announced sweeping organizational restructuring to foster internal collaboration and harness synergies across products and on internet boon or bane LOBs. Clearly, the biggest change is the management restructuring by consolidating key hardware and cause and effect software divisions under the watch of a single executive, Steve Mills who’s a longtime IBM software chief. Next, just three days later on the heels of this organizational makeover, IBM made another major announcement on July 22, 2010 amidst much fanfare and essay for 9th graders topic hype. Of Insomnia. Presenting the revolutionary, vision of a new “Dimension in Computing” designed to cause and effect control multi-platform datacenter operational costs and (significantly reduce complexity), IBM announced a new hybrid “system of systems” platform that unifies IT for efficient service delivery and revolutionary large-scale datacenter simplification.

Dubbed a “datacenter in a box” or a “cloud in a box[ii]”, it integrates the new super powerful and cause essay of insomnia energy-efficient mainframe zEnterprise, 196 running z/OS and the zEnterprise BladeCenter Extension zBX, running Linux and AIX. By extending the System Z’s qualities of service (spanning security, scalability, availability, efficiency and virtualization) to enable Cloud readiness and optimized service delivery for enterprises, IBM likely is promoting its strength in for 9th graders, building private Clouds for essay, large enterprises. See the following two slides from the IBM July 22 announcement. Israel: So it looks like the IT industry is ocr computing mark scheme heading towards more “power” consolidation of mega vendors or as you referenced earlier, “Master Brands”. Is this a fait accompli? If so, is it a matter of channeling demand toward one-stop-shopping irrespective of and effect essay, integration realities underneath? Isn’t there a danger to this trend?” Annie: Despite these high profile announcements by the major vendors, it is far from fait accompli. And yes, your comments are only too real especially for those who have lived through the era of monopolies and antitrust concerns. Frankly, many people believe that such a trend may be a clear threat in the presently emerging era.

While I don’t want to downplay the essay for 9th topic, risk and potential damage of antitrust abuses, I believe there are some factors at and effect, work here to counteract, or at least limit, unchecked monopolies in rochester, the IT industry. In this Internet age with the rise of cause and effect essay of insomnia, “Consumerization of IT”, catalyzed by the nearly ubiquitous access to social networking and other Web 2.0 tools, IT has permeated almost every market sector in simon rochester, our society. The set of functions and cause and effect of insomnia services supported and enabled by ocr computing, IT has become exceedingly vast, diverse and complex such that no single business model or supplier is in essay of insomnia, a position to dominate, let alone destroy all others. The era when a handful of revolutionary war essay, proprietary stalwart vendors dominated the IT industry is all but over. Just this past decade, we have witnessed the meteoric rise of Google, Facebook and more recently, Twitter. And Effect Essay Of Insomnia. A growing formidable force, namely the open source software and its bottom-up self-organizing community, powers as well as empowers most if not all of the Web 2.0 companies. Short Or Bane. At this point in our discussion, it is apt to segue to the third vendor announcement during the week of and effect of insomnia, July 19, 2010. On July 19, Cloud service provider RackSpace with NASA announced the sponsorship of the project: OpenStack, an ocr computing mark scheme open source IaaS Cloud platform. Included in the announcement is and effect essay of insomnia a diverse group of computer system providers from across the technology industry like CITRIX, DELL, NTT DATA, RIGHTSCALE and short essay boon or bane others to and effect essay drive a deployable, totally open cloud solution.

According to their mission statement, OpenStack is essays essays designed to foster the emergence of technology standards and of insomnia Cloud interoperability. One of the primary objectives is to facilitate enterprises to avoid vendor lock-in. Israel: This appears to be a very timely announcement given that “vendor lock-in” is essay boon or bane one of the of insomnia, top concerns confronting enterprises as they evaluate and revolutionary war essay plan for the transition to Cloud Computing. Cause And Effect. Having said that, are we not back to essays “square zero” – striking a balance between openness and “one-stop shopping” tight integration? Annie: Yes indeed. Although some industry observers describe the issue as “vendor lock-in”, others see it as a broader issue describing it as the “challenge/difficulty of cause and effect essay of insomnia, bringing back in-house” or the “lack of of amontillado, interoperability standards for seamless portability”. For example, in the 2009 Cloud Computing survey conducted by IDC, over 80% surveyed rated this issue under both labels to be very important. Incidentally, I should point out that “vendor lock-in” is cause of insomnia neither a new nor a unique issue with Cloud Computing.

On the contrary, it is essay on internet boon a long-standing “problem” going all the way back from the early days of mainframe computing and culminating with the government versus IBM antitrust lawsuit in the ‘50s as we discussed earlier. Interestingly, there are many forms and cause essay of insomnia variants of vendor lock-in and they are not all equal. For example, many industry observers have been unhappy with the proprietary development and delivery model that Apple imposed on the iPod/iPhone/iPad. Although the risk of “vendor lock-in” may be real, any negative impact on the ever-growing large and loyal Apple customer base seems minimal. Just think about the run-away successful App Store.

It is heavily “curated” by Apple. Yet since its opening on essay outline July 10, 2008, there have been more than one hundred thousand available apps in cause, App Store, over two billion application downloads (as of November 2009), and essay for 9th topic reaching three billion downloads by January 2010. Steve Jobs hailed this as a landmark event: “Three billion applications downloaded in less than 18 months – this is like nothing we’ve ever seen before.” Sorry we digressed. So let’s resume our discussion of the recent major announcements. In a nutshell, the OpenStack announcement attempts to address the issue directly by allowing any organization to create and offer Cloud Computing capabilities using open source software freely available under the Apache 2.0 license running on cause and effect standard hardware. Now this gets interesting: a tale of essay for 9th topic, two diametrically opposite strategies. On one hand, we have IBM announcing the high performance zEnterprise 196 as a hybrid integrated multi-architecture “datacenter /Cloud in a box”. The goal is to mask complexity and maximize efficiency: infrastructure (management /admin costs savings up to 70%) and energy consumption (up to 82% energy usage reduction) with a bundled technology stack: integrating multi-platforms, infrastructure and management (spanning service, platform and hardware). A principal concern of cause essay, this proprietary single vendor approach is the risk of “vendor lock-in”. On the essay on internet boon or bane, other hand, the and effect essay, OpenStack is “DIY” based on an open source development platform.

The goal of OpenStack is the following: “Anyone can run it, build on it, or submit changes back to the project. We strongly believe that an open development model is the only way to foster badly-needed cloud standards, remove the fear of proprietary lock-in for outline, cloud customers, and create a large ecosystem that spans Cloud providers.” The cons/challenges of essay of insomnia, this approach are probably similar to conventional “DIY” open source projects. I should clarify that this dichotomy may be seen as an entire spectrum. As noted here IBM, VMware, etc on one hand, and RackSpace, Eucalyptus, etc on the other hand, exemplify the two end-points bookending the dichotomy spectrum. Along the spectrum, there are a growing number of intermediate options/offerings (with a rising number of variations) by revolutionary war essay, a wide variety of IT Cloud service vendors: stalwart vendors including Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Salesforce.com, etc as well as young companies and startups such as RackSpace, RightScale, Boomi, Canonical, Cloudkick, Opscode, etc. Israel: Is this shaping up to be a battle between two diametrically opposite strategies? And if so, which one will come out on top? Or is it a draw? Annie: To me, a similar dichotomy has already existed previously in the IT industry. For example, think Apple versus Google. Consider the modus operandi of the Apple core business model (“close or at least closely curated” to optimize user experience and quality) versus that of Google’s (“open standards/APIs” to maximize opportunities for 3 rd party development participation).

Insofar as whether bundled systems or “Cloud in a box” versus open source “DIY” will be the cause, ultimate winner, I have to about defer to other industry observers with more experience such as you. Perhaps in our future QA meet-up, I am interested to hear your views on how the competition may be settled eventually. However, while we all await the uncertain outcome, IT practitioners should be mindful that the dichotomy spectrum would have profound implications not only on and effect the supply side but also on the demand side. In particular, because the offerings from the dichotomy spectrum will be rapidly evolving, the fluidity will very likely confound and confuse users/consumers as they attempt to balance a convoluted set of on internet boon or bane, different tradeoffs. And Effect Essay. Many enterprise IT practitioners will be under pressure to make difficult and ambiguous choices by picking one or more evolving offerings over other evolving offerings for building the foundation of revolutionary, tomorrow’s enterprise datacenters in the Cloud era. Israel: Good timing. So far in cause and effect essay of insomnia, our QA today, you have focused on the first half of the coursework, narrative – namely, the supply side, now let’s continue to part 2 of your narrative, namely, the demand side. Annie : Earlier, I discussed the supply side by connecting the cause and effect essay of insomnia, dots among three key announcements during the week of July 19. Now similarly for the demand side, I will suggest a few more dots that I believe should be connected. Specifically, I suggest connecting the following trends:

The growing complexities and inefficiencies of on-premises enterprise datacenters; The inevitable rise of graders topic, alternative delivery and deployment models for IT services; and The advent of Cloud Computing: a long-standing vision whose time may finally arrive. Several months ago, I published a guest post on your blog site entitled “The Urgency of Now.” You might recall that I began the cause and effect of insomnia, post with some sobering and perhaps even alarming statistics about the gross inefficiency of traditional on-premises enterprise datacenters. Here again is the simon rochester mba essay, Enterprise Datacenter Index at–a-glance: In summary, enterprise IT faces a “crisis of staggering complexity” and and effect essay IT infrastructure is reaching a “breaking point” marked by such salient factors/trends[iii] as the following: 1.5 X : Information explosion driving over fifty percent yearly growth in storage shipments; 85% idle : Over-provisioned waste primarily in distributed computing environments e.g. typical computing resources (capacity) remain idle for essays, an average of over eighty percent; $40 Billion or 3.5% of sales: Retail industries annual loss due to (supply) value chain inefficiencies; 60-70% IT spending on maintenance/overhead : Overall IT spending profile shows that the lion’s share of IT expenses goes towards overhead and maintenance. Maintenance overhead: seventy cents per dollar is and effect essay spent on maintaining IT infrastructures at the expense of adding new capabilities; Now consider the following scenario.

Suppose enterprise IT could choose an alternative set of “self-service” IT service delivery/deployment models that would be orthogonal to traditional hierarchical command-and-control Cap-ex based datacenters. Revolutionary. Instead of owning and tightly controlling its own private internal datacenter and purchasing capital resources up front, an organization on-demand would “rent” pooled computing resources hosted on the provider’s multi-tenant environment. The Internet would serve as the global infrastructure “grid” and all services would be delivered through Web APIs. In lieu of having a dedicated IT staff administering IT operations, users could avoid lengthy red-tape delay and access directly/immediately to provision as well as to manage computing capacity as “self-service IT”. In addition, instead of and effect, formal contracts and protracted delay in for 9th topic, hardware procurement, an organization would pay for access at any time to “unlimited” computing capacity simply with a credit card. Because there would not be formal contracts imposing preset time commitments, both entry and exit would be friction-free. In this way, an cause essay of insomnia organization could accelerate time-to-value/market and help to mba essay catalyze experimentation and innovative endeavor. Furthermore, CIOs of enterprise IT could avoid or mitigate the cause essay, lose-lose dilemma because they would not be restricted to choosing either a policy that leads to “waste due to over-provisioning” using peak usage estimates for capacity planning or a policy that can incur “risk due to under-provisioning” using non-peak estimates. Ideally, IT staff would “plan capacity based on typical usage” while confident that it could “scale dynamically at peak times” to maintain performance and short on internet boon SLAs. And Effect Essay. Simply put, the primary objectives for today’s organizations are not just about increasing speed and efficiency for revolutionary, back office automation.

Rather, they also are about increasing speed and flexibility to adapt to changes by cause and effect essay, yielding judicious control to providers for on-demand utility computing services off-premises. Conceptually, this scenario is an overall vision of Cloud Computing. With the advent of Cloud Computing, the vision of “Computing as a Utility” is beginning to take shape. Since the early days of time-sharing computing, that vision has taken a quantum leap towards reality. Graders Topic. One of the earliest references to Utility Computing occurred in 1961 at the MIT Centennial.

On that occasion, John McCarthy presented his vision of computing organized as a public utility. Just as the telephone system had developed into essay of insomnia a major industry, Professor McCarthy envisioned that “Computing as a Utility” could one day become the basis of a new and the cask essay important public industry. Rooted in cause, the long-standing vision and hope for “Computing as a Utility” that began more than half a century ago, the genesis of Cloud Computing goes back a long way. To a growing number of industry observers, it is an old idea whose time may have finally arrived when, in 2006, Amazon began offering Cloud infrastructure services to the public as a utility. Despite initial skepticism, it was a watershed event in essay graders, the quest of essay, Utility Computing and simon rochester mba essay helped to usher in of insomnia, the first wave of essay, industrial-strength commercial Cloud Computing offerings. Israel: To wrap up our discussion today, can you leave us with a few thoughts about some of the implications of Cloud Computing as enterprises begin their transition to the Cloud? Annie: Eric Schmidt, Google’s Chairman and cause of insomnia Chief Executive has stated that Cloud computing will be “the defining technological shift of our Generation”. However, the media and vendor-spun hype (at times referred to as “cloud-washing”) around this topic has created an unprecedented level of confusion. Today, unabated sound and fury surrounding the Cloud Computing buzz continues and indeed, increases. Nevertheless, it is all but certain that there will be no “big or easy switch” for enterprise IT to ocr computing coursework transition overnight from running applications on premises to the Cloud.

Because the shift is and effect essay of insomnia not an “all-or-nothing” or a “one size fits all” endeavor, stakeholders in enterprises should take a judicious measured approach to balance different tradeoffs. To sustain the transition of enterprise IT to mark scheme the Cloud will require not only technological advances but also new business models, new forms of IT organizational management structure and perhaps even new IT roles. Cause And Effect Essay. One of the “inconvenient” truths about ocr computing, embracing new user-empowerment technology trends and business models is the slippery slope of cause and effect essay of insomnia, finding the “right” balance between hierarchical command-control and bottom-up empowerment. The harm (ineffectiveness and counter-productivity) of too much top-down control can be matched or even surpassed by about essays, the dangers of too little control. User empowerment without reasonable constraints can lead to anarchy and chaos. A new form of organizational governance is clearly required to avoid these problems. Striking a balance between planned orderliness and cause and effect new emergent forces has been a challenging dynamic since the dawn of civilization. Many of the rochester mba essay, principles that have been refined over the millennia will have direct applicability for governing tomorrow’s world of “self-service” computing in cause and effect of insomnia, the Cloud. Clearly, there will be direct implications to new scrutiny as well as the shaping/changing of security and governance related policies. However, an organization should not overlook the human aspects and the cultural impact on the IT system administration personnel.

For example, resistance to of amontillado outline sweeping changes driven by cause, a fear of losing control and essay boon or bane the stress over the prospect of losing employment can be one of the more profound ramifications that often are under the management radar. Cloud Computing likely will change the cause and effect essay of insomnia, status quo of IT system administration and, perhaps in the future, could obviate the simon rochester, need for some traditional IT system skills. Cloud Computing, however, is cause and effect essay also opening new opportunities for the technical IT community and enterprise IT personnel. There is a growing consensus that, as Cloud Computing evolves, the need for revolutionary war essay, more business-minded IT staff will accelerate. Specifically, there likely will be an urgent need for people “with broader business skills who can manage multiple supplier relationships.” Freed from of insomnia a variety of low-level operational tasks and controls of physical infrastructure via Cloud Computing, enterprise IT has the opportunity to promote system administration staff to simon rochester mba essay higher-level decision makers as IT service facilitators and SLA contracts managers.

In the near future, many traditional hierarchical command-control system operators may pursue a wider array of IT professional opportunities spanning the roles of enterprise architects; capacity planning; budget planning; performance assurance; and data, security, governance gatekeepers. Israel: This really resonates with what I see happening in cause and effect of insomnia, many of short essay on internet or bane, my consulting engagements. Successful companies waste an immense amount of capital, energy and cause and effect of insomnia management attention on migrating from yesterday’s datacenter to today’s or tomorrow’s datacenter. When exposed to the pains of such migrations, I am always reminded of Peter Drucker’s quip “Companies make shoes!” It is beyond me why companies who makes shoes, cars, drugs or financial instruments would want to be prisoners of their own success, hopping over from one data center to a bigger data center every few years. Annie: Thanks for Peter Drucker’s quip. I am going to of amontillado essay outline borrow it for my future use.

Israel: Annie, I can’t thank you enough for sharing your insights with us. You really connect the dots! [i] Based on the assumption that IT infrastructure performance can be greatly enhanced when each element is designed and brought to market as a component of and effect essay of insomnia, a tightly integrated, optimized system. [ii] With this slogan, IBM is promoting the hybrid zEnterprise 196 integrating multiple architectures and OS in a “box” as the one stop shopping ready-made private Cloud for graders topic, enterprises. [iii] Information source from IBM, The Open Group Conference, July 22, 2009.

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Alex Shvartsman#039;s Speculative Fiction. As an editor I see a lot of essay of insomnia, bad cover letters. I can#8217;t help but think folks are following some bad advice out there, so I wrote a thing that might help. It#8217;s long and it#8217;s a little ranty and cranky (because I#8217;ve seen a lot of essay for 9th graders, bad cover letters in the last month), but I hope it will also be helpful. Cause Essay? Note that this advice is rochester, specific to genre magazines and anthologies and and effect essay, short fiction. Novel submissions play by a different set of essay graders, rules, and there may be a slightly different etiquette in literary submissions and other genres. And Effect Essay? But, if you write and essay for 9th graders topic, submit science fiction, fantasy, and horror short stories, the of insomnia, following essay is for you.

How to Write a Proper Short Story Cover Letter. The most important fact to remember about cover letters is this: the best cover letter in the world is not really going to help you sell your story. Essays About? An impressive list of awards and pro credits mighton a rare occasionentice a slush reader who’s already on cause, the fence about a submission to bump it up to the editor. An editor or first reader might delve a little deeper into the story before they give up because your previously listed sales have demonstrated a certain level of competency. But, beyond that, the essay topic, story is going to and effect, sink or swim on its own.

However, a bad cover letter is at least as likelyperhaps more likelyto undermine your chances. It can clue in the editor that you’re new and inexperienced or, worse yet, that you’ve settled for the cask outline being published in mediocre markets. (More on that below.) And if you manage to really put a foot in your mouth, you may end up with whoever is reading the and effect of insomnia, story actively rooting against about essays you. Cause And Effect Essay Of Insomnia? The cases where the cover letter will sway things either way are rare. Some of the industry’s top editors wisely ignore cover letters altogether; they read the story first so whatever you put in revolutionary war essay, the cover letter doesn’t pre-bias them either way. But not all editors do that. And Effect Essay? And since a good cover letter is really easy to write, why not give yourself that tiniest extra edge? Let’s begin by talking about some of the most common mistakes one finds in short on internet or bane, cover letters. I write this at the tail end of a month-long submission window where my associate editors and I received nearly 640 submissions.

Although the letter below is 100% fake, virtually every mistake and problem it features showed up in one or more of the cover letters I saw this month alone . Without further ado, here’s a terrible cover letter: 123 Main Street. Cleveland, OH 44101. Cause And Effect? Attn: Mrs. Essay For 9th Graders? Jane Smith, Editor. I’m submitting my short story “Traveling Back in Time to Kill Hitler” to essay, be considered for publication in your magazine, Time Travel Tales . It is formatted in Standard Manuscript Format and essays about essays, saved as an RTF file as per your guidelines. Of Insomnia? It is an original story not previously published anywhere and it is essay, not on submission elsewhere. This story is about a pair of scientists who invented a time machine and decided to to travel back to 1905 and kill young Hitler while he’s trying to and effect of insomnia, make it as an essays artist in Vienna. They wrestle with the moral dilemma of killing a man before he committed any crimes as well as with the potential pitfalls of a scientific paradox his death would cause. In a surprise twist ending, they decide not to cause and effect, kill Hitler and the cask essay, go home. I am a graduate of DeVry University where I earned my MFA.

I then studied physics at Phoenix University Online and earned a PhD. My thesis was on and effect essay of insomnia, time travel paradoxes. Rochester? I’m also a Taekwondo black belt, and an award-winning cat breeder. I’ve been previously published in For the Luv Review , Cat Breeder Quarterly , Obscure magazine, The Poetry Diges t, Daily Movie Reviews website, and the comments section of the cause, Cleveland Times . This manuscript is the cask of amontillado essay outline, a disposable copy. Let us now examine this bit by bit: 123 Main Street.

Cleveland, OH 44101. Attn: Mrs. Jane Smith, Editor. 1985 called and and effect of insomnia, it wants its business correspondence formatting back. Your contact information should appear at the top of your manuscript, and while there are still a small handful of rochester, markets that ask you to include it in the cover letter as well, most don’t. Unless they specifically ask for it, don’t duplicate it in the cover letter, and essay, certainly don’t include “Attn:” or “From the desk of” lines they may have taught you about in eleventh grade typewriter class. The first line of your cover letter should be the salutation. At the short on internet or bane, very least, this should be addressed to Ms . Smith because she’s the editor and not merely an cause extension of her husband. If you know who the editors are, generally address the most senior editor at the market.

Dear Ms. Ocr Computing Coursework Mark Scheme? Smith or Dear Jane Smith would do nicely. And Effect Of Insomnia? But, really, Dear Editor(s) will do just as well. You could even go with my personal favorite (and a form of address I’ve actually seen in my slush pile): Gentlebeings . If you use any of these, you avoid the possibility of revolutionary war essay, misgendering your correspondent, misspelling their name (Shvartsman here; I know a thing or two about that), and cause and effect essay of insomnia, maybe sidestep the effort of trying to decipher the hierarchy of a specific market. Most editors won’t care, but unless you’ve communicated with the about, editor in the past and they signed their e-mail to cause and effect of insomnia, you with their first name, it’s marginally better to coursework scheme, avoid addressing them by their first name (aka Dear Jane. ) For the record though, “ Dear Alex ” is fine by me. I’m submitting my short story “Traveling Back in Time to Kill Hitler” to be considered for publication in your magazine Time Travel Tales . And Effect? It is formatted in Standard Manuscript Format and saved as an RTF file as per your guidelines. It is an ocr computing mark scheme original story not previously published anywhere and it is and effect essay, not on submission elsewhere. The same rule applies to cover letter as does to fiction: don’t overwrite. Before you include any specific bit of of amontillado essay outline, information, ask yourself: is this necessary and relevant? Jane Smith knows that the name of her magazine is Time Travel Tales . She can reasonably make an and effect essay assumption that you’re sending the story to be reviewed for publication there. If Time Travel Tales asks that you format your story in SMF (Standard Manuscript Format) and does not accept reprints or simultaneous submissions, then she will assume your story is outline, neither a reprint nor a simultaneous submission, because you’re a human being who is capable of reading and cause essay of insomnia, processing information stated in on internet boon, her guidelines.

Which brings us to my personal favorite: writers letting me know that they formatted the manuscript in RTF or DOC or whatever, as specified in cause essay of insomnia, the guidelines. First, again, I know which formats are requested in my own guidelines. And second, I can see your file right there . Either you formatted it correctly, in which case I don’t need a reminder as I will not be awarding you a gold star for ocr computing mark scheme this since we aren’t in kindergarten, or you sent me a PDF, ZIP file or some other strange beast I didn’t ask for, and cause and effect of insomnia, then we have a different problem altogether. Essays About Essays? If you follow any advice at all from and effect essay of insomnia this text, let this be it: Do not summarize your story in your cover letter. Let me repeat that. In your cover letter.

This practice likely comes from the world of essay graders topic, novel query letters where you do have to and effect of insomnia, summarize your book in a few paragraphs. However, this need does not translate to short fiction. Virtually every editor I know hates when authors do this with a passion. We want your story to rochester, speak for itself. We don’t want any sort of a preview, a summary, or anything else that will spoil it in some way. In fact, when I see a sentence that opens with “This story is about” I immediately skip to the next paragraph. So please, do yourself a favor and don’t include one. Once in awhile, a market will actually ask you to include a summary. And while I don’t really get how this is helpful to them, always abide by what the guidelines say over what I write here. Having said this, it can occasionally be helpful to include the story’s genre and length, especially for markets that review different genres. It may help the editor assign it to the right reader or to budget proper amount time to review it themselves.

So it’s perfectly okay to say “Please consider my dark fantasy story” or “Enclosed is a steampunk flash fiction story of 900 words.) Just don’t get into the details of plot and sure as hell don’t tell the editor how wonderful and great your story is. There’s one other notable exception to talking about your story in the cover letter, and and effect essay, we’ll cover it in the cask essay outline, the next section. Or, perhaps you can spot it in the next paragraph yourself. I am a graduate of DeVry University where I earned my MFA. Cause And Effect Essay? I then studied physics at Phoenix University Online and earned a PhD. My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. I’m also a Taekwondo black belt, and an award-winning cat breeder. Scheme? Generally, you should not include your non-writing related accomplishments in the cover letter unless your experience directly correlates to what the essay, story is about. In our example, the author is simon mba essay, absolutely right to mention their physics background and their thesis.

It is directly relevant to and effect essay of insomnia, the story they are submitting and to Time Travel Tales as a market. The other tidbits, however, should not be included unless the author is presenting a story about on internet, a Taekwondo tournament or about breeding cats. So yeah, if you’re a NASA scientist mention that in and effect essay of insomnia, your space exploration story. If you’re a history professor, this will be relevant if you’re writing historical fantasy. If you write a story set in Japan and you have lived in Japan for a few years, you can mention that. Simon? But your advanced degree in Windchime Studies is likely not helpful when trying to cause and effect essay, sell a cyberpunk story. Then there’s my personal pet peeve, and that’s authors mentioning their MFA (a creative writing degree) in their cover letters.

To me, this is an essays essays equivalent of and effect of insomnia, saying “trust me, I write good” and is not relevant to essays, your story, unless it happens to be about an MFA program. In fact, seeing this in a cover letter almost always correlates to something I can quit reading after a page because the writing is and effect essay of insomnia, subpar. Which is not to say MFAs are bad, or writers with MFAs are bad. It’s just that the short on internet boon, good writers with MFAs do not generally feel the need to include this particular accomplishment in their cover letters. The other thing that is perfectly okay (but unnecessary) to include are your professional writing association memberships: SFWA, HWA, and the like. Instead, focus on including your publishing credits and cause essay of insomnia, awards or achievements in creative writing, if any. I’ve been previously published in For the essays about essays, Luv Review , Cat Breeder Quarterly , Obscure magazine, The Poetry Diges t, Daily Movie Reviews website, and the comments section of the Cleveland Times . First of and effect essay, all, let me say that listing no publishing credits if you don’t have them will never hurt you. Mba Essay? It’s even okay to cause essay of insomnia, say you’re a new/unpublished writer. Really! Every editor I know loves discovering new talent and loves being the first to publish someone, or first to for 9th graders topic, publish someone in a pro venue.

No one is going to hold a lack of past credits against you. It’s also perfectly fine if you’re new and you only cause and effect of insomnia, have a couple of outline, token credits to your name. Although I advise authors not to submit anywhere that pays less than semi-pro rates, that’s a different topic and a couple of token credits won’t hurt you. There are two things that can hurt you, however: First, listing a ton of cause and effect essay, credits that are all lower on simon mba essay, the totem pole than the place you’re submitting to. When a pro editor sees a list of twenty non-paying or token-paying markets they won’t be impressed. In fact, this will have the opposite effect as the editor might assume that you either can’t write work publishable at better venues or, worse yet, you’ve settled for the minor leagues and aren’t seriously trying to improve your writing. Either way, you’ve just pre-biased the editor/first reader against your work.

So, even if you have 20+ small credits, only list three or four of them. In fact, even if you have 20+ professional credits, only list three or four of cause, them anyway. Name-dropping your top 3 markets is short essay boon or bane, better for establishing your bona fides than name-dropping your top 10 markets. The second way to cause and effect of insomnia, torpedo your chances is to mix in your non-fiction credits with your fiction credits to essays, make the overall list more impressive. It’s cool if you wrote an article for Clarkesworld , had a poem published in Strange Horizons or a book review at Apex magazine.

You can even include those credits in your cover letter if you really want to. But if the editor thinks you’re intentionally trying to essay, obfuscate things by bundling them with your actual fiction credits with statements like “I’ve been published at For-the-Luv Review , Obscure magazine, and Clarkesworld ” they will notice that one of these things is not like the others, use their Google-fu, and then they will raise an eyebrow. This manuscript is ocr computing scheme, a disposable copy. This is a thing I actually saw in a cover letter this year. Cause And Effect Essay Of Insomnia? Back in the days when dinosaurs roamed the Earth and essay graders topic, the price of return postage for a stack of typewritten pages was cheaper than the and effect of insomnia, cost of short essay boon or bane, photo-copying an of insomnia extra set, some authors wanted their rejected manuscripts back.

Magazines required that these authors include a SASE (self-addressed stamped envelope) either way, and enough postage if you wanted your precious pages back (coffee stains optional.) If you didn’t want them back, it was expected to mention in the cover letter that the manuscript copy you included was disposable. In fact, I remember doing this as recently as a couple of years ago, until FSF became the last of the respectable genre ‘zines to stop requiring print submissions. Fast forward to today. All submissions are electronic. (Some venues still accept print subs, but if you’re reading this, you probably aren’t among the authors who avail themselves of this option.) So, what is the point of adding this line to essays about essays, the cover letter? None, other than blindly following conventions from the cause of insomnia, bygone era. To summarize, your cover letter should be short . In e-mail cover letters include story title, genre (if applicable), length, and any relevant credits/awards. Consider including word count in email header as this may be helpful to the editors as they often choose to the cask essay outline, read stories based on how much free time they have available. In webform that already makes you fill in the basic info, stick to credits/relevant info; no need to repeat info from the form’s fields. Optimal cover letter for Clueless Writer submitting to Time Travel Tales would be: Please consider “Traveling Back in cause essay of insomnia, Time to Kill Hitler” (SF, 3000 words). My short fiction has appeared in For the Luv review and Obscure magazine. I have a physics PhD from essay on internet or bane Phoenix University Online.

My thesis was on time travel paradoxes. It’s simple, it’s basic, and it highlights the relevant accomplishments this writer has. This is the actual cover letter I currently use: Dear Editor Name, Please consider Story Title (SF, 2000 words). I#8217;m the winner of the 2014 WSFA Small Press Award for essay of insomnia Short Fiction and a finalist for about the 2015 Canopus Award for essay Excellence in simon rochester, Interstellar Writing. Over 80 of my short stories have appeared in Nature, Galaxy#8217;s Edge, Intergalactic Medicine Show , and other venues. Thanks very much in advance for your consideration. If anything, I feel like mine is on the longish side.

Note the URL at the end of the letter. If they really care about my other credits or just want to make sure I’m not unhinged lunatic who writes 3000-word rants about cover letters on his blog (Ahem!), they can click through. But, chances are, they won’t. Because this cover letter has, hopefully, done its job of introducing me briefly and will not get in the way of the story . Which is, really, all you can ask of an optimal cover letter. I#8217;ll be presenting a workshop on the business of short fiction at Balticon, where in addition to talking cover letters I#8217;ll discuss contract review and negotiations, the essay, etiquette of queries, finding viable markets for your work and submission strategies, reprint and foreign rights, and much more. The funds raised by this and other workshops will go to support Balticon 50 and there are great many other reasons to attend this convention. On Internet Boon? Check out mine and cause and effect essay of insomnia, other premium workshops here.

Small note: I once heard a couple of editors at a con disparaging cover letters with a generic #8220;Dear Editors#8221;. Maybe they were the exception; but after that, I always do the research to include the ocr computing scheme, editor#8217;s name. I#8217;d say there#8217;s an exception to most of what I#8217;m saying above. #128578; Knowing the name of the head editor is nice and one should use it, but if it#8217;s unclear, #8220;Dear Editor#8221; is preferable to getting it wrong. And some markets, like Strange Horizons , actually prefer this salutation. This was very helpful! I have notice there are some exceptions, but usually those markets say so directly on cause of insomnia, their website or even include examples of what they think are good cover letters. Shimmer even tweets regular complaints about submissions that don#8217;t follow their guidelines. The one thing that surprised me in this was you saying that it might be better to essay on internet or bane, have no credits than a long list of and effect, non-paying ones. Usually after a story gets 4 or 5 paid rejections, I down grade to #8220;whatever market take sim subs and look like the might like the story#8221; regardless of of amontillado outline, pay. I might be more selective for here on out. I need to and effect, be more persistent with paid markets.

What I suggest is of amontillado, only listing your best credits. If you happen to have a lot of small market credits that#8217;s okay, but don#8217;t list more than 3 or 4 of them as it will not impress the and effect essay, editors (for the reasons I discussed above.) Also, downgrading your submission to token venues after only 4-5 rejections may be too fast. I#8217;ve sold stories to pro or higher-tier semi-pro venues even after 20+ rejections. It only takes one editor who will love the story to essay for 9th, find it a home! Sage advice, sir. Sage advice#8230;thanks. One other caveat: I edit for a number of different venues, and it helps me immensely when the cover letter specifies the name of the publication submitted to.

Obviously, this is cause and effect essay, not necessary via submissions managers or e-mail addresses in the form of #8220;editor@____mag.com.#8221; Good point. Coursework? I suppose this depends on the method of the submission. If it#8217;s a web form tied to cause of insomnia, a specific magazine/project, one probably doesn#8217;t need to of amontillado outline, name the venue, but if it goes to the editor#8217;s e-mail address then it might be helpful. Unless I have a good relationship with the editor, my standard opening is: Attached please find #8220;[STORY]#8221; (approximately [COUNT] words) for your consideration for [MARKET]. I paste it in, edit it, double check to cause and effect essay, be sure I edited right, and revolutionary war essay, move on to my recent/top credits in the next paragraph.

It saves me from cause and effect essay having to think too much. I read the essay for 9th graders topic, cover letter last. It has now switched from something that might put me off a story to something that might encourage me to and effect essay of insomnia, give it a second chance.

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Cause And Effect Of Insomnia How …

columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. Cause And Effect! We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the revolutionary war essay video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies.

And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to cause be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and mba essay, vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in cause and effect essay of insomnia, watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of the cask of amontillado essay insights that we get from and effect watching contemporary movies.

Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of the cask outline human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Cause And Effect Essay Of Insomnia! Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to revolutionary war essay our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of and effect essay view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for short essay boon, granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is and effect essay, that film history encompasses more than just films.

By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on graders, films, we understand better the ways in cause, which films bear the short on internet or bane traces of the cause and effect societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in of amontillado essay, which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of essay academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into war essay our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the cause and effect essay field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in the cask, 1994, the second in 2003, and and effect of insomnia, the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. Coursework Mark Scheme! But the book isn’t a distillation of cause and effect essay of insomnia all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of short or bane cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and cause and effect essay of insomnia, pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the short on internet development of the Western or the of insomnia life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and essays, purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for cause of insomnia, all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into outline film history involves asking a series of questions and and effect, searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on graders topic, different questions, turn up different evidence, and essay, formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments.

What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at rochester mba essay, this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Cause And Effect Essay Of Insomnia! Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. Graders Topic! And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the essay of insomnia Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident.

Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of essay on internet all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. And Effect! Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and war essay, background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era.

A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to cause collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is rochester mba essay, unidentified. And Effect Of Insomnia! Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Ocr Computing Coursework! The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the and effect of insomnia film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the revolutionary war essay Spy”)most likely a title given to essay of insomnia it by essay for 9th topic a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is cause and effect of insomnia, a famous star, Francesca Bertini.

Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into for 9th topic the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to of insomnia the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of essays Bertini’s career. Cause Of Insomnia! A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print.

Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. Essay On Internet Boon! (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and and effect of insomnia, cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the the cask essay outline period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for and effect of insomnia, sets and the cask of amontillado outline, costumes. This is a rich lode of cause and effect datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The Cask Of Amontillado Essay! The historian’s problem is cause essay, now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for ocr computing mark scheme, the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to essay one program but peripheral to another. Revolutionary War Essay! The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on essay, the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of outline production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.

Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at cause and effect of insomnia, least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an of amontillado essay outline intuition or even just an itch.

For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the and effect essay of insomnia more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the essay on internet boon or bane comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and and effect, studying shifts in mba essay, American taste in humor. The process of cause essay research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the war essay treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to of insomnia the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and ocr computing coursework mark, she was able to put forth a new account of the and effect office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of simon films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data.

Sometimes the essay research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the the cask essay outline fact that Warner Bros. Cause! was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. Boon Or Bane! But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to cause and effect essay of insomnia a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and revolutionary war essay, investing in cause essay, sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the cask essay the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Essay Of Insomnia! First, the historian tries to for 9th graders topic describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is essay of insomnia, this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others?

What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for simon rochester mba essay, all historical research. Cause Essay Of Insomnia! Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the of amontillado essay richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the cause essay historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the simon rochester company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of cause essay of insomnia evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of essays essays affairs. Cause Of Insomnia! That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about essay for 9th topic film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound.

Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to and effect of insomnia be founded in simon, the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of of insomnia films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to war essay the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time.

Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of of insomnia nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of short essay boon or bane many titles. In the cause essay frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only graders about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and cause, promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and of amontillado essay, court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. Cause And Effect Of Insomnia! A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for graders topic, the United States and cause essay of insomnia, one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and short essay on internet boon, even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and cause and effect, been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to short on internet boon be a single original version. Historians try to and effect be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by the cask another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on essay, the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on scheme, film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of and effect film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on coursework scheme, the role of cause and effect of insomnia cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.

Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in the cask of amontillado essay outline, one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. Cause Essay Of Insomnia! A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence.

Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of mba essay descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on cause and effect of insomnia, early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the revolutionary war essay edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Cause And Effect Essay! Knowing the essay age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of cause essay production and country of origin.

Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the war essay evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of cause of insomnia them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to essay establishing the sequence of essay of insomnia events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. Revolutionary War Essay! A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of and effect essay high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. Essay Graders! History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. And Effect! Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and ocr computing, desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is cause essay, often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of outline affairs in light of the cause and effect of insomnia attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to mark what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to cause of insomnia person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is essays essays, that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of of insomnia history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. The Cask Of Amontillado Essay! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. Cause Essay Of Insomnia! silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of graders films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and cause essay, often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the short on internet or bane individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Essay Of Insomnia! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.

This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to rochester the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about and effect essay institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. For 9th Topic! We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and cause of insomnia, style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.

Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of of amontillado essay a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Cause And Effect Essay! Influence describes the inspiration that an graders topic individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.

You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Cause And Effect Essay! In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in boon or bane, a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the cause and effect essay of insomnia documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Short Essay On Internet Or Bane! Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Cause And Effect Essay! Once the historian starts to of amontillado outline look closely at and effect, the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to rochester explore than the cause essay initial question touches on.

It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. Essays Essays! They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and and effect of insomnia, streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of of amontillado essay things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the cause whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in essays essays, black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the cause essay of insomnia whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and short essay boon or bane, aberrations. Cause! But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is simon rochester mba essay, more going on than she is trying to and effect explain. Periods Historical chronology and essay graders, causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of and effect of insomnia events indefinitely.

Historians necessarily limit the essays stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by cause decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and revolutionary, the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is and effect, creating periods that mark phases in simon, the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out cause and effect of insomnia, periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is about essays, illuminating to think of the and effect essay of insomnia American “structural” film of the war essay early 1970s as a response to and effect of insomnia the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward.

Histories of genres often mark off periods by mba essay innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of essay technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the ocr computing coursework mark film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the and effect significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the short on internet state of cause and effect of insomnia a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by essay for 9th graders topic artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.

They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. And Effect Essay! The films of essays essays Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in and effect essay of insomnia, some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and essay boon or bane, highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of cause essay a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.

The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of essay world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of cause essay film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an about essays abstract pattern.

The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). Cause And Effect Essay! In addition, any balanced conception of how the ocr computing scheme medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and cause, genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and revolutionary war essay, university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in cause and effect essay of insomnia, different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of coursework mark scheme filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of cause of insomnia organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the revolutionary studio system, in and effect, which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the essays essays most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for essay of insomnia, specific purposes.

In all these instances, the revolutionary ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the and effect essay finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by simon an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market?

In Film History we try to balance the cause consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the the cask Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the cause of insomnia Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the of amontillado essay processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in cause, disturbing, aggressive narrative?

Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and on internet, social. And Effect Of Insomnia! If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of simon rochester film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the essay of insomnia political, social, and cultural context of revolutionary a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Cause Of Insomnia! Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and revolutionary, aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the cause and effect essay of insomnia early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the war essay 1910s, however, war and and effect of insomnia, nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. Essay For 9th! At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the cause of insomnia degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the circulation of revolutionary U.S. films abroad served to essay spread American cultural values, which in essays, turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and cause of insomnia, the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to ocr computing scheme historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others.

Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is and effect essay of insomnia, Diana l’affascinatrice, made in about essays, Italy by Caesar-Film in cause of insomnia, 1915, directed by short essay on internet boon or bane Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the and effect of insomnia development of sound by Warner Bros. Coursework Scheme! might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for and effect essay, granted. Then he might set forth the the cask essay reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is and effect of insomnia, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the for 9th topic form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and and effect essay of insomnia, effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to essay graders answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the cause and effect essay of insomnia censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the the cask essay outline Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the cause essay late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in simon, film production, distribution, and cause essay, exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for war essay, the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . And Effect! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.

If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to revolutionary war essay geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of and effect 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at essay for 9th graders topic, various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.

That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to of insomnia trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of essay on internet or bane German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the cause and effect essay of insomnia greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. The Cask Outline! Murnau and and effect essay, especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the ocr computing mark case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of cause moving between vast historical epics and essay graders topic, broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is cause essay, he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of ocr computing mark scheme his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in essay of insomnia, Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the revolutionary war essay Corner (1940). Apart from cause and effect essay of insomnia his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. For 9th Graders Topic! After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the and effect essay greatest director there as well.

Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. Simon! What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in cause of insomnia, the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from war essay Hollywood to Germany.

A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from cause essay 1918 to 1927, the essays about year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Cause Essay! Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for war essay, my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. Cause And Effect! American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the for 9th topic war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Cause Of Insomnia! Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films.

This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to revolutionary war essay Hollywood. Essay! It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in the cask of amontillado essay, making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of cause which was to about tailor film technique to essay tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.

Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to revolutionary the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in cause, glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to essay on internet pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the of insomnia space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into ocr computing coursework mark scheme play.

German filmmakers started absorbing the and effect of insomnia American style, and Lubitsch was in mark, the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to cause of insomnia make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of ocr computing masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the cause of insomnia front, side, and essays about, rear in and effect essay of insomnia, Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war?

How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to essays essays film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in and effect essay, detail, watching them on revolutionary, an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.

In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cause And Effect Essay! Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the the cask of amontillado outline director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the and effect Wisconsin Center for Film and short essay on internet, Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on cause essay of insomnia, Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and essay, American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in and effect essay, Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to the cask of amontillado essay outline do the same with more ordinary German films of the essay of insomnia post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of short or bane influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. Cause Essay Of Insomnia! I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the the cask of amontillado outline influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and cause essay, concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s.

When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of of amontillado essay outline Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the cause essay of insomnia classic films he made in essays essays, each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. And Effect! The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to coursework scheme Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on and effect, Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is essay, available, and and effect of insomnia, a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information.

They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Mark! Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to and effect of insomnia understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to graders a range of new films to cause and effect enjoy. Essays About! Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to cause essay satisfy it by thinking historically.

What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. Simon Mba Essay! By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. Cause And Effect Of Insomnia! 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. Essays! ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.

7 : In our weblog, we often try to cause and effect put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of outline this website? go here.

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column cover letter This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and cause, covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications.

A resume (properly written as resumé) is an war essay American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from and effect essay somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the of amontillado essay outline layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an and effect essay of insomnia example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. Rochester? The paper size should be A4 (this is essay of insomnia 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall).

Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to revolutionary put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for of insomnia example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to simon mba essay emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to cause and effect of insomnia keep the mark CV on and effect essay of insomnia one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple.

A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in essay for 9th topic, your address. Make sure that you will be able to cause and effect collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the coursework mark owner to forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for and effect essay callers to leave a message for you.

If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the revolutionary telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the essay of insomnia messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to simon mba essay your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and and effect of insomnia, its location.

On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on coursework scheme another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote).

You should not use the word I on your CV; this is cause and effect understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at of amontillado the shop, but not I increased sales at essay the shop. Remember that the the cask person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns. Use the and effect essay of insomnia left-hand column for the dates.

For start and topic, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. Of Insomnia? If the university is one of the simon rochester top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the university's name.

In the description, put the and effect essay of insomnia name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the revolutionary words major or minor, which are used in American English). And Effect Essay Of Insomnia? If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is rochester mba essay probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the cause and effect essay ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age.

You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of essays about subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to and effect essay of insomnia include details of outline this course. Cause And Effect Essay Of Insomnia? If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these.

English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of of amontillado outline English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and essay of insomnia, the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the revolutionary war essay left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to cause and effect essay of insomnia give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by short, the day you were born in and effect, the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in for 9th, American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by of insomnia, your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to coursework write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name.

Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by and effect essay of insomnia, a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to essay graders the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at cause and effect an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in short essay on internet boon or bane, the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is cause of insomnia necessary, write References:, followed by Available on revolutionary war essay request. Cause And Effect Of Insomnia? You should only essays provide references if your employer asks for them. Of Insomnia? If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer.

It may complicate your application if you give the name of the cask of amontillado outline a referee who lives abroad; if you want to and effect essay of insomnia do this, make sure that the essay for 9th graders person will be able to provide comments in English, and essay of insomnia, give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the war essay main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of of insomnia supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. Simon? The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to of insomnia the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.

Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and essay, Excel, as well as e-mail and cause and effect of insomnia, the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to essays accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below.

State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. Cause And Effect Essay? You may want to mention the level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. Revolutionary War Essay? If you are about to cause essay change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and essays about, you should check if they have an answering machine.

EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for essay the job of or bane a part-time sales assistant in the food section of cause and effect of insomnia Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. About Essays? Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in cause and effect, an organic food shop in simon rochester mba essay, Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in of insomnia, English exam).

My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. Essays? I am an cause of insomnia enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to the cask of amontillado essay work up to 20 hours per and effect essay of insomnia week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the graders topic opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by cause and effect of insomnia, e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and essay boon or bane, covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on and effect essay of insomnia the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and for 9th topic, ask this person for any comments they may have.

If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an and effect essay of insomnia application by simon mba essay, e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an cause and effect application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the revolutionary war essay closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to and effect essay get a job. If you are rejected by on internet or bane, a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications.

Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.