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Scholarship Application Strategies - …
HOW TO WRITE A BADASS RESUME THAT WILL BOOST YOUR CAREER. In A? Do you want to create a resume that will stand out, grab the reader's attention, and get you that interview you are searching for? Look no further, I’m going to show you how to create a resume that will get you an interview fast! How to format essay, Write a Badass Resume That Will Boost Your Career. If you’re just finding out what application essay, about this career series, you can check out the other posts in essays, the series here: A couple years ago I was on in a scholarship application essay, the hunt for term paper engine, a new job.
It was time to move on from my previous employer. What To Include In A? I wasn’t looking forward to it. Essay? The job search can be intimidating, scary, and what scholarship, even downright awful. It’s terrible sending out resumes and waiting for the call back. It makes you wonder whether they didn’t like your resume, your application, or just didn’t like you. I didn’t really want to do it, but I had to. Essay Theme? So, I sat down at in a, my laptop, pulled up Google Docs and essays do to ahead in science and technology, began writing my new and updated resume.
I began researching the best ways to create a resume that employers will like and what to include in a application, tried to implement as much of that into my resume as possible. After hours of tweaking and polishing I had my resume. I found a couple positions online that looked like a good fit and applied for on what should ahead in science, both. The very next day I received 2 calls. One from each employer wanting to schedule a preliminary phone interview! The resume had done the job. It portrayed to the employers that I had the experience, education, and skills to fit their position. Spoiler alert: I accepted a position from one of the to include in a scholarship essay companies! That’s exactly what a resume is for.
It’s not the end all of job hunting. The resume is squeeze thesis, just a promotional piece to get in you in the door for a resume. In this guide I’m going to take you step-by-step through the process of building a great resume that will get your foot in the door to the next step in the job search, the what to include in a scholarship essay interview. DOWNLOAD THE TOOLS LIST FOR FREE AND DISCOVER THE TOOLS THAT WILL TAKE YOUR CAREER TO THE NEXT LEVEL. Format Of Muet Essay? First, off before I begin to break down what you need in your resume, I’m going to what application, show you the one I used in my job search. On Hamlet Theme Of Revenge? It’s nothing fancy. In fact, it’s pretty plain, but it does what it is to include in a essay, intended to do.
It shows the employer very quickly that I have the experience, education, and skills required for the job. Ok now that you’ve got a high level view of what we are doing, let’s get started writing your resume. To start off, I highly suggest just opening a Google Doc or Word Doc instead of a fancy resume tool to essays on what should india do to ahead in science, start. Let’s focus on the facts and what in a scholarship application, information and worry about the looks later. Resume Contact Info. Term Paper Search? Next, let’s start with your contact information as a header. What Scholarship? Add your name and the role you specialize in below that.
You could put your job title like IT Security Analyst or something more general like IT Security Professional. It really depends on your industry and whether titles matter. Choose whichever you feel would fit better in your industry and would appeal to you target audience. Create a space and case study, then on the next two lines add your address, phone number, and to include in a scholarship essay, email address. If you’re building a personal brand and have a website, add that as well on a third line. Next, is the summary section. You need to quickly and efficiently portray to your target audience what you do and why you are worth their time to term, continuing reading your resume. You know how you read a post on Facebook or the internet and quickly scan the header to what scholarship, determine whether you'll take the time to click on it or read the whole article?
It’s the same with you resume. You need to get their attention fast! Start with a SUMMARY header. Here is my recommendation. Format Of Muet? Briefly tell them what you do and what to include application, how experienced you are. Impress them! As you can see from mine. I quickly tell them what I do and for how long. I try to portray quickly that I work at a high level with the Chief Information Officer to demonstrate that I’m working closely with upper management and have experience in both the technical and management side.
Yours may be totally different. On Hamlet Of Revenge? You have to think about what your “Unique Selling Proposition” is. In other words, what makes you stand out above the crowd of everyone. Next up, we need to list your current and previous jobs. Create a header for EXPERIENCE. Begin by to include scholarship application essay, listing at one shot case experimental, least the last three companies you have worked for. Don’t leave out anything. Include internships and part time jobs so they can see a steady work history. Next, list the title of scholarship your positions at each of the companies. Format Of Muet Essay? I ignore internal company titles like Accountant II… That’s just an in a application, internal system of names.
What do you really do? Are you an accountant? Then just list your title as Accountant instead of Accountant II. Finally, create bullet points of accomplishments for each position you have. This is easier said than done. Make sure to term paper, have at least 3 bullet points on each position and more on your current position if possible. Here’s the deal with these accomplishments. To Include In A Scholarship Application? You don’t want to of muet, just talk about your responsibilities. You want to go way beyond that. You need to sell yourself by showing them how you provided a huge help to the company. Here’s an example: Instead of tasks like this: Provided general maintenance and manual backups for all IT systems.
Show them how you made a huge positive impact on what to include scholarship application essay, the company: Lead the about Disaster Recovery Program by creating a completely redundant data center which allows us in scholarship application essay, the event of a complete data center shutdown to have our core financial system running within one hour and all other servers and third party VPN’s available within 1 day. Essays On What India Do To Stay Ahead And Technology? See the scholarship application essay difference? You want to show how the action you took benefited the company. Here’s a formula to essays about essays, help you write great experience bullets: ACTION the PROJECT resulting in BENEFIT TO THE COMPANY. Here it is as fill in the blank: _______ the _______ resulting in ________. Here are some action words you can use: Sometimes you just don’t have a lot of projects under your belt yet and that is ok.
You can also list tasks but always try to display them in a way that demonstrates how you helped the company rather simply what you did. Next up, create a new section for education. This is to include scholarship essay, pretty straight forward. You just are listing the facts about your education. Think of everything you have done education wise that would appeal to your target audience. Thesis? List all of your college degrees. Did you get an associates degree, bachelors degree, masters degree, PHD, etc?
List all of them. Do you have any certifications or licenses? List those as well. Did you do any special training that would appeal to your target audience? List em. If you don’t have any post high school education, list your high school as well. If you are still in college working on your degree, go ahead and list the what degree and make a note that you are currently working toward your degree with the study design current year you are in. Go back to each of those education lines and in a application essay, add the school or organization you got it from along with the essays essays date. What To Include In A Scholarship Application? Next, create a new section for skills. You’re gonna have to dig deep here.
What software do you know? What special skills do you have related to your industry? What would be valuable in your industry and to your target audience? If you work in the business world, you’re most likely gonna know how to use Microsoft Office Word, Excel, Powerpoint, etc. Do you work in the medical industry? You may know how to use certain equipment that your target audience would like to about, see. Take some time and in a scholarship essay, determine every skill that you have that would be relevant to your target audience and list it. So at this point you have your content, now you need to make it looks it’s best. I have a couple options for you. First is essay on hamlet, Standard Resume.
If you work in the business world where the traditional resume is valued checkout Standard Resume. They provide a clean and simple website to enter the information you already created and they will layout a beautiful resume you can download as a PDF. No need for you to what to include in a, worry about spacing, headers, and all of that design stuff. They take care of it for you. Second up is Canva. Canva is an easy to use graphics editor that has lots of resume templates you can modify to create a beautiful and creative resume. If you work in a creative industry then Canva is the better choice to create a resume.
Decide what works best for you and begin copying the content you created in the earlier sections to create your final resume. After you are finished created your resume focus on making it perfect. Polish, polish, polish. Read it at least 5 times. Essays? Look for grammar, spelling mistakes, design mistakes, etc. Have someone else read it for what in a application, you to make sure it reads well and is understandable. Make sure it is error free and essays about, well polished! Once you are done, you should have a beautiful PDF resume you can send to any employer you are interested.
Boom! You’re done. Application Essay? Enjoy it and the success it will help you achieve very soon! Ok, let’s wrap this up. Here’s a recap of the essays essays steps you need to what to include in a, take to create a great resume that is going to one shot case study experimental, get you your next level position: Start with a document just to get the details down. Add your contact info like name, address, phone number, email, and personal brand website. In A Scholarship Essay? Create your summary section that sells yourself. Add all of your current and essays essays, past experience that is relevant. Add all of your education like college, certifications and licenses, special classes, and even high school if needed. Add any skills you have that are relevant to your target audience. Choose a design tool to make it look great.
Polish, polish, polish, make sure it looks perfect.
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Program Director, Education, and Other Openings. Welcome to APDS Open Positions. Application Essay? This is creating page, a listing of positions submitted by what to include in a scholarship, visitors to the site. You can submit your own open position at the link to the right. Program Director, General Surgery Residency Program. Memorial Healthcare System. Date Posted: September 27, 2017. Memorial Healthcare System, located in South Florida, is of muet essay, seeking a general surgery residency program director to what, lead the development and implementation of a new general surgery residency program.
This is an exciting opportunity for an experienced and motivated leader to be involved in the development of a fully supported and groundbreaking program in a large and recognized dynamic healthcare system. The successful candidate must be clinically active in and have current board-certification in general surgery. Additionally, candidates must also have documented educational and administrative experience acceptable to the ACGME General Surgery Residency Review Committee and be able to successfully obtain a Florida medical license and a medical staff appointment with Memorial Healthcare System. Previous experience as a core faculty member, Associate Program Director or Program Director in an ACGME –accredited general surgery program is also required. In addition to essays on what should india do to stay in science and technology, previous leadership/administrative experience, candidates should also have excellent interpersonal, communication and in a scholarship essay team building skills. All candidates should be either a board-certified general surgeon or ABMS certified subspecialist who exhibits a passion for thesis, medical education, teaching and mentoring. Responsibilities will include authority over and accountability for the overall operation of the general surgery residency program. This includes responsibility for the quality of what scholarship essay didactic and clinical education as well as the administration and maintenance of an environment conducive to educating residents in each of the ACGME competency areas. Essays About Essays? This is also a unique opportunity for qualified candidates to what to include in a, provide clinical medical educational leadership while delivering surgical services within the Memorial Healthcare System. The program director will be provided with the appropriate protected administrative time to operationalize the program. This is study design, a full-time employed position with the multispecialty Memorial Physician Group.
The position offers competitive benefits and a compensation package that is what to include in a application, commensurate with training and experience. Professional malpractice and medical liability are covered under sovereign immunity. ABOUT MEMORIAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Memorial Healthcare System is one of the largest public healthcare systems in the United States. A national leader in quality care and patient satisfaction, Memorial has ranked 11 times since 2008 on nationally recognized lists of essays should india in science and technology great places to what to include, work – in on hamlet, Modern Healthcare magazine, Florida Trend magazine and Becker's Hospital Review, just to name a few. To Include In A Scholarship Application? Memorial's facilities include its flagship, Memorial Regional Hospital, one of the largest in Florida; Memorial Regional Hospital South; Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, the essays about, only children's hospital in Broward and Palm Beach counties; Memorial Hospital West; Memorial Hospital Miramar; Memorial Hospital Pembroke; and Memorial Manor, a US News five-star-rated nursing home.
Memorial's work environment has been rated by employees and physicians alike as an what to include in a application open-door, inclusive culture that is committed to safety, transparency and, above all, outstanding service to patients and families. ABOUT SOUTH FLORIDA South Florida offers a dynamic urban/suburban lifestyle with an abundance of squeeze thesis cultural and recreational amenities, miles of beautiful beaches, top-rated golf courses, zoos and wildlife refuges, a vibrant arts community, museums and world-class dining. South Florida's high quality of life – including year-round summer weather, exciting multiculturalism and no state income tax – attracts new residents from all over the country and around the world. In A Scholarship Application Essay? TO LEARN MORE ABOUT MEMORIAL HEALTHCARE SYSTEM, PLEASE VISIT MHS.NET. Loyola University Health System. Date Posted: September 21, 2017. Surgical Educator | Loyola University Health System Located at 2160 South First Avenue Maywood, Illinois 60153 Full time, Days. 8:00am to 4:30pm What you will do: The job of the page thesis, Surgical Educator in the Department of Surgery at to include in a scholarship application Loyola University Medical Center is to lead efforts and establish collaborative relationships in the areas of faculty, resident, and student career advancement. This pertains specifically to the areas of education, research, and scholarly activity. Where to apply: Directly on our website at Loyolamedicine.com/jobs or at http://bit.ly/2i3dRYR The details: We expect that persons interested in this position will have completed a standard program of undergraduate work at an accredited institution and will also have completed post-graduate work and have knowledge of research design and creating page thesis grant writing, education and instructional methodology, communication skills, curriculum development, techniques of evaluation, psychological well-being, and health care.
Prior experience in these areas would be preferred but not required. To Include In A Application? What you need: Doctorate Degree (Ph.D.) 1-2 years of previous experience 3-5 years of of muet essay managerial experience Benefits: Compensation is in a scholarship essay, competitive and is accompanied by a comprehensive benefits package. LUHS provides great amenities to ensure an essays enjoyable work experience including: • On-site fitness center with lap pool and personal trainers • Financial support for continuing education • On-site EAP and Employee Health • Regular on-campus events and classes • A beautiful campus with underground tunnels connecting all buildings • Covered employee parking, free employee valet parking, 24 hour security, shuttle service, and what to include scholarship application several on-site cafes and cafeterias • Credit Union • Easy access to public transportation and major highways • Close to shopping and of muet restaurants LUHS is an scholarship application essay equal opportunity and affirmative action employer/educator and is committed to essay theme, a drug-free and to include in a application smoke-free workplace. Program Business Manager, Cardiothoracic Surgery. Date Posted: September 21, 2017.
MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: A Bachelor's degree in Business Administration (or a field related to business) AND 5+ years of professional business administration or management experience OR an equivalent combination of experience interconnected with professional business administration or business management. JOB DESCRIPTION: Coordinates and directs departmental activities which may include the department's residency program, the transitional year program and/or other programs. Paper Search Engine? Provides input into scholarship departmental objectives, especially those pertaining to the residency program. Interviews applicants and recommends candidates for thesis, admission to the residency program. Establishes and administers departmental policies and procedures pertaining to teaching requirements, course objectives, and course content in compliance with applicable regulations.
Plans and in a scholarship application essay develops courses for medical students, manages the course budget, negotiates with outside agencies to essays about essays, obtain funding and support for the course, and coordinates and administers the course throughout the academic year. Arranges, administers, and what to include proctors certifying and study experimental design sub-specialty exams. Develops, administers and monitors intern, resident, and operating budgets. What To Include Scholarship Essay? Collects and design analyzes data to advise management of long range needs. Supervises staff. Performs related responsibilities as required. ADDITIONAL JOB DUTIES: Performs or coordinates administrative activities associated with complex residency programs.
These programs generally involve over 20 residents, last more than three years, and involve at least five training sites. Plays a significant role in preparing the program for accreditation site visits and compliance with accreditation standards. Plans resident orientation and manages the rotation scheduling and evaluation systems within the program. Maintains residents' academic files including rotations, evaluations, curriculum, and other critical documentation. Assists in residency recruitment programs by preparing for and scheduling applicant interviews. Assists in resolving foreign nationals' visa issues. Maintains required record-keeping and databases pertaining to residency program(s). Roswell Park Cancer Institute.
Date Posted: September 11, 2017. The Project Coordinator will lead ongoing clinical research projects under the supervision of the ATLAS assistant director, research fellows, and the principle investigator, Dr. Khurshid Guru. They will coordinate different research projects including but not limited to basic science and clinical research projects. The Project Coordinator will participate in proctoring all SAGES examinations and coordinating the fundamental skills for robotic surgery (FSRS) training program, which includes providing training for surgeons through practice with inanimate models and in a scholarship application essay an animal lab. Page? The individual will perform field work in the operating room collecting, analyzing, and what to include in a essay maintaining research data.
They will screen, recruit, and consent research participants as well as coordinate the overall participant schedule for essays about essays, multiple studies. The individual will be responsible for performing administrative and regulatory duties related to what, each study. The individual will write manuscripts and present projects in both national and essays international conferences. Requirements: The candidate will have acquired MBBS, MD, DO, or a Bachelors medical-related degree. This individual should be motivated and scholarship application essay detailed-oriented, previous patient experience preferred, must be comfortable in the operating room and conversing with patients. This role is a strong fit for anyone interested in applying to medical school, applying for a residency, or hoping to build their research experience. Advanced knowledge of video editing software and of revenge Adobe Premiere is application essay, appreciated. A minimum one year commitment to the role required. This individual should be proficient in of muet, managing competing objectives and communicating information to multiple audiences.
Residency Program Administrator UIC/MGH Surgery Residency Program. Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, IL. Date Posted: July 21, 2017. The Surgery Residency Administrator is responsible for the direct oversight and management of all operational, human resource and accreditation activities for the General Surgery Residency Program a Metropolitan Group Hospitals Residency Program sponsored, in part, by Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center. What To Include In A? The Surgery Residency Administrator is directly responsible to the Chair/Residency Program Director and essays the Director of essay Medical Education. Responsibilities include, but are not limited to, day to creating thesis, day program management and what in a application essay administrative oversight to ensure compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Common and Specialty Program requirements. The administrator also functions as the HR Officer for the residency program managing on-boarding and HR files for a House Staff numbering approximately 42 residents. Manages primary source credential verification. Plans and essays manages resident rotation schedules and coordinates rotates with other MGH residency rotation sites. In A Scholarship Application? Manages annual AIMMC Surgery House Staff Orientation Program. Manages the completion of multiple surveys related to Graduate Medical Education (GME), gathering and coordinating demographic documentation for the annual Medicare GME audit, and maintenance of should do to stay ahead records for use in providing references for the House Staff throughout their professional career.
Manages the what to include essay, graduate medical education electronic database for residency (E*Value) including performing routine audits. One Shot Experimental? I. ACCOUNTABILITIES AND JOB ACTIVITIES: A. What Scholarship? Oversees and supervises all administrative Human Resources functions and 30 % activities for surgical residents throughout the academic year. Provides primary source verification of all employment documents by affirming that primary source verification of medical education, post-graduate training and examination history has been performed as part of the term paper search, licensure process and to include scholarship application essay are original documents. Maintains HR files for current and past residents including academic and employment credentials. On What Stay Ahead? 1.Maintains annual calendar of activities and assures the timely completion of a complex cycle of hiring, contracting, payroll adjustments, promotions, terminations and position control managment. 2.Oversees the what in a essay, preparation and maintenance of a comprehensive listing of residents and provides information to essay theme of revenge, HR as necessary.
3.Maintains accuracy of position placement and pay rates for all program residents; processes or oversees bi-weekly payroll submission. 4.Monitors the clearance process at the end of training for each resident. 5.Prepares Draft of Program Information Forms (PIF) for RRC Accreditation Review and to include Internal Reviews and participates as the search, on-site program administrator for institutional site visits and internal reviews conducted by ACGME and what scholarship application Graduate Medical Education Research Committee (GMEC). 6.Serves as liaison for essay of revenge, surgery residents regarding licensure of American Medical Graduates (AMG's) (new, renewal or permanent).Assists international medical graduate residents in securing and maintaining appropriate licensure during their training at AIMMC; acts as a liaison with Illinois Department of Professional Regulation; and monitors license expiration dates for current resident/fellows. 7.Coordinates National Resident Matching Program for in a, Surgery Residency Program.
B. Coordinates and oversees implementation of surgery recruitment activities 20 % with residency including screening of applicants and establishing applicant criteria. Paper Search Engine? Administers all recruitment and employment activities, establishes and monitors procedures, conducts and/or arranges interviews for candidates and faculty and reviews salary offers. Coordinates the recruitment process to include preparation of appropriate correspondence to applicants regarding interview dates, letters of invitation, confirmation letters, name badges and interview day itineraries. 1.Maintains and what to include essay updates Electronic Residency Application System (ERAS) software for recruitment for surgery program. 2.Screens all applications and determines appropriate candidates to be invited to participate in interview process. 3.Coordinates all activities related to recruitment of applicants to program. 4.Schedules and coordinates interview sessions involving faculty, current residents, and selected applicants. Term Paper Engine? 5.Coordinates distribution of to include scholarship essay applicant information to essays essays, faculty and collection of applicant ranking data. 6.Prepares powerpoint presentation, containing interview comments, for each applicant ( avg of 200) for surgical applicant ranking purposes. C. Responsible for organizing and maintaining a comprehensive resident 15 % database.
1.Design, develop and maintain data system and ensure updates as graduate medical education requirements change. Manages resident database, updates demographic information for surgery to ensure optimal reimbursement and accurate documentation for resident rotations. 2.Oversees the maintenance of medical education files for current and in a essay past surgery residents (demographic information, licensure, program evaluations, and visa information). 3.Coordinates annually with Finance department to provide program statistics and information necessary for Medicare GME audit for surgery program. 4.Verifies training for current and past surgical residents for licensure and medical staff membership/privileges. 5.Coordinates and tracks surgical resident CBT training on an annual basis. 6.Coordinates with Program Director each surgical resident performance review by tracking requirements, developing a comprehensive comparative analysis and essay of revenge compiling appropriate supporting documents. 7.Monitors resident duty hour compliance and what in a scholarship application bring outliers to attention of the Program Director.
8.Ensures resident competency conferences are scheduled for of muet, compliance in the six general competencies. What To Include In A Scholarship Application? D. Supervision and Communication 15 % 1.Facilitates smooth department operational flow and serves as a general information source/liason between Chairman/Program Director,residents and internal hospital departments. 2.Functions as role model and educator to support staff regarding associate/surgery resident relations, communications and customer service. 3.Performs proper follow-up and responds appropriately to term paper engine, resident morale issues bringing them to the attention of Chair/Program Director. What To Include In A Essay? 4.Manages support staff and residents as to essays about essays, required annual training, TB testing compliance, annual TB mask fit test, new corporate and/or hospital or program directives and policies. 5.Responsible for participating in the recuitment, interviewing and scholarship essay candidate selection for creating, support staff. 6.Responsible for timely completion of to include in a application essay performance evaluations and administering corrective action for support staff. 7.Communicates information regarding residency with three off-campus site coordinators ensuring ongoing program compliance and coordination of program documentation. On Hamlet? 8.Coordinates annual program review and annual retreat management. 9.Updates residency policy and to include in a application essay procedures and serves as website content manager. E. Schedules and oversees the annual New Surgical Resident Orientation.
5 % 1.Ensures that orientation is in compliance with Accrediting Organization, OSHA and ACGME guidelines. 2.Oversees room arrangements, scheduling of presenters, distribution of materials, etc. Term Paper? 3.Ensures completion of pre-employment requirements and facilitates Issuance of I.D. badges, computer passwords, etc. 4.Coordinates computer and what to include scholarship application Electronic Medical Record orientation and training for surgery residents. Squeeze? F. Responsible for coordinating the what in a application, completion of format essay several annual GME related 5 % surveys.
1.Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC): Census of Residents in what to include in a scholarship essay, Training Programs. 2.Accredation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Advocate Health Care Resident Survey, Residency Program Survey for inclusion into the annual American Medical Association‘s (AMA) Graduate Medical Education Directory (Green Book) as well as incorporation into the AMA’s FREIDA Online (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database Access). G. Assists with MGH residency annual budgeting process 5 % 1.Prepares initial budget calculation for verification and theme approval. 2.Oversees preparation of resident expense reports; coordinates processing of check requests related to MGH Residency expenses. H. Performs other administrative tasks in support of the residency program as 5 % needed. 1.Compiles and in a application essay collates documents supporting application for the Internal Review for surgery from the University of Illinois and the ACGME Program Information Form for format essay, surgical residency. Scholarship Application? 2.Orders and administers the annual in-service examinations from the essay on hamlet theme of revenge, Americal Board of Surgery. University of Colorado Denver/Anschutz Medical Campus.
Date Posted: July 17, 2017. University of Colorado Denver l Anschutz Medical Campus School of Medicine, Department of Surgery Residency Program Coordinator (Academic Services Professional) Position #675766 – Requisition 10237 The Department of Surgery has an opening for a full-time, University Staff (unclassified) Residency Program Coordinator (Academic Services Professional) position. The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus ranks among the top institutions nationally in clinical care, education and research. Its 230-acre campus, designed to enhance collaboration and interprofessional education, hosts the College of Nursing; the Schools of Dental Medicine, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Public Health; the Graduate School; a Health Sciences Library; and two hospitals. Strategically located contiguous to what in a scholarship application, the campus are a biosciences research park and the soon-to-be-completed Veterans Hospital. CU Anschutz offers two undergraduate degrees, 35 graduate degrees, and five first-professional programs.
More than 4,000 students learn alongside faculty members who also make meaningful medical discoveries and term provide expert clinical care through 1.5 million patient-visits annually. A hub for research and to include scholarship application essay innovation, CU Anschutz receives over $400 million in research awards each year and has filed 1,300 patent applications and formed 53 new companies since 2002. A national leader in essays about, health care and life sciences, CU Anschutz is the to include in a scholarship essay, only comprehensive academic health sciences center in page, Colorado and what to include scholarship essay the largest in the Rocky Mountain region. Located in essays on what india ahead in science and technology, Aurora, Colo., it is one of the newest education, research and what to include in a scholarship patient care facilities in the world. With six schools and colleges, CU Anschutz trains the health sciences workforce of the future by term search, blending education, research and clinical care all in one place. This strategic collaboration among diverse health care fields allows knowledge to what to include application essay, travel directly from the research bench to the patient’s bedside. Read CU Anschutz Quick Facts here. Job Summary: Jobs in this career family provide direct professional support for essays, the teaching and/or educational service mission of the university. To Include In A Essay? Functions include academic advising/counseling, student personnel administration, recruitment and theme admissions, registration, financial aid, faculty affairs, library services, curriculum administration, and others involving direct support of the educational mission of an academic unit.
Professionals at the entry level are responsible for exercising discretion, analytical skill, personal accountability and responsibility in a wide range of areas including academic, administrative, managerial and application essay student services functions. Work involves creating, integrating, applying and sharing knowledge directly related to a professional field. At the entry level, duties are limited in scope and are performed with guidance and essays direction from other professionals and are performed in a training and development capacity. Position Emphasis: The General Surgery Residency Coordinator (1.0 FTE), is primarily responsible for coordinating the General Surgery Residency Program and its approximately 80 to 100 residents-in- training. Coordination encompasses the residency recruitment process, curriculum, schedules, business activities, finances, budget, and policies and to include in a application procedures.
The Coordinator provides essential communication and networking for one shot study, the effective functioning of the surgery residency training program. The Coordinator represents the Residency on behalf of the Graduate Medical Education (GME) Office, the in a scholarship application essay, Department of Surgery, the School of Medicine, UCDHSC, and the University of Colorado. Format Essay? This description is a summary only and is describing the general level of work being performed, it is not intended to be all-inclusive. The duties of to include in a scholarship this position may change from time to one shot study experimental design, time and/or based on business need. We reserve the right to add or delete duties and responsibilities at the discretion of the supervisor and/or hiring authority. Salary and Benefits: The hiring salary for to include in a scholarship application, this position is commensurate with skills and paper experience. This position is not eligible for overtime compensation. Scholarship Essay? The University of Colorado offers a full benefits package. Information on University benefits programs, including eligibility, is located at https://www.cu.edu/employee-services. The University of squeeze Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus is dedicated to ensuring a safe and secure environment for our faculty, staff, students and visitors.
To assist in achieving that goal, we conduct background investigations for all prospective employees. The University of Colorado Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus is committed to recruiting and supporting a diverse student body, faculty and administrative staff. The university strives to promote a culture of essay inclusiveness, respect, communication and term paper engine understanding. We encourage applications from what to include in a application women, ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities and all veterans. The University of Colorado is format, committed to diversity and equality in to include scholarship essay, education and employment. Qualifications Minimum Qualifications: A bachelor’s degree in education, psychology, business, public administration, health care, or a directly related field from an accredited institution. On Hamlet? Substitution: A combination of education and related technical/paraprofessional experience may be substituted for the bachelor’s degree on a year for year basis.
Preferred Qualifications: •One or more years of relevant experience in graduate medical education, higher education or medical school programs. Competencies/Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: •Ability to communicate effectively, both in writing and what to include scholarship application essay orally. •Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with employees at all levels throughout the format of muet essay, institution. •Outstanding customer service skills. •Demonstrated commitment and leadership ability to advance diversity and inclusion. •Ability to develop and manage budgets, and to include essay carry out fiscal responsibilities of the position. •Ability to creating page thesis, understand and apply regulatory requirements at the program level. General Surgery Residency Program Director. Orange Park Medical Center. Date Posted: July 11, 2017. Orange Park Medical Center is what in a application essay, seeking a General Surgery Program Director to lead the term paper engine, hospital in the development and implementation of a new General Surgery Residency Program. To Include In A Application? This is an exciting opportunity for on what stay ahead in science, an experienced, motivated leader to have input on what to include in a application, building a program from the ground up. Qualified Candidates: • Must be Board Certified in General Surgery • Must have a minimum of five years of experience as a Program Director or Associate Director • Must have previous leadership/administrative experience • Must be willing to format essay, combine administrative and in a essay diagnostic (teaching) responsibilities (50/50) • Must have strong administrative and team building skills • Must have excellent interpersonal and communication skills Responsibilities will include: • Authority and creating squeeze page accountability for the operation of the General Surgery residency program • Development of curriculum, policies, and what procedures for the program • Obtaining and maintaining ACGME accreditation and state approval • Recruiting residents into the program and developing evaluation process for performance • Participating in competency evaluations of residents • Additional responsibilities to ensure program of excellence At Orange Park Medical Center, we are committed to experimental, quality care and a heightened focus on extraordinary service. What To Include In A? Founded in 1974, Orange Park Medical Center has grown from essay on hamlet theme of revenge a small community hospital to a top healthcare provider in northeast Florida.
We are a full-service, acute-care hospital with 317 inpatient beds located in what to include essay, the heart of Orange Park, providing medical care to Clay County and surrounding communities. Orange Park Medical Center's residency program includes physicians in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, Dermatology and essays should india do to stay ahead in science a Transitional Year Program which focuses on subspecialties. The programs vary from 1-4 years in length. During their time at Orange Park Medical Center the residents see patients both in the hospital and in scholarship essay, a clinic setting, at one of Orange Park Medical Center's partner facilities. The partner facilities include Palms Medical Group and Park Avenue Dermatology. All residents are licensed physicians and practice under a supervisor attending.
The Orange Park Medical Center residency program currently has 50 residents with an additional 15 starting next July. The hospital is now considering additional programs for the future which they anticipate will bring their residency population to of muet, 100 residents by the year 2020. With a population of 1.3 million people, a low cost of living, high quality of life and wonderful climate, our region is one of the what to include in a, few places in term search engine, the United States that is experiencing a growing population of young professionals; and what trailing spouses are in luck because Forbes ranked Jacksonville in the Top 10 Best U.S. Cities to Find a Job. Jacksonville was ranked in the top 10 of Mobility magazine’s Best Cities for Relocating Families. Families are able to choose from a variety of top-ranked K - 12 schools and excellent colleges and of muet universities for their children. Northeast Florida is known for its outdoor recreation opportunities, featuring 90 miles of beaches along the Atlantic Ocean and the majestic St. Johns River.
A short drive southeast from Memorial Hospital is Ponte Vedra Beach, home of the PGA Tour and The Players Championship (TPC) which are played at TPC Sawgrass, home of the famous 17th-hole island green. Here you will also find elegant shopping and fine dining as well as some of the highest sand dunes in Florida! Top rated beach clubs from the Lodge and Club to the Cabana Club make living here fun and exciting. What To Include Scholarship Essay? Enjoy playing golf, playing tennis or other popular sports such as wakeboarding, surfing, waterskiing and boating. Another short drive northeast from Memorial Hospital is Amelia Island. This was Florida’s first luxury tourist destination. Amelia Island is named among the search engine, top 10 North American islands by Conde Nast Traveler’s Reader’s Choice Awards for what application essay, seven consecutive years and is also recognized as a Top 25 Island in squeeze thesis, the World! Acedemic General Surgery Residency Director. Date Posted: July 5, 2017. The College of Medicine of Central Michigan University is actively seeking a Residency Program Director to lead a new general surgery residency program in Saginaw, MI.
Located in the scenic mid-Michigan region, CMU offers a wonderful opportunity to teach and practice medicine in a new medical school and rapidly growing academic department. We seek a candidate who shares our vision for providing an excellent education and high-quality patient care in to include scholarship application, a welcoming and supportive environment. Institutional support is assured for essay on hamlet theme, administration of the program with educational innovation, curriculum development, and clinical research with four categorical residents per to include year to begin July 2018. The program director will be supported by study, faculty members who excel in their fields and are dedicated to training and development of outstanding surgeons. Education of medical students and clinical research will be an integral part of this position.
The department values and supports the academic development and advancement of its faculty members. Our strong collaborative partnerships support our educational mission and offer state-of-the-art facilities including a new, technologically advanced simulation training center. Saginaw, MI and what to include scholarship application the surrounding Great Lakes Bay region offers an attractive mix of one shot case study small town charm and to include scholarship big city offerings. Residents experience a lower cost of living, easy accessibility to Michigan’s great outdoors, local concerts and sporting events. On What Should In Science? The region has a large, diverse and supportive medical community. To Include In A Application? Minimum requirements include board certification in essay, general surgery or surgical subspecialty, two years of experience as a residency or fellowship associate/program director, and eligibility for an unrestricted Michigan medical license. Faculty appointment at to include in a scholarship essay the College of Medicine will be commensurate with qualifications and academic experience.
This is a full time employed faculty position offering a very competitive salary and benefit package. CMU and CMU Medical Education Partners is an equal opportunity employer. Date Posted: June 29, 2017. The Medical Education General Surgery Dept at essay Orlando Health is seeking a Fellowship Coordinator. Position Requirements: High school graduate or equivalent, but highly desires college degree, with 4 years related experience.
Associate degree in healthcare administration, business or health related field may offset 2 years of experience. Must have excellent communication and organizational skills with attention to to include, detail and the ability to of muet, multi-task. Must be proficient in MS Word, Outlook, and what to include scholarship application essay Excel. Essential Functions: This person coordinates the recruitment process to include preparation of appropriate correspondence to applicants regarding interview dates, letters of invitation, confirmation letters, name badges and interview day itineraries. Of Muet? This person will direct the work-flow as necessary regarding administrative paperwork, records and complex filing systems to support program maintaining confidentiality including being responsible for fellow employment contracts and files. What In A? They are responsible for fellows and residents rotating through the department to include pager, call schedules and term engine academic schedules. They maintain the evaluation system on fellows and faculty, and rotations in compliance with current ACGME accreditation standards using the New Innovations program.
This person acts as liaison between the in a application essay, fellowship staff and department management staff, assuring compliance with the Resident Manual and departmental policies. This coordinator will arrange conference travel to include airfare, registration, hotel accommodations and reimbursements to engine, fellow as well as schedule lectures, maintain schedules and other administrative duties as required. They will support 2 fellowship Program Directors with administrative duties such as payroll, travel arrangements and what in a scholarship essay calendar maintenance. Michigan State University. Date Posted: May 18, 2017. Working/Functional Title Residency Program Supervisor Position Summary The successful candidate will collect, coordinate, manage, and monitor assigned activities/details of the about essays, Michigan State University Integrated Residency Program and General Surgery Program Director with the Residency by ensuring the regulatory and accreditation standards are met; educational activities that support the curriculum are established; departmental policies are created and enforced; and recruitment strategies are implemented so that a highly successful residency program is maintained; supports the what application essay, accreditation process, including coordinating and actively participating in site visits; delegating planning Department events like Graduation, Orientation, Resident Recruitment, etc.; act as the liaison between Program Director, educational faculty, academic staff, and program affiliations; assist in the basic operational functioning of the on hamlet, residency to provide efficient, effective administration for the educational program and accrediting agencies. Unit Specific Education/Experience/Skills Knowledge equivalent to that which normally would be acquired by completing a four-year college degree program in a business related field; one to three years of related and progressively more responsible or expansive work experience in planning and overseeing seminars including organizing and disseminating training materials and information both written and web-based; budget and records maintenance and computer support; experience in supervision,database, spreadsheet, word processing, desktop publishing; or an equivalent combination of education and experience. Desired Qualifications Experience with an accredited Residency Program, graduate medical education, knowledge of what to include in a essay ACGME requirements, medical terminology, working with students/graduates of higher education, adult learners.
Ability to independently coordinate a residency program with leadership/oversight input from Program Director. Capable of distinguished performance in a higher level position. Devise improved means of accomplishing results by continuously examining administrative effectiveness. Clearly establish project goals and objectives and demonstrate an ability to transfer vision into execution. Display good time management skills and one shot case study experimental have an what to include application innate ability to cope with all the work allotted within a specified time. Study Experimental? Establish effective systems for information retrieval through collaboration with the College of Human Medicine, affiliated hospitals and other departments to design and implement a residency data warehouse for advanced data analysis. Demonstrate strong organizational skills with leadership ability to to include in a essay, superintend the management, coordination and oversight of successful resident education; preparation for certifying exam; block schedules; didactic courses; Morbidity and Mortality sessions; journal club; guest lectures; Residency Program applicant interviews; simulation and skill testing. Essays Essays? Liaison to RRC, RMP, ERAS, NRMP, CHM and affiliated hospitals to to include scholarship application essay, maximize efficiency and meet requirements for term paper search engine, program accreditation. Formulate strategies, tactics, action plans, policies and written manuals for optimal solutions that effectively solve problems rather than symptoms to drive results. Proficiency in composing program affiliations contracts and to include application essay oversight to full execution.
Financial experience to assist in the creation of a program budget and successfully oversee and manage fiscal duties. Successfully raise team spirit by case study, constantly appreciating contributions made by members of the what scholarship application, team that enable the organization to achieve better targets. Case Design? Maintain great interpersonal communication skills and scholarship application display ability to work well with others. Proficiency in Microsoft Office; with emphasis on Excel and/or Access. One Shot Case Study Design? Required Application Materials Resume Cover Letter Work Hours STANDARD 8-5.
Lecturer / Senior Lecturer – Surgery (Clinical Surgical Education and Endoscopy) University of Sydney. Date Posted: May 18, 2017. Lecturer / Senior Lecturer – Surgery (Clinical Surgical Education and Endoscopy) Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School Sydney Medical School Reference no. 905/0517 Join an to include in a scholarship application essay organisation that encourages progressive thinking Be valued for your exceptional knowledge and experience in surgical endoscopy Part-time (0.2FTE - 0.3FTE), fixed term for format of muet, 12 months; further offers possible dependent upon funding and need About the opportunity Established in what to include scholarship, 2010, Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School provides a multidisciplinary learning environment and increases the breadth of opportunity for creating squeeze, clinical teaching. To Include In A Application? It uses traditional ward-based teaching and takes advantage of initiatives for term engine, clinical care delivery in to include scholarship application, the private sector, including teaching in the consulting rooms of on hamlet specialists who hold appointments at the hospital. Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School also promotes increased familiarity between the private healthcare sector and what to include scholarship application essay its future workforce, leading to a better connection between the training experience and future professional demands and expectations. Paper Engine? We are seeking to appoint a Lecturer or Senior Lecturer to to include scholarship, a teaching and research role within the school. Essays? Key responsibilities will include postgraduate coursework in the Master of Surgery program, in particular the to include in a scholarship essay, development of of revenge a new Unit of Study in Surgical Endoscopy. You will also have the opportunity to participate in and develop research relevant to the School.
About you The University values courage and creativity; openness and engagement; inclusion and diversity; and respect and integrity. As such, we see the importance in recruiting talent aligned to these values in the pursuit of research excellence. What In A Scholarship Application? We are looking for a dedicated medical professional who has: an should india stay in science MBBS, or equivalent, and what in a application essay the FRACS or other appropriate specialist recognition a PhD or equivalent and/or a demonstrated successful research record with evidence of an upward trajectory in research performance including publications, presentations and grants highly developed organisational skills, project management skills, interpersonal skills, written and squeeze page thesis oral communication skills and what to include in a essay computer literacy demonstrated experience in medical student and/or post-vocational teaching. For appointment at the higher level you must also demonstrate experience and skills in academic leadership within teaching and research. The successful applicant must also have, or be eligible to apply for, clinical privileges at paper search Sydney Adventist Hospital. About us Since our inception 160 years ago, the University of Sydney has led to improve the world around us. We believe in education for all and to include scholarship essay that effective leadership makes lives better.
These same values are reflected in our approach to diversity and squeeze thesis inclusion, and underpin our long-term strategy for growth. We’re Australia's first university and have an outstanding global reputation for academic and research excellence. What In A? Across our campuses, we employ over 6000 academic and non-academic staff who support over 60,000 students. We are undergoing significant transformative change which brings opportunity for innovation, progressive thinking, breaking with convention, challenging the paper, status quo, and improving the world around us. For more information on the position and University, please view the what in a application essay, candidate information pack available from the job’s listing on the University of Sydney careers website. As this position is based at Sydney Adventist Hospital, it is a requirement to complete employment checks prior to starting in the position. Essays? More information and instructions will be provided at interview. Cardiac Surgery: Procurement (Heart/Lung) First assist surgeon. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center. Date Posted: May 16, 2017.
The Newark Beth Israel Medical Center (NBIMC) has an opening for what application, a procurement (heart/lung) and first assist surgeon in Cardiac Surgery. The NBIMC heart transplant program is consistently in the top 10 heart transplant volume centers in the United States and has a rapidly expanding lung transplant program. Associate Residency Program Coordinator. Date Posted: April 28, 2017. With oversight and direction from the Program Director, the essays about, Associate Program Coordinator is responsible for the operational management of the what to include in a application, residency/fellowship training program. The position requires a comprehensive and detailed understanding of national accreditation policies and GME policies, as well as a high degree of initiative and independent judgment. The Program Coordinator will continually assess and direct a wide range of programmatic issues including long range planning, recruiting trainees, developing projects, analyzing administrative workflow, maintaining databases, communicating with faculty and trainees regarding a range of issues, and managing internal and external program relations. • Provides support and essay theme meets regularly with the Program Director concerning office management issues and activities and what application the status of projects. Identifies and evaluates the essays on what should india stay in science, methods for improving workflow and cost effectiveness and makes recommendations for improvement. May assist in program-level policy development. • Interprets and applies ACGME, other national accrediting agencies, and what application essay University policies to support compliance. • Provides both administrative supervision and support to essays on what india do to stay, residents/interns/fellows. To Include In A Essay? Acts as a liaison between residents and administration when necessary. Establishes relationships and acts as a liaison to other internal departments, and divisions regarding resident recruitment, orientation, annual program Affiliation Agreements, and external rotations. • Oversees department-level trainee orientation. • Informs residents and trainees of inter and intradepartmental policy and procedure changes, with assistance from GME office, • Develops, implements, and oversees the maintenance of filing, record keeping, distribution of materials, and other types of essays about essays office/program systems.
Evaluates and standardizes office procedures and effectively troubleshoots and resolves issues. What To Include In A Essay? • Maintains databases with resident and faculty data, including New Innovations. • Manages the evaluative processes of the trainees, program, faculty, and rotations. About Essays? • Develops and distributes call schedule. • Plans annual events including recruitment, orientation, graduation, resident retreats. . • Maintains program’s website. • In applicable programs, maintains the ERAS database (Electronic Residency Application System) and oversees its processes during the in a scholarship application, Residency Recruitment season. • Performs all Match responsibilities and corresponds with newly matched residents about requirements and essays process for appointment to the hospitals. In applicable programs, assists with quota review and rank list entry and certification in NRMP (National Residency Matching Program). • Assists in the preparation for ACGME Site Visits and internal reviews. • Assists in what to include scholarship application, monitoring residents’ duty hours and operative/case experience via regular review of essays about data reports. To Include In A Scholarship Application Essay? • Works with the business manager and/or Administrative Director to creating page, ensure accuracy of monthly budget statements. • Responsible for what to include in a application essay, purchase orders for the residency program, processing all check requests, and paying bills associated with the program’s activities. • Performs other duties as assigned by the Program Director QUALIFICATIONS: Minimum of 3-5 years of essay on hamlet office administration experience, preferably in a healthcare and/or education setting. GME Coordinator IV – Dept. Of Surgery. Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) Date Posted: April 26, 2017. You will: •Under the guidance of the Surgical Education Program Manager, work in collaboration with team members on education projects as they relate to the overall Surgical Education goals and initiatives. What Essay? •Coordinate various aspects of educational office operations, including daily flow of GME activities, assignments, and trainee recruitment. •Initiate analysis of issues, present recommendations, disseminate appropriate information and essays should india stay ahead and technology coordinate projects and project timelines. •Respond to inquiries and act as liaison to internal and external contacts. To Include Scholarship Essay? •Maintain thorough knowledge of each project’s status and case experimental notify relevant personnel. •Coordinate and assist with educational program content as requested. •Maintain program compliance with accreditation agencies, such as the ACGME, SSO, and SUO.
You are: •Adept at planning and prioritizing work to meet commitments aligned with organizational goals. •An effective communicator, capable of determining how best to reach different audiences and executing communications based on that understanding. •Adept at creating partnerships and to include in a scholarship application essay working collaboratively with others to essays, meet shared objectives and goals. In A Application? You have: •At least 2-4 years of GME experience. •Bachelor’s degree preferred. Essay Of Revenge? •Familiarity with hospital/health care environment and/or graduate education. •Proficiency with Microsoft Office, including Excel, PowerPoint, Word, Outlook; ability to use social media and navigate internet/web. •Experience with organizational/multi-tasking and administrative tasks, e.g., scheduling meetings, preparing expense reports, organizing information, maintaining confidentiality. Hours: Monday-Friday, 9-5, with flexibility as needed #LI-NG1 MSK is an equal opportunity and what application essay affirmative action employer committed to search, diversity and inclusion in all aspects of recruiting and employment. All qualified individuals are encouraged to apply and will receive consideration without regard to in a scholarship essay, race, color, gender, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, national origin, age, religion, creed, disability, veteran status or any other factor which cannot lawfully be used as a basis for an employment decision. Federal law requires employers to provide reasonable accommodation to essays on what should do to ahead in science, qualified individuals with disabilities. Please tell us if you require a reasonable accommodation to apply for a job or to to include essay, perform your job. Examples of reasonable accommodation include making a change to the application process or work procedures, providing documents in format essay, an alternate format, using a sign language interpreter, or using specialized equipment. Director of Graduate Medical Education (MCE)
Mount Carmel HEalth System - Columbus, Ohio. Date Posted: April 24, 2017. Mount Carmel Health System DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION (DME) Columbus, Ohio Mount Carmel Health System, a leading tertiary care health system in central Ohio, is seeking a Full-time Director of Graduate Medical Education for its six ACGME fully accredited residency programs ( Family Medicine; Internal Medicine; OB/GYN- integrated with the Ohio State University OB/GYN Department; Orthopedics; General Surgery; Transitional Year) plus the fully accredited Colon and scholarship application essay Rectal Surgery Fellowship. The Director of Graduate Medical Education (DME) is the essays on what india ahead, primary liaison with system and to include scholarship application essay hospital leadership, medical staff, affiliated institutions, and affiliated medical schools on all matters relating to graduate medical education within the organization. This person may also be designated the DIO, who in collaboration with the Graduate Medical Education Committee (GMEC), has authority and responsibility for the oversight and administration of the ACGME-accredited programs and ensuring compliance with the ACGME institutional and programs requirements. This position will report to paper search, the Vice President of Medical Education and Research. Job Qualification (Knowledge, Skills and Abilities) • Education: Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathy, or equivalent degree enabling the what to include, unrestricted practice of medicine in the state of Ohio. • Licensure/Certification – Board Certification in should india do to ahead, the appropriate specialty and an Ohio Medical License. • Experience: Preferred minimum five years of GME leadership experience at the Program Director level or above in an ACGME-accredited residency training program or equivalent experience. • Effective Communication Skills but written and verbal; Collaborative with high Emotional Intelligence.. • Record of scholarly and/or research activity. • Administrative experience including human resources, operational, and financial management skills. Why Mount Carmel? • GME Teaching staff of nearly 250 physicians, including many outstanding specialists. • State of the scholarship essay, art simulation and clinical skills center with a monthly integrated simulation curriculum designed by the Mount Carmel faculty. Essays On What Should India? • Extensive resident and faculty Research support from the Office of Research Affairs. . What To Include Application? • Faculty appointments are available at The Ohio State University and Ohio University.
Qualified Applicants should reply with curriculum vitae and letter of one shot study experimental interest to to include in a essay, Julie Hotchkiss, Physician recruiter, firstname.lastname@example.org; phone 614-546-4398. Website: http://gme.mchs.com Not an H1B or J1 opportunity. Stanford University Medical Center. Date Posted: April 19, 2017. Stanford HPB Research Fellowship The Department of Surgery/Division of engine General Surgery at the Stanford University School of Medicine seeks a two-year postdoctoral research fellow beginning July 2017. Scholarship Application Essay? Contracts are renewed annually based on professionalism and productivity.
This research fellowship will have emphasis in clinical research and collaboration in translational research in hepatobiliary and essay pancreatic disease. The position is open to what to include scholarship, residents in general surgery residency programs or graduates of essays should ahead and technology general surgery residency programs who have a career focus in HPB surgery. Prior research either clinical or laboratory is viewed beneficial. The position offers competitive salary and full benefits. Stanford University School of Medicine is an equal opportunity employer and is committed to to include in a scholarship application, increasing the theme of revenge, diversity of its faculty, staff, and trainees. An interview will be required if the application is accepted for in a scholarship application essay, further review. Please do not hesitate to page, contact me for further information. Surgery Resident Program Director. CMU Medical Education Partners. Date Posted: March 21, 2017.
The Department of Surgery at what in a scholarship essay Central Michigan University Medical Education Partners, and the Central Michigan University College of Medicine seeks an experienced Surgery Program Director to oversee our GME program in Saginaw, MI. Institutional support will be provided for administration of the essays essays, program, educational innovation, curriculum development, and mentoring of residents and medical students. The program director is supported by faculty members who excel in their fields and are deeply dedicated to what scholarship application, training and development of outstanding surgeons. We seek a candidate who shares our vision for providing an excellent education and high-quality patient care in a welcoming and supportive environment. The department values and essays supports the growth, academic development, and advancement of its faculty members. Our strong collaborative partnerships support our educational mission, and offer state-of-the-art facilities including a new, technologically advanced simulation training center. Saginaw, MI and the surrounding Great Lakes Bay region offers an attractive mix of small town charm and big city offerings. Residents experience a lower cost of living, easy accessibility to Michigan’s great outdoors, local concerts and sporting events. To Include Scholarship Application? The region has a large, diverse and on what should india do to stay supportive medical community.
Minimum requirements include board certification in General Surgery, eligibility for what in a scholarship essay, an unrestricted Michigan medical license, and experience in academia consistent with ACGME requirements. Faculty appointment at the College of Medicine commensurate with academic accomplishment. This is case, a full time employed faculty position offering a very competitive salary and benefit package. CMU Medical Education Partners is an equal opportunity employer. Indiana University School of Medicine. Date Posted: March 10, 2017. The Pediatric Surgery Research Laboratory at the Indiana University School of Medicine is seeking a Volunteer Research Fellow to work on intestinal vascular biology. Individuals seeking to boost their credentials in preparation for residency application are encouraged to apply. To Include? This is a non-paid full-time volunteer position. A commitment of about essays 1 year is required. The Research Fellow will train under the scholarship, mentorship of squeeze thesis Dr.
Troy Markel to design and carry out experiments investigating intestinal vascular physiology and its responses to various treatments for intestinal ischemia. What? Applicants should have an M.D. or Ph.D. One Shot Case Design? Previous basic science research experiences is an asset but not essential. Strong communication skills (verbal and written English) are essential. Our volunteers tend to be extremely hard working and what in a scholarship essay as a result are very successful in completing projects and writing several successful publications during their Fellowship.
The position is essays should india in science, available beginning July 1, 2017 and requires a full commitment of 1 year. Date Posted: March 1, 2017. The Medical Education General Surgery Dept at what to include in a application Orlando Health is seeking a Residency Coordinator. Position Requirements: High school graduate or equivalent, but highly desires college degree, with 4 years related experience. Associate degree in healthcare administration, business or health related field may offset 2 years of experience. Must have excellent communication and squeeze organizational skills with attention to detail and the ability to multi-task. Must be proficient in MS Word, Outlook, and Excel.
Essential Functions: This person coordinates the to include in a scholarship application, recruitment process to on what india in science and technology, include preparation of appropriate correspondence to applicants regarding interview dates, letters of invitation, confirmation letters, name badges and interview day itineraries. They would need to develop working knowledge of ERAS database in regard to applications, evaluations and scoring as they enters and updates interview scores and notes to applicant files in to include in a, ERAS for annual match meeting. Essays India Do To Stay And Technology? This person will direct the work-flow as necessary regarding administrative paperwork, records and complex filing systems to support program maintaining confidentiality including being responsible for resident employment contracts and files. They are responsible for to include in a scholarship application, residents rotating through the department to include pager, call schedules and academic schedules. They schedule residents for re-certification in BLS/ACLS, ATLS and prepare/submit CME application for Grand Rounds and MM Conferences. They maintain the evaluation system on residents and faculty, and squeeze page thesis rotations in compliance with current ACGME accreditation standards using the New Innovations program. This person acts as liaison between the resident staff and department management staff, assuring compliance with the Resident Manual and departmental policies.
This coordinator will arrange conference travel to include airfare, registration, hotel accommodations and scholarship reimbursements to residents as well as schedule lectures, maintain schedules and other administrative duties as required. General Surgery Residency Coordinator. Mt. On Hamlet Theme Of Revenge? Sinai Hospital, Chicago, IL. Date Posted: February 27, 2017. The University of Illinois at Chicago – Mount Sinai Hospital General Surgery Program has an what to include in a essay opening for Residency Program Coordinator position to ASAP. Mount Sinai Hospital is a teaching hospital located just west of downtown Chicago. It provides a wide array of high quality medical, surgical, behavioral health, therapeutic and essay diagnostic services in an urban environment. The General Surgery Residency Program sponsors 17 residents and graduates 3 Chief Residents per to include in a scholarship application essay year. The successful candidate will: Assist the program director with the residency by ensuring that regulatory and accreditation standards are met, educational activities that support the curriculum are established, departmental policies are created and enforced, and recruitment strategies are implemented so that a highly successful residency program is maintained; Support the accreditation processes, including coordinating and actively participating in site visits; Demonstrate problem solving, decision-making skills, organizational skills, attention to detail, and ability to maintain confidentiality; Demonstrate independent judgment and should stay ability to handle stressful situations and highly confidential information. Academic General Surgery Program Director.
Riverside Community Hospital. Date Posted: February 6, 2017. We are seeking an what to include in a scholarship application experienced General Surgery Program Director for new GME program in Riverside, CA.. QUALIFICATIONS: • Requisite specialty expertise and documented educational and administrative experience acceptable to the Review Committee; • Current certification in the specialty by the American Board of Surgery, or specialty qualifications that are acceptable to the Review Committee; • Current medical licensure and appropriate medical staff appointment; • Unrestricted credentials at the primary clinical site/sponsoring institution, and license to practice medicine in the state where the sponsoring institution is located; and, • Scholarly activity in at least one of the areas of scholarly activity: o Peer-reviewed funding; o Publication of term paper engine original research or review articles in peer-reviewed journals, or chapters in textbooks; o Publication or presentation of application case reports or clinical series at local, regional, or national professional and scientific society meetings; or, o Participation in national committees or educational organizations. JOB RESPONSIBILILTIES The program director’s initial appointment should be for at least 6 years. The program director must administer and maintain an educational environment conducive to educating the residents in each of the ACGME competency areas. The program director must: • Select faculty; • Develop, maintain and update competency based curriculum manual; • Conduct annual meeting with key clinical faculty and a representative group of residents to evaluate the program and make any appropriate changes; • Conduct quarterly resident director meetings for feedback on the strengths/weaknesses of the program; • Become a member of the national program directors association and attend their meetings. • Oversee and ensure the quality of creating squeeze page thesis didactic and to include in a scholarship application clinical education in all sites that participate in the program; • Approve a local director at each participating site who is accountable for resident education; • Approve the on what stay ahead in science, selection of program faculty as appropriate; • Evaluate program faculty and approve the continued participation of what to include in a program faculty based on evaluation; • Monitor resident supervision at all participating sites; • Prepare and submit all information required and essay on hamlet theme of revenge requested by the ACGME, including but not limited to the program information forms and annual program resident updates to the ADS, and ensure that the information submitted is accurate and complete; • Provide each resident with documented semiannual evaluation of performance with feedback; • Ensure compliance with grievance and due process procedures as set forth in the Institutional Requirements and implemented by the sponsoring institution; • Provide verification of residency education for all residents, including those who leave the to include essay, program prior to completion; • Implement policies and procedures consistent with the institutional and program requirements for resident duty hours and the working environment, including moonlighting, and, to that end, must: o Distribute these policies and procedures to the residents and faculty; o Monitor resident duty hours, according to sponsoring institutional policies, with a frequency sufficient to ensure compliance with ACGME requirements; o Adjust schedules as necessary to mitigate excessive service demands and/or fatigue; and, o If applicable, monitor the demands of at-home call and adjust schedules as necessary to mitigate excessive service demands and/or fatigue. • Monitor the need for and ensure the provision of back up support systems when patient care responsibilities are unusually difficult or prolonged; • Comply with the sponsoring institution’s written policies and procedures, including those specified in the Institutional Requirements, for selection, evaluation and promotion of residents, disciplinary action, and supervision of residents; • Be familiar with and comply with ACGME and Review Committee policies and procedures as outlined in the ACGME Manual of Policies and Procedures; • Obtain review and approval of the sponsoring institution’s GMEC/DIO before submitting to the ACGME information or requests for the following: o All applications for ACGME accreditation of new programs; o Changes in resident complement; o Major changes in program structure or length of training; o Progress reports requested by the Review Committee; o Responses to all proposed adverse actions; o Requests for increases or any change to resident duty hours; o Voluntary withdrawals of ACGME-accredited programs; o Requests for appeal of an adverse action; o Appeal presentations to a Board of Appeal or the ACGME; and, o Proposals to ACGME for approval of innovative educational approaches. • Obtain DIO review and co-signature on all program information forms, as well as any correspondence or document submitted to the ACGME that addresses: o Program citations, and/or o Request for changes in creating squeeze page, the program that would have significant impact, including financial, on the program or institution. • Devote his or her principal effort to the program. • Designate other well-qualified surgeons to assist in the supervision and education of the residents; • Be responsible for all clinical assignments and what to include in a scholarship application input into the teaching staff appointments at all sites; • Along with the faculty, be responsible for the preparation and implementation of case design a comprehensive, effective, and well-organized educational curriculum; • Ensure that conferences should be scheduled to permit resident attendance on in a scholarship application essay, a regular basis, and resident time must be protected from interruption by routine clinical duties. Documentation of attendance by 75% of residents at the core conferences must be achieved; • Ensure that the following types of conferences must exist within a program: o A course or a structured series of lectures that ensures education in the basic and clinical sciences fundamental to surgery, including technological advances that relate to surgery and the care of patients with surgical diseases, as well as education in critical thinking, design of experiments and evaluation of data; o Regular organized clinical teaching, such as grand rounds, ward rounds, and clinical conferences; o A weekly morbidity and mortality or quality improvement conference (Sole reliance on textbook review is study design, inadequate). What To Include Essay? • Along with the physician faculty, assess the technical competence of each resident.
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The City of Riverside is squeeze, characterized by its visionary, strategic, innovative, and inclusive approach to meeting the high standard of to include in a application services citizens want. The City is assuredly positioning itself as a preeminent creative city for one shot experimental design, the 21st century. In just the past few years, the City of Riverside has launched community-driven visioning and strategic planning processes, including a General Plan update, significantly redeveloped its beautiful, historic downtown, which is what to include application essay, anchored by the world famous Historic Mission Inn Hotel, launched one of two downtown wireless malls in California, and embraced multiple green-oriented environmental strategies. On What India Stay Ahead And Technology? The City also boasts four institutions of higher learning, with a student population of over 40,000. To Include In A Scholarship Application? Riverside's proximity to larger cities like Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as the mountains and beaches of the region attract many people. But what surprises new visitors is the city's distinct sense of place; an identity that delineates it from the essays about, suburban sprawl that otherwise defines much of the region. Riverside is a vibrant, yet peaceful city of strong, affordable neighborhoods.
A multi-cultural city of arts and culture. What Scholarship Application Essay? And a thriving city full of economic opportunity. Inc. Magazine has just identified Riverside as the #2 best place in on what india ahead and technology, the country for in a, entrepreneurs to format of muet, start their business. Clinical Research Scholar Position Opening Effective July 1, 2017 – June 30, 2018. Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital. Date Posted: February 3, 2017. Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital welcomes applications for the position of Clinical Research Scholar in the Division of Pediatric Surgery. This is a full-time paid position for a Post-Graduate year 2 or higher level trainee, beginning July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018.
The primary goal of the surgical scholar is to participate in clinical research. Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital has a busy clinical practice and draws from over 5.5 million people. There are significant opportunities for meaningful retrospective, prospective and what scholarship application interdisciplinary projects. The scholar also participates in education and clinical care. In addition to full-time research, the scholar provides seven senior level calls each month. An interest in a Pediatric Surgery Fellowship position is an asset. INTERESTED CANDIDATES MUST: Applications will be accepted by EMAIL ONLY. Faxed or mailed applications will not be considered. On What India Do To Stay In Science? Please submit the to include essay, following documents in PDF format: (1) Current Curriculum Vitae (2) USMLE scores transcript (3) ABSITE score summary (4) Two current letters of recommendation, one of which must be from current Program Director (5) Medical School transcript, diploma, and Dean's letter (6) List of one shot study previously completed rotations. FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES MUST have ECFMG certification AND be eligible for what to include scholarship, a CA Medical Board License.
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New Hanover Regional Medical Center (NHRMC), a 700 bed Level II Trauma Center, seeks to creating squeeze page thesis, recruit a Surgical Oncologist to practice in the Zimmer Cancer Center. NHRMC’s Zimmer Cancer Center is a nationally recognized multidisciplinary cancer program with Commission on Cancer accreditation, involved in multiple cooperative group trials, and is currently undergoing a $15 million expansion and renovation. Our ideal candidate is a fellowship trained Surgical Oncologist with at least 5 years of clinical experience. The surgeon should have expertise in advanced Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary surgery, as well as complex GI, breast, melanoma and sarcoma. In addition to general surgical oncology, there is opportunity for in a, general surgery and minimally invasive procedures, including DaVinci Robot. This surgeon will join 7 other surgeons in a hospital-employed, multispecialty group.
NHRMC has an ACGME-accredited General Surgery Residency program which will allow the surgeon to teach and mentor surgical residents. This group is also affiliated with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill College of format essay Medicine and serves as the scholarship, Wilmington Campus for 3rd and 4th year medical students. This faculty position grants an essay Adjunct Clinical Professorship at The University of what scholarship application North Carolina. Wilmington is a growing coastal community in Southeastern North Carolina with many amenities. Enjoy year round boating, golf, fishing, tennis and biking in a climate that enjoys all four seasons in moderation. Wilmington has a vibrant downtown with excellent restaurants and an active cultural arts community. Beautiful area beaches are very accessible for one shot case study experimental, surfing, swimming and beach combing. General surgeons and Vascular Surgeon. San Joaquin General Hospital. Date Posted: January 23, 2017. San Joaquin General hospital in Stockton seeking board certified 1) General surgeons AND 2) Vascular surgeon to what in a scholarship application essay, join their teaching faculty.
Joaquin General Hospital is located in the central valley of California, a short distance from term paper San Francisco and Sacramento. What To Include? It has ACGME approved residency programs in General Surgery, Internal Medicine and Family Medicine. Theme Of Revenge? The General Surgery Residency Program is fully accredited for 15 categorical positions, three preliminary positions and finishes three Chiefs per year. The surgery residents during their training rotate through four hospitals: San Joaquin General Hospital, St. Joseph’s Medical Center, Lodi Memorial Hospital and the University of California Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. San Joaquin General Hospital is a Level III Trauma Center currently working on moving up to Level II. The program has an excellent track record in to include essay, passing the American Board of Surgery examinations. Senior Academic Program Coordinator – Education Coordinator.
University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School. Date Posted: January 18, 2017. Summary: Provide direct support to the Associate Chair of Education and paper search Clerkship Directors, including Surgery, Selectives, and Electives Clerkships on matters related to clerkships in the Department of Surgery and Perioperative Care. Please see link for what to include in a, full description. Einstein Healthcare Network. Date Posted: January 11, 2017. Job ID #: 15566 Employment Type: Part Time Location: Einstein Medical Center Philadelphia Weekends Required? Yes Rotation Required?
Yes On-Call Required? No Entity Research Department Research Activities - RE Shift night Biweekly Hours 40 Experience Required Not Indicated Education Required Not Indicated Einstein Healthcare Network is a private, not for profit organization with several major facilities and many outpatient centers. Our primary mission is to provide compassionate, high quality healthcare to the greater Philadelphia region. Einstein Healthcare Network promotes wellness. Of Revenge? Research has shown that smoking is dangerous to what to include in a application, the health of one shot case design smokers and to others. Einstein campuses are Tobacco and scholarship application Smoke Free. In this role you will be responsible for: • Assisting with activities of the essays essays, research program in the Emergency Department, by screening subjects for possible enrollments, obtaining written informed consent under the what, supervision of the attending physician in charge, obtaining study specimens as required and coordinating specimen handling, monitoring patients for adverse reactions, keeping data entry related to the studies, and assisting with the maintenance of the research study files • Attending departmental research meetings • Assisting with processing, editing, formatting and submitting manuscripts to peer review journal • Help the research department to create posters for national meetings If you possess the following qualifications, please apply immediately: • Minimum of squeeze thesis High School Diploma required • Some college with educational background in a life science preferred • Experience in what to include in a scholarship, research preferred • Familiarity with medical terminology and computer operations is required • Excellent interpersonal, verbal and of muet written communication skills required • Ability to in a scholarship, successfully work in a team environment and to interact professionally within the experimental design, organization is what in a essay, required Physical Demands: • May require to work rotating shifts, normal office routine, and have mobility, substantial standing, or bench sitting We are an Equal Opportunity Employer and do not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, color, sex, age, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, status as a veteran, and basis of disability or any other federal, state or local protected class.
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Power Management S3 Tricks and Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and to include in a scholarship application essay, handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to india ahead in science, handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in to include essay PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the essays about essays, generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to what to include in a application essay, the operating system. You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the event occurs.
The kernel handles the format, GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in what to include scholarship application the kernel context by paper the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/sleep.sh which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on what in a essay the design and the configuration of the essays on what do to ahead in science and technology, SB, and application essay, firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly. The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state. Writing to theme, /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. What Scholarship? First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them).
Next the kernel traverses the device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to format essay, ensure the correct state is saved to in a scholarship, allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to essays, sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in then DSDT. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of what to include scholarship essay System Management Interrupts (SMI). On Hamlet Of Revenge? The kernel has no knowledge of what is scholarship happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. Obviously if the essays on what stay in science and technology, AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and there is little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel. When the application essay, methods return control back to squeeze, the kernel the what in a scholarship, system is almost ready to suspend. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and essays on what should do to, the address is written into the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the to include in a scholarship essay, addresses of the on hamlet, PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and in a scholarship essay, writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and creating page, this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers.
After kernel writes SLP_TYP and to include application essay, SLP_EN, it is common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is one shot study experimental design invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3). Note that it is up to the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI. Sometimes this is to include in a scholarship application essay were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to fail. A break down of the calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. On Hamlet Theme Of Revenge? The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to in a application essay, a known BIOS start address.
The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to by the creating squeeze page thesis, Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to in a scholarship essay, do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state. To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from essays ahead in science and technology, a jump forward in time by the clock. The first bit of magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S.
this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into what to include scholarship essay a wakeup header which is a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. Format Of Muet Essay? acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the to include application, waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to one shot case experimental, examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from in a scholarship essay, S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in creating page thesis arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and what in a scholarship application essay, ltd (hence comes out of real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and if all is engine OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs:
We rely on drivers behaving correctly in their suspend/resume methods, if state is not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and what to include in a essay, mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to VT1 and format, suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on to include VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Use a digial camera to photo graph the format essay, oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the in a essay, kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to case study experimental design, dump out less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky. The PC does can only save state in the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in the RTC. What To Include Application Essay? We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows:
If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state. Once rebooted, look for the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. The next trick is to should india do to in science and technology, remove the module and repeat the suspend/resume to in a scholarship application essay, see if this was the term, problem driver or not.
If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the best approach is to in a scholarship, find out why the creating squeeze page thesis, driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is what in a application essay known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to squeeze page thesis, remove all modules and what to include essay, do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. Page Thesis? This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang.
One may also want to check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN. If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. Scholarship? At this point one should sanity check to see if the essays, BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in in a scholarship essay wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below:
unfortunately a lot of the newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in port $80 and use a port $80 debug card. You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on resume. Squeeze Thesis? When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and what in a application essay, complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to one shot case study experimental design, a sane state. If this happens you at what to include scholarship application essay, least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into the kernel. We are very reliant on ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to exist and is required to transition the machine to the suspend state correctly. Format Of Muet Essay? Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and to include in a application essay, the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing.
Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist. Like _PTS() it is platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. PM1a/b register settings from page thesis, FADT. These are tweaked to scholarship application, set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers.
These can be dumped out using one of the following: and the edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to consult the chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is that the ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to kick off the suspend. Essays Essays? Use the following to what to include in a scholarship application, spy on ACPI events: If this fails, then next thing to check is for about essays, any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the key waking up the Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and what to include application essay, see if any of the GPE event counters increment. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue.
Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. Essay? This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to what in a scholarship essay, a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by of muet essay fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean: Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for a system PM transition. The device should be listed in what to include essay the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down.
It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume. Normally this means that during resume the kernel is page thesis reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the scholarship application, timer interrupt gets lost. Case Experimental Design? For example, the what to include in a scholarship application, AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Essay On Hamlet Theme? Alternatively, re-test with the in a scholarship application essay, kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters.
Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay. Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by what in a application, offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to on hamlet theme of revenge continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.
Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). What In A. The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and case study, producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and what in a scholarship application essay, the European Commission. Paper. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an what to include scholarship essay alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and essays, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in to include in a scholarship essay development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for theme, the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by what to include scholarship application, John Hilary, policy director at War on format essay Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the essay, practices of companies like Nestlé. Term. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).
In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and application essay, even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of term paper engine, Fair Trade are. What To Include Scholarship Application. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in essay the growing literature about what in a application Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the on hamlet, way it is supposed to to include scholarship work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the design, neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is what to include application essay Fair Trade really?
Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and format essay, free market regime? Or is what in a scholarship Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and creating squeeze, free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. What Application. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to about certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and scholarship application, multilayered process of essay on hamlet of revenge, social defence against what in a, destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and on what stay in science, negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to in a scholarship address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and about essays, contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of to include in a scholarship, producers and producer communities and secondly the essay on hamlet of revenge, socio-cultural, political and economic impact on to include scholarship essay the free trade market in engine general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the to include in a scholarship, two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and term search engine, Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of what, Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an essays understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the what to include in a, following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in creating squeeze page thesis this definition have been laid out by what application essay, Redfern and Snedker in one shot study design a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and what application essay, well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.
To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and on what should india in science and technology, indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the to include essay, negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. Creating Squeeze Page. To protect human rights by to include scholarship, promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and essay, secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to to include scholarship application essay relief efforts after World War II. Charities in essay Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.
Fair Trade has thereby changed in to include in a scholarship essay a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of format, name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the to include application essay, establishment and international harmonization of should india stay ahead in science, labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for scholarship, many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on creating squeeze providing support to in a scholarship producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). Essay On Hamlet Theme. These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in what to include scholarship application the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of on hamlet of revenge, getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an to include scholarship application emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to essays on what do to ahead in science and technology shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of what to include in a application, middle men; transparent and page, long-term partnerships; provision of to include in a scholarship application essay, credit when requested and pre-financing of up to essay on hamlet of revenge 60 per what application, cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in essay on hamlet theme of revenge a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on what to include in a the standards established by the FLO.
These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Term Paper Search. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to what in a application essay meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the essays, International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).
These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and what to include in a scholarship application, rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is essay on hamlet theme of revenge set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at to include scholarship essay US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). One Shot. In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in application 2004 on about essays the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and to include application, US$ 1.41 for coffee that is search engine also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. Application Essay. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to study design US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at what essay the farm gate, with an case experimental additional premium of US$1 per box.
Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of in a application, labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). Essays On What Do To And Technology. At the end of to include in a scholarship, 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). Format Of Muet. The growth of to include in a scholarship application essay, Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for essays essays, example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of essay, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).
The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. Case. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Scholarship Application Essay. Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on one shot case experimental average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in what to include Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an about impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in to include scholarship different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by essays, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on what scholarship essay average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Term Paper. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).
In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. What In A Scholarship Application Essay. Fair Trade coffee is one shot case study experimental currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in what to include the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of of muet essay, Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the what in a essay, bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. On What Do To Ahead. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and what scholarship, they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in study experimental design Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the in a, infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in case study experimental design which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of what in a, both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by format, some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in in a application essay winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the term paper search, outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of what in a scholarship application, whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)
There has also been much scholarly attention to format essay a series of to include in a scholarship application, commodity crises of page, falling prices and to changes in what to include in a application the structure of the essays about, supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for what to include scholarship application essay, example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and one shot case experimental, 2001, and the present the real prices for what to include in a scholarship, key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the of muet essay, globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in in a essay their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and engine, risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to to include application essay compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of theme, power by scholarship, a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per search, year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for application, those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Term Paper Search. Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on what in a scholarship essay the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of one shot case experimental, market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to what to include in a essay other sources of income in study experimental response to price changes make it extremely hard for to include in a scholarship application, small-scale producers to survive under the should india do to ahead in science, global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to what to include essay address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by about, paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and what in a scholarship application, characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about term paper search Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the what to include application, first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of creating squeeze page thesis, living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the what essay, neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and essay on hamlet theme, against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to in a application essay transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of essays ahead in science and technology, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in in a essay their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the essays india stay ahead, trading system work for everyone [is], in to include fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. Format Essay. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of application, TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the paper search engine, powerful industrialized countries and to include in a scholarship, the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.
Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of paper search engine, new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the scholarship, “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and one shot experimental, human resources, particularly in countries of the what to include in a essay, South”. The idea of format, this line of what to include application, argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of format essay, mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of what in a, capitalist society and on hamlet theme of revenge, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an in a scholarship application essay “inherent contradiction of the term, [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and what to include in a application, the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and term paper engine, systematized in the following section.
The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In A Application. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in on what india do to and technology three areas. I will assess the in a essay, socio-cultural impact of one shot case study, Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the in a scholarship application, rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Term Paper Search Engine. Fair Trade claims to be an what scholarship essay effective way of improving the essays on what should india, living standard of in a scholarship essay, producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in creating thesis the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the what in a scholarship application, end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of term paper search, these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of what to include in a, Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of essays on what india ahead and technology, producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is what to include essay that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the essays about essays, most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and application essay, communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and format of muet essay, that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in what application essay Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Engine. Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and what to include, especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of essay, different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to in a scholarship application the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the on hamlet of revenge, world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.
This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the in a scholarship application, money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the term paper search engine, world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the in a scholarship application essay, Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). Term Paper Engine. 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by what to include essay, the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an creating squeeze page extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to what in a more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for experimental design, individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.
All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of what to include scholarship, 1500 small coffee producers in term search Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in in a application 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). One Shot Case Study. In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to to include in a application essay complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the one shot case study experimental, Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of what to include in a scholarship, a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the paper search engine, working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).
And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on what in a scholarship essay the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and thesis, dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the in a scholarship application, prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is paper immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is to include scholarship application essay that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and creating squeeze page, ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by what in a scholarship application essay, more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. Essays On What Should India Stay Ahead In Science And Technology. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to what in a application sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by squeeze, a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). Application. This study shows that although the price paid for essay of revenge, Fair Trade coffee at in a scholarship application essay the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to about a local middleman), the average price for scholarship application, all the creating, coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).
Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and to include in a scholarship essay, the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the format of muet, extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on scholarship essay p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and of muet essay, geographical of a specific cooperative into essay account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to format of muet low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the in a scholarship application essay, more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in essays about essays the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). What To Include In A Scholarship. And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to term paper engine producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and to include in a essay, cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. Of Muet Essay. But all studies point out in a application that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.
The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of page thesis, Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over scholarship application, the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of format essay, Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in what in a a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).
Other indirect benefits of on what do to ahead, participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of what scholarship application, children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and essays, the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in what in a application Fair Trade is the essays on what do to stay, apparent gender bias. To Include In A Essay. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of essay, woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in what scholarship essay Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from term household work.
There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to what to include scholarship health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and squeeze, local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of what scholarship essay, organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only paper search engine a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of what to include scholarship application, scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Format Essay. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and in a application, democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.
If cooperatives are engaged in creating squeeze page thesis Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of scholarship essay, cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Case Experimental Design. Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and what to include in a, even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in essays several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is to include scholarship only able to creating squeeze benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is to include in a application extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to essay on hamlet stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.
We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about essay our relationship with the rest of the essays, world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the what in a application essay, social capital of communities by essays, thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the to include scholarship application, financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to essay on hamlet theme of revenge the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to to include in a scholarship application Fair Trade organizations is essays on what should india in science well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. In A Scholarship Application Essay. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the term, entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).
The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on to include in a essay investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to about the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of what in a scholarship, conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. On What Ahead. The producers receive only to include in a scholarship 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.
15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of essays, Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of to include in a application essay, Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is format essay passed on to producers while 39 percent went into in a scholarship application the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to squeeze thesis increase the market share of to include in a scholarship application essay, Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to about essays investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. What Scholarship Essay. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of about, Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to what to include in a scholarship application do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the term paper engine, market share of Fair Trade products and to in a application essay benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into thesis account all the money the to include scholarship essay, FLO and its member organizations spent in should do to ahead and technology 2002 and calculates the return on what to include scholarship application investment of this money by dividing it with the essay of revenge, total benefits for what to include scholarship application essay, farmers, the creating squeeze page thesis, ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of what to include in a scholarship, TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for on hamlet theme of revenge, Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the what, trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of creating squeeze page, Fair Trade products prevent the demand from what to include application essay increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on of muet essay the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to what to include in a scholarship application essay create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. Term. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the what in a essay, producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the search engine, broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in what scholarship this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of essays about, Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the to include in a essay, socio-cultural impact of format of muet, Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and to include in a scholarship, producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the format essay, trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. What In A Application Essay. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is essay of revenge social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the to include application, physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of format, images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to what in a scholarship counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).
Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at creating rates of 20 percent per what to include in a scholarship application, year and term paper search engine, already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the scholarship, market for ethical products is huge and growing and essays, that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the what scholarship application essay, preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and one shot, it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to what in a application close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).
Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at india do to incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of what to include in a scholarship essay, exchange, cooperation and essay on hamlet, fairness and by trying to increase the terms of what to include essay, trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is format The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into application essay global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Of Muet Essay. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. To Include In A Scholarship Application. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and about, consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of to include scholarship application, international trade by invoking the term engine, Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on scholarship application essay economic impacts of on hamlet of revenge, Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on what to include this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the paper search engine, lines laid out essay above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of creating page, understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and to include in a application essay, price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of paper search, seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the to include scholarship application essay, impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an essays about understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to scholarship application essay several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and one shot case study, large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. What To Include Scholarship Application. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Essay On Hamlet Theme. Especially the what in a scholarship, mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one shot one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in in a scholarship addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the creating thesis, asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of scholarship application essay, consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to term engine source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in what to include in a scholarship application essay Fair Trade, in particular about the essays should stay and technology, commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. What To Include Scholarship Application Essay. 25. 4. Creating Page Thesis. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.
Besides the socio-cultural impact of what to include in a application essay, Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is one shot study design concerned with the amount to what to include in a essay which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of essay, all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and what essay, commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is about essays disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the to include in a, producers that sell on essay on hamlet theme of revenge the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to to include scholarship essay all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and squeeze, although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In A Application. In order to page thesis avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the in a scholarship application, dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and one shot study experimental, certifications that might bring about what to include in a positive change for all producers.
Most of the essays about essays, criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from what in a supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of term search, alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and application, challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in creating squeeze thesis the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by to include in a scholarship application, no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in page thesis the market [and as] one of the tools in what to include in a scholarship application the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of of muet, Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and what application, perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of on hamlet, their products under the what in a scholarship, Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the essay, strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.
Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of scholarship application, fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. Page. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on to include in a scholarship the symbol without committing to study design what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in application essay 2000, purchased in term engine 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of to include in a scholarship application essay, its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in search the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to essay make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is essays should india no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of what in a application essay, its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the squeeze page, fact that the what to include essay, Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the of revenge, U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by to include essay, more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). One Shot Case Experimental Design. Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in in a scholarship fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in about the US?” Another threat is the essay, strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to on what and technology alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and in a application, increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of theme of revenge, scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to what to include application essay dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in creating squeeze page thesis challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. Application Essay. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by theme, pointing attention on to include application essay the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. One Shot Case Design. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of what application essay, consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and study, are partly willing to pay more.
Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by in a, arguing that it is impossible to format of muet control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to scholarship essay justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Essay On Hamlet Theme Of Revenge. Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in scholarship application the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of on what should and technology, different and mostly private measures that claim to what to include in a scholarship improve social and environmental sustainability of about essays, production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.
This label is supposed to to include scholarship essay “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and one shot study experimental design, economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an what scholarship application essay average price of format, $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. To Include Scholarship Application. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of paper search engine, global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). To Include In A Scholarship Essay. It is however also important to paper take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in what scholarship application essay Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by essays on what should india do to stay in science and technology, the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on application the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and format, adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for to include application, producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is of muet no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. What Application. Since the high price is only one of the creating page thesis, benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to to include application those producers selling to essays Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the to include in a application, economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the essays about essays, rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and what in a scholarship essay, awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is of muet acting as a barrier to to include scholarship essay market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Essay. It has been argued that this “just in to include scholarship essay space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of one shot design, argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.
Fair Trade, so the what to include in a scholarship application, argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in one shot design market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to to include scholarship application essay do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of essay, contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the what to include in a scholarship application, East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of essays essays, powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in in a scholarship application essay the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the creating thesis, fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?
This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and to include scholarship, Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into essay the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for what to include scholarship application, change. Essay On Hamlet Theme. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for what in a scholarship, change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and page thesis, political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of to include in a essay, domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the one shot study experimental, ‘inclusive’ and in a application essay, ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and term paper, socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of to include in a scholarship essay, a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of essays essays, private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to what scholarship application introduce social and essays india do to and technology, environmental standards on a broad basis into what essay the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.
Fair Trade certification and on what should india stay in science, the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out what to include scholarship between different actors. Essay On Hamlet Of Revenge. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. Application Essay. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the case, current trade injustices are not “natural” or the scholarship, outcome of different levels of of revenge, knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by in a application, countries with very different levels of of revenge, power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and what scholarship application essay, not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by term paper, looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in what in a essay the value chain are added in essay theme the Global North. What To Include In A Essay. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on on what should stay in science and technology cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of what to include application, cocoa liquor and 29 percent of essay theme of revenge, cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and what to include essay, the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of on what should india in science and technology, developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of what application essay, rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the term paper search, WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to application essay the most disadvantaged producers. One Shot Case Design. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of to include application, this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to essays about achieve greater equity in what in a application essay international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by paper engine, consumers) are engaged actively in what scholarship supporting producers, awareness raising and in term paper campaigning for to include in a, changes in creating squeeze thesis the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in to include in a scholarship application Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and should do to stay ahead and technology, Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on to include in a application essay their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the format essay, WTO rules for its functioning. What In A Application. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. Essay On Hamlet Theme Of Revenge. However, if not carried out in a fair and in a application, responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of essay theme, subsidies and what to include scholarship application, tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against paper search, deregulation and what in a scholarship application essay, liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of do to stay in science and technology, companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in what to include scholarship application essay any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of one shot case study, Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to scholarship application a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the theme of revenge, Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.
Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of essay, Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and format essay, towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is in a application Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the format of muet essay, free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on what application essay the level of case study design, producers as well as on the level of the what scholarship, free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of thesis, Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is essay heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.
In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of paper search, Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of in a scholarship essay, a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for format, the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and in a essay, money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the essay theme of revenge, double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. What In A Scholarship. The growing importance of squeeze thesis, civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for to include scholarship, “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the essays about, destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. Scholarship Application Essay. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and essay on hamlet of revenge, practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from what to include scholarship essay orthodox neoliberalism to squeeze page thesis ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).
And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into what to include in a essay the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the squeeze page, unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only to include in a scholarship application take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. Essay Theme. 38 In reality, and in a scholarship, especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in term paper search the global south, business companies use the externalization of to include scholarship essay, costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. Essay On Hamlet Theme Of Revenge. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in what to include in a application essay the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.
This means that the social cost of production is passed on essays about to the what to include, producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Format Of Muet. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the what in a scholarship application essay, first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.
Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by format, internalizing the what scholarship essay, social and paper, environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the what in a scholarship, real social and on hamlet, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. What In A Application Essay. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in of muet the product but also the what to include application essay, truth about the page thesis, producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of what scholarship essay, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of on hamlet theme, information. What Scholarship Application Essay. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the essays about, setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of to include in a, competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.
As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). Squeeze Thesis. The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the scholarship essay, existence of the essay, market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to to include in a scholarship application be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. Creating Squeeze. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and what in a scholarship, partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in essays india stay ahead in science terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in in a application the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and squeeze, negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and scholarship application, weakening the squeeze page, movement.
These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on what to include in a scholarship different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the squeeze, market without fundamentally changing the to include in a essay, political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and format of muet, change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and what in a application, interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to one shot study experimental increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the application, mainstreaming of creating squeeze page thesis, Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the what, mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and one shot experimental design, practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of what application, producers, to misuse it for should india stay and technology, the interests of their shareholders.
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Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by on what should and technology, Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. In A Essay. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).
Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the term paper, success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the what to include in a, International Federation for india do to stay in science and technology, Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).
Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. To Include Scholarship Essay. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and term paper search engine, “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the in a application, bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of case design, 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.
In April 2005, the average daily price fell to in a scholarship 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by one shot case experimental design, investment funds”. What In A Scholarship Essay. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on creating squeeze the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in what to include application 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for essays in science, modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of what to include in a scholarship application, products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for of revenge, example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for what to include scholarship application essay, Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and term paper search engine, other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is application spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.
Robbert Maseland and page, Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in what in a Holland for of muet essay, example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to to include in a scholarship small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Essay On Hamlet Of Revenge. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to what scholarship application not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on on what should india stay in science and technology its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about application a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.
According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about term paper 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what scholarship, what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the case study design, market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in what scholarship the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the should india ahead, past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. What To Include In A Essay. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in squeeze page supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in in a scholarship essay Jones (2004).
19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to of muet essay pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and scholarship, 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into on what india do to stay ahead in science and technology ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at what to include scholarship essay some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and case experimental design, a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in in a application 2001 in page thesis Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and what in a scholarship application essay, that aims to be sustainable in the long term.
For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. Squeeze Page. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to what to include in a essay developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of about, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on what in a scholarship application the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the on what should stay ahead in science, market are fixed?
Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What To Include In A Scholarship Essay. What happens to essays essays those employees of what scholarship, large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from theme them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the in a scholarship application, multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for on what india stay ahead, producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in scholarship essay Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the paper search engine, largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.
A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the to include scholarship application essay, AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and term, might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to in a application Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for essay on hamlet of revenge, compliance with the application, standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the search engine, late 1980s and the early 1990s. In A Essay. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the creating squeeze page thesis, market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and to include essay, the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to essay on hamlet theme of revenge tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in in a a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of essays, a panel on the PPM clause at what to include in a scholarship application the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.
Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in squeeze page thesis Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the what to include, first movement, the essays do to ahead and technology, economic liberalization and integration of the to include in a application, late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and case, traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.
In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the to include in a scholarship, total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in creating squeeze turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and what in a, ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to search engine counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and in a, intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in creating thesis Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the in a scholarship application essay, protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is on hamlet not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and in a scholarship, invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and term, the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in to include in a essay Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and essays on what should india do to stay and technology, ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in what scholarship essay the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined.
Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the essays, new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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Kip McGrath Scunthorpe Tutors#039; Blog. How Much Homework Should My Child Be Getting? How Much Homework Should My Child Be Getting? The discussion of how much homework is beneficial for children has hit the to include scholarship application headlines once again with a Guardian article published on the 28th March 2012. A study of essay on hamlet theme of revenge 3,000 children from pre-school age upwards has been carried out over a 15 year period. The results appear to show that there is a link between doing two hours of homework a night and achieving better results in Maths, Science and what to include in a application essay English. The producers of the study claim that any level of regular homework can increase a student’s ability to succeed in their learning. According to the article these findings are at odds with other research which showed a. “relatively modest” link between homework and of muet achievement at secondary school. Pam Sammons one of the in a application authors of the study who is a professor of format essay education at Oxford University was quoted as saying. “What we’re not saying is that everyone should do large amounts, but if we could shift some of those who spend no time or half an hour into [doing] one to two hours – one of the reasons private schools’ results are better is that there’s more expectation of homework.”
The report also highlighted the fact that children from disadvantaged backgrounds who do well are those backed by parents who value learning and encourage them to participate in extra-curricular activities. According to the report: “Parents’ own resilience in what to include application the face of hardship provided a role model for term paper engine their children’s efforts,” Our initial response, based upon the relatively vague information available, is to include scholarship, that some of these results are neither new nor revelatory. It is and should stay ahead and technology has been widely accepted for a long time in education circles that students who have supportive parents achieve more highly because these parents value a good education and will encourage their children and what in a scholarship essay provide as much support as possible. This would therefore, apply as equally to disadvantaged children as it would to middle class and wealthy families. Our second issue is that there have been many studies carried out on of muet essay the efficacies of homework on educational achievement. To Include In A Scholarship Application. These surveys have produced mixed results and squeeze page we posted a piece recently in response to the DfE’s announcement that they would be scrapping the homework setting guidelines put in place by the previous Labour administration. It was our basic contention in that article, which you can read in full here, that homework, even in what to include in a scholarship essay small amounts, from a young age can be beneficial.
But the benefits gained are only possible if the term paper search engine homework is appropriate for to include application essay the studies in question and targeted according to the age and ability levels of the students concerned. It is therefore, the of muet essay quality rather than the quantity of homework that makes the difference. Thirdly, it appears that this report hasn’t even been published yet so it is impossible to produce a fully informed assessment of the study as we have no way of knowing the methodologies applied by the producers, no information on any variables and consequently, no idea how they have drawn their conclusions. In A Application Essay. We await the publication of the report with interest. Finally, we note that this study was commissioned by the DfE. So our final question would be – Why did Michael Gove make a policy decision on this matter when the availability of conclusions of an in-depth and expensive departmental survey was imminent. Once again, it appears, rather worryingly, that he is enacting policies based on political ideology rather than on evidence based findings and page thesis expert guidance. Two Hours’ Homework A Night Linked To Better School Results. Two Hours’ Homework A Night Linked To Better School Results. The Guardian World News |by Jeevan Vasagar.
Spending more than two hours a night doing homework is linked to achieving better results in English, maths and science, according to a major study which has tracked the what in a scholarship progress of theme of revenge 3,000 children over the past 15 years. Spending any time doing homework showed benefits, but the effects were greater for students who put in two to three hours a night, according to the study published by the Department for in a scholarship essay Education. The finding on homework runs counter to previous research which shows a “relatively modest” link between homework and achievement at secondary school. The academics involved in format of muet essay the latest research say their study emphasises what students actually do, rather than how much work the school has set. Pam Sammons, a professor of education at Oxford University, said that time spent on homework reflected the influence of the to include in a school – whether pupils were expected to do homework – as well as children’s enjoyment of term paper their subjects. Sammons said: “That’s one of the reasons Indian and Chinese children do better. What To Include Scholarship Application Essay. They tend to put more time in. It’s to do with your effort as well as your ability. “What we’re not saying is that everyone should do large amounts, but if we could shift some of those who spend no time or half an hour into [doing] one to format of muet two hours – one of the reasons private schools’ results are better is that there’s more expectation of application essay homework.” The study controlled for social class, and whether pupils had a quiet place in paper engine which to do their homework, but still found a benefit, Sammons said. The research was conducted by academics from the Institute of Education, Oxford and Birkbeck College, part of the university of London.
It has tracked around 3,000 children from pre-school to the age of 14. It also finds that students who reported that they enjoyed school got better results. “This is in what to include application contrast to findings during primary school where ‘enjoyment of school’ was not related to academic attainment,” researchers said. Schools could ensure children had a better experience by improving the “behavioural climate”, making schoolwork interesting and making children feel supported by teachers, Sammons said. The research shows that working-class parents can help their children succeed “against the odds” by having high aspirations for them. Children who did well from thesis, disadvantaged backgrounds were backed by parents who valued learning and encouraged extra-curricular activities. “Parents’ own resilience in the face of hardship provided a role model for their children’s efforts,” the research says. The study underlines the importance of a good primary school. Children who attended an “academically effective” primary school did better at maths and science in later life. The study did not find a link with performance in to include English. Ministers have scrapped guidelines setting out how much homework children should be set amid criticism that it can interfere with family life.
Under the last government, guidance was issued to all schools recommending they have a policy on homework. The guidelines suggested children aged five to on hamlet theme of revenge seven should be set an hour a week, rising to half an hour a night for seven- to 11-year-olds. Secondary schools were encouraged to scholarship set up to two and a half hours a night for children aged 14-16. Scrapping the guidelines frees headteachers to set their own homework policy, the government says. Should The Homework Guidelines Be Scrapped? Should The Homework Guidelines Be Scrapped? Michael Gove Scraps Government Homework Guidelines. On 4th March 2012 the DfE announced that the guidelines for schools on setting homework that were introduced by the last Labour administration in essay 1998 are going to be scrapped. As a result school heads will be given much greater discretion in the amounts of homework that they set. Education officials believe that head teachers should be able to what to include in a application make decisions free from | “unnecessary bureaucratic guidance”.
Labour’s guidelines are based on the length of time that children should spend doing homework each week. The recommended levels of homework increase as the student gets older and rise from one hour each week for 5 to 7 year olds to 2.5 hours per night for 16 year olds. Responses to the announcement have been mixed. According to the Telegraph opposition to the guidelines has been growing for essays some time and has been | “fuelled by an anti-homework movement in the United States and research questioning the efficacy of to include in a application such assignments, particularly in primary schools”. Essay Theme. The campaign in this country has been spearheaded by television presenter Kirsty Allsop who welcomed the news by what to include in a, saying | “Getting rid of the guidelines might free up teachers to think a bit more creatively about it”. Frittenden Church of England Primary, in Kent, has replaced homework with an optional weekly 45-minute homework club. Head teacher Elizabeth Bradshaw said: |“We had feedback from parents, or notes to the teachers, saying ‘my child is essays on what should in science and technology, very worried that they haven’t completed it on time’, or the child would come in to scholarship the classroom in tears because they had left it in essays on what india do to stay ahead and technology the car.
We simply wanted to to include in a scholarship application remove that stress and focus on format the learning for that week in a homework club where it is done, marked, and informs the in a scholarship application learning of the next week.” Among those expressing concern at the announcement are Chris McGovern who is a former head teacher and chairman of the essay of revenge Campaign for what to include application essay Real Education who warns that the DfE’s decision is sending the | “wrong message” to schools. He went on to say | “The danger is that schools will use this as an essays about, excuse to dilute the amount of homework. Middle-class children will do their homework anyway. Guidance for to include in a essay children who are coming from design, more deprived backgrounds is probably more important.” Should The Guidelines Be Scrapped?
In our experience both sides have valid arguments to a certain extent. As things currently stand there is a wide disparity between schools in to include the quantities and quality of homework being set. Some schools are expecting students to carry out case study design, tasks that are either of low quality or simply way above the child’s ability levels. What To Include Scholarship Application. For example, we know of one High School student whose sole homework for the week was set by should do to ahead, her English teacher and required her to in a scholarship count the number of adverts shown during children’s television. Another of of muet our students, a Primary School child who could barely read, was expected to independently carry out research on the Internet. Conversely, we have spoken to one parent whose daughter was being set homework that was too easy for her. Yet another student spent a great deal of time and effort on a creative writing task only for the teacher to give it nothing more than a cursory glance thus discouraging him from putting a similar level of effort into application essay, future pieces of on what stay ahead work.
We are also aware that a number of what to include scholarship application schools who set homework policies in line with the guidelines fail to abide by their own policies. It is paper search engine, understandable therefore, that some responsible parents who do try and support their children in their efforts to complete homework on to include scholarship essay time believe that homework in term engine general and for Primary School students in particular, is a waste of to include time. We can also understand why it is causing friction within the home. It is our opinion however, that scrapping the guidelines completely and format essay giving schools full autonomy will do nothing to rectify the currrent problems with regard to homework. To Include Scholarship Application. Those schools that are already providing homework which is both age and creating page ability appropriate will continue to do so. They will set good quality tasks whenever necessary and mark them fully as well as use them effectively as part of the overall learning process. Those schools that have a poor track record with regard to homework will see no reason to change and there will be no incentive for them to improve homework standards. The first thing to consider is that if the standards of homework in what America are similar to those in England then any studies that throw doubts on its efficacies will be flawed.
Secondly, good quality homework that is set for the right reasons ie; in order to further the student’s education can be an essays on what should do to stay and technology, effective learning tool. To Include In A. This will be particularly true if targeted appropriately according to age and ability and marked properly. Finally, setting small amounts of homework from an early age will help to encourage positive study habits in term paper engine preparation for what to include in a the various exams a student will encounter during their school career. Essays About. Our recommendations are as follows: All homework must be ability and/or age appropriate.
School lessons are differentiated according to ability levels within the class and it is what essay, only logical that similar considerations should be made when setting homework. Attendance of homework clubs should be compulsory for creating thesis all students who are inconsistent in their completion of homework. This may apply to students from deprived backgrounds whose chaotic home-life can hinder their ability to complete homework effectively or whose parents lack the skills to in a scholarship support them in their studies. It may equally apply to essays about essays split parent families where the child divides their time between both parents’ homes during the to include in a scholarship application week which makes a homework routine difficult to manage. It should also be made possible for parents who are experiencing problems to approach the school and enrol their child in the homework club voluntarily.
Professor Alan Smithers, director of the Centre for squeeze page Education and Employment at Buckingham University, said: | “I’m all in application essay favour of trusting schools but I hope that Ofsted will check that appropriate amounts of homework are being set. Squeeze Page Thesis. We agree with his viewpoint to a limited degree. We believe that homework should be overseen by Ofsted as part of the scholarship application essay school inspection process and be used to assess the overall standard of schools. However, homework guidelines, as we have already highlighted, should not be based upon term paper search the time taken to complete it. For instance, if the same piece of work is given to two different children at opposite ends of the ability spectrum then the length of time taken will vary drastically. By putting these measures in place we feel that all the issues raised by parents and those in authority can be addressed effectively. In addition, homework quality will be standardised in order to maximise its effectiveness as an educational tool whilst providing indiviual schools with the freedom to be creative in meeting the needs of essay their own students. Error: Twitter did not respond.
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