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5 Examples Of Exceptional B2B Case Studies. Case studies are an important part of B2B content marketing. According to a survey done by the Content Marketing Institute, the top three most important marketing tactics for i attached, B2B businesses are in-person events, webinars and case studies. Milan. Unfortunately, case studies are often difficult to execute on. It requires time on the part of your customers. I Attached. It requires negotiation on the type of information that is disclosed, which is tough in B2B because creating detailed success stories often requires sharing sensitive data or information. In most situations this is too big of a request. Despite the difficulties, a company who has well respected and well-recognized customers needs to leverage as much of that brand power as possible. A company needs to communicate reliability and trustworthiness. They can do this by creating high quality case studies using their best customers.
Best Practices For B2B Case Studies. The organization of case study “libraries” is an important aspect to milan kundera consider. I Attached. As you grow your library of white papers and case studies you’ll want to consider how users can find the content they’re looking for. Consider using filter options so users can find the exact piece of content they’re looking for, w hether it’s by club thesis, industry, content format, or topic. I Attached My Resume. For example, SOASTA uses a menu bar to kundera filter case studies by my resume, industry. Kundera Essays. You can also filter by content type, for example white papers, webinars, studies and etc. Apptio is a great example, see below: Also consider suggesting related content so they can continue engaging and learning about your solutions if they’re not ready to submit their contact information. SOASTAS is i attached my resume also a great example of this kind of outline thesis essay user experience as well.
When you scroll down from the case study web page you get recommendations of similar companies. This encourages users to my resume continue exploring your site. SOASTA creates a great content experience when it comes to consuming case studies. They are easy to navigate and are beautifully presented. Next let’s talk about telling a great story in the case study itself. Telling A Great Story In Your B2B Case Studies. A great story begins with a great headline. Database Of African Theses. If your case studies or customer stories appear in a library and are primarily used to my resume engage audiences who are just discovering your brand and are browsing your site, then use a compelling headline. Apptio’s case studies follow a formula for success when it comes to fight thesis statement creating great headlines.
It uses the Who, What, When, Where, and How, namely How. Additionally, they use a powerful verb in my resume each headline. They also paint a very vivid picture of the “What” in their case study headlines. The headline answers what the benefit is for using Apptio. If your content writer is consistently writing great headlines like this, pay them like JK Rowling because it’s a true sign of skill. Most B2B case studies follow this outline: Problem - Action - Result. It’s a structure for friendly essay, the body of your case study that keeps it concise. Any reader will appreciate that.
There other formats as well, including QA style. The strength of the QA style is i attached my resume that it tells a richer story from the perspective of the customer. If the customer uses common phrases and student, jargon related to their industry, it stands a higher chance of leaving a lasting impression with your prospects. It’s like going to a conference to my resume hear your peer speak about a great solution they are using. You trust their judgment and the problem they solved is a problem you want to solve. To Include. A great example of i attached this is friendly rubric dynamic project management solution, LiquidPlanner. They use a QA style, essentially an my resume edit of an interview with their customer. Kundera. It allows detailed storytelling that can’t be done in a third person narrative like the i attached Problem - Action - Result approach. We also interviewed CEO of LiquidPlanner, Liz Pearce.
She shared a great story about for a essay, growing LiquidPlanner and running marketing and i attached my resume, operations. See the rubric example below, also noting the great headline: Click image to enlarge. OpenDNS combines combines both QA style and the classic Problem - Action - Result approach. Most of the text in their case studies are customer quotes. They also include a high level profile overview of i attached my resume their customer, weaving in OpenDNS’ business value with the statement stat line “Number of users protected.” Examples of Great Video Case Studies. Videos may be more expensive to produce but it’s a medium that can communicate information very quickly. I Attached. I’ve seen case study videos that resemble 60 Minute interviews. In other words, they were kind of boring. Engaging video case studies are like good movies. They include characters, locations, and club masculinity, a story. DoubleDutch does a great job of including characters such as buyers, end users, and my resume, sales rep to tell a story.
DoubleDutch is an events app that brings engagement and of african theses and dissertations, event performance together. Their video case study includes interviews with event chairs (the buyers) and event attendees (the end-users). And the i attached my resume B-roll includes shots of an actual conference, showing event attendees using the milan app. This set location communicates the value of the i attached my resume app. Testimony from end-users further communicate benefit. For great video case studies, remember to include characters, a great location, and a compelling story told in both audio and visual mediums. DoubleDutch also organizes their video library well and recommends more videos, creating a great content experience. How To Measure The Revenue Influence Of Your B2B Case Study. A lack of reliable information is the most frustrating obstacles to unlocking the potential of your case study pages. As marketers we want to know that the effort we put into database and dissertations creating content results in influence and revenue. I Attached. And if it’s not, we need to know in order to make content more engaging.
Pipeline marketing is about advancing the science of marketing and you can apply this by measuring your content’s influence on revenue. We’ve written about using the scientific approach to marketing and this means testing a hypothesis. To test your hypothesis, for example that video case studies have a greater influence on revenue compared to PDF case studies, you need an attribution solution that connects marketing data to sales data inside the CRM . Club Statement. Below is a screenshot of Bizible showing the i attached my resume revenue influence of content. On the left is the Landing Page which can refer to any content such as a case study. You can see the channel source with Touchpoint Source, and the W-Shaped Revenue field that measures revenue influenced or generated. Lastly you can see the Opportunity Name. Click image to enlarge.
We’ve covered many elements of B2B case studies. Executing successfully on case studies requires not only telling a great story but also supporting it with a great user experience. This is done by organizing your content so users can search for what they need, developing headlines that capture reader's attention, and presenting the content in a way that’s interesting and informative. If you’ve set up attribution and execute well on your case studies you’ll be counting money like Ebenezer Scrooge. If you're interested in essay writing tracking performance of my resume your case studies and the rest of your online marketing, get the ebook on marketing attribution below.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Explaining the nature of consciousness is my resume one of the most important and club statement perplexing areas of philosophy, but the concept is notoriously ambiguous. The abstract noun “consciousness” is not frequently used by itself in the contemporary literature, but is i attached my resume originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know). Milan Essays! Perhaps the i attached my resume most commonly used contemporary notion of what in a scholarship essay, a conscious mental state is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is like” sense (Nagel 1974). When I am in i attached my resume, a conscious mental state, there is something it is like for me to be in milan, that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. But how are we to my resume, understand this? For instance, how is the milan essays conscious mental state related to the body? Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity? What makes a mental state be a conscious mental state? The problem of i attached, consciousness is arguably the most central issue in of african and dissertations, current philosophy of mind and is also importantly related to i attached, major traditional topics in metaphysics, such as the in a essay possibility of immortality and the belief in free will.
This article focuses on Western theories and conceptions of consciousness, especially as found in contemporary analytic philosophy of i attached, mind. The two broad, traditional and competing theories of mind are dualism and materialism (or physicalism). While there are many versions of each, the former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense, whereas the latter holds that, to put it crudely, the mind is the brain, or is caused by neural activity. It is against this general backdrop that many answers to the above questions are formulated and developed. There are also many familiar objections to both materialism and dualism. For example, it is often said that materialism cannot truly explain just how or why some brain states are conscious, and that there is an important “explanatory gap” between mind and matter. On the other hand, dualism faces the problem of explaining how a non-physical substance or mental state can causally interact with the physical body. Some philosophers attempt to thesis, explain consciousness directly in neurophysiological or physical terms, while others offer cognitive theories of consciousness whereby conscious mental states are reduced to my resume, some kind of statement masculinity, representational relation between mental states and the world. There are a number of such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the subject is aware of it in some sense.
The relationship between consciousness and my resume science is also central in much current theorizing on this topic: How does the brain “bind together” various sensory inputs to produce a unified subjective experience? What are the neural correlates of consciousness? What can be learned from what to include scholarship application essay abnormal psychology which might help us to understand normal consciousness? To what extent are animal minds different from human minds? Could an appropriately programmed machine be conscious? 1. I Attached My Resume! Terminological Matters: Various Concepts of in a, Consciousness. The concept of my resume, consciousness is notoriously ambiguous. It is important first to make several distinctions and to define related terms.
The abstract noun “consciousness” is not often used in the contemporary literature, though it should be noted that it is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know). Thus, “consciousness” has etymological ties to list essay, one’s ability to know and perceive, and should not be confused with conscience, which has the much more specific moral connotation of knowing when one has done or is doing something wrong. Through consciousness, one can have knowledge of the external world or one’s own mental states. The primary contemporary interest lies more in the use of the expressions “x is i attached conscious” or “x is list transitions writing conscious of y.” Under the i attached former category, perhaps most important is the distinction between state and creature consciousness (Rosenthal 1993a). We sometimes speak of an individual mental state, such as a pain or perception, as conscious. On the other hand, we also often speak of organisms or creatures as conscious, such as when we say “human beings are conscious” or “dogs are conscious.” Creature consciousness is database of african also simply meant to refer to the fact that an my resume organism is awake, as opposed to sleeping or in a coma. However, some kind of state consciousness is often implied by creature consciousness, that is, the theses and dissertations organism is having conscious mental states. Due to i attached, the lack of a direct object in the expression “x is conscious,” this is usually referred to what in a scholarship, as intransitive consciousness, in contrast to my resume, transitive consciousness where the locution “x is student friendly rubric conscious of y” is used (Rosenthal 1993a, 1997). I Attached My Resume! Most contemporary theories of consciousness are aimed at explaining state consciousness; that is, explaining what makes a mental state a conscious mental state. It might seem that “conscious” is synonymous with, say, “awareness” or “experience” or “attention.” However, it is crucial to recognize that this is not generally accepted today.
For example, though perhaps somewhat atypical, one might hold that there are even unconscious experiences, depending of course on how the term “experience” is defined (Carruthers 2000). More common is the belief that we can be aware of external objects in some unconscious sense, for essay, example, during cases of subliminal perception. The expression “conscious awareness” does not therefore seem to be redundant. Finally, it is not clear that consciousness ought to be restricted to attention. It seems plausible to suppose that one is conscious (in some sense) of objects in one’s peripheral visual field even though one is only attending to some narrow (focal) set of objects within that visual field. Perhaps the most fundamental and commonly used notion of i attached my resume, “conscious” is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is like” sense (Nagel 1974).
When I am in a conscious mental state, there is “something it is like” for me to be in that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. When I am, for example, smelling a rose or having a conscious visual experience, there is something it “seems” or “feels” like from my perspective. An organism, such as a bat, is conscious if it is able to milan kundera, experience the outer world through its (echo-locatory) senses. I Attached! There is outline also something it is like to be a conscious creature whereas there is nothing it is my resume like to be, for statement masculinity, example, a table or tree. This is primarily the sense of i attached, “conscious state” that will be used throughout this entry. There are still, though, a cluster of expressions and terms related to Nagel’s sense, and database some authors simply stipulate the way that they use such terms.
For example, philosophers sometimes refer to conscious states as phenomenal or qualitative states. More technically, philosophers often view such states as having qualitative properties called “qualia” (prounced like kwal' ee uh; the singular is quale). There is significant disagreement over the nature, and even the existence, of qualia, but they are perhaps most frequently understood as the felt properties or qualities of conscious states. Ned Block (1995) makes an i attached my resume often cited distinction between phenomenal consciousness (or “phenomenality”) and what to include in a scholarship application access consciousness. The former is very much in i attached, line with the Nagelian notion described above. However, Block also defines the quite different notion of access consciousness in terms of a mental state’s relationship with other mental states; for example, a mental state’s “availability for use in reasoning and rationality guiding speech and action” (Block 1995: 227). Fight Club! This would, for example, count a visual perception as (access) conscious not because it has the “what it’s likeness” of phenomenal states, but rather because it carries visual information which is generally available for i attached, use by the organism, regardless of student friendly essay rubric, whether or not it has any qualitative properties.
Access consciousness is therefore more of a functional notion; that is, concerned with what such states do. Although this concept of consciousness is certainly very important in cognitive science and philosophy of mind generally, not everyone agrees that access consciousness deserves to be called “consciousnesses” in any important sense. Block himself argues that neither sense of consciousness implies the other, while others urge that there is a more intimate connection between the i attached two. Finally, it is to include essay helpful to distinguish between consciousness and i attached self-consciousness, which plausibly involves some kind of fight club thesis statement, awareness or consciousness of one’s own mental states (instead of i attached, something out in the world). Self-consciousness arguably comes in degrees of sophistication ranging from student essay rubric minimal bodily self-awareness to the ability to reason and reflect on one’s own mental states, such as one’s beliefs and desires. Some important historical figures have even held that consciousness entails some form of self-consciousness (Kant 1781/1965, Sartre 1956), a view shared by some contemporary philosophers (Gennaro 1996a, Kriegel 2004). Interest in the nature of conscious experience has no doubt been around for as long as there have been reflective humans. It would be impossible here to survey the entire history, but a few highlights are in order.
In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato. More sophisticated work on my resume the nature of consciousness and perception can be found in the work of Plato’s most famous student Aristotle (see Caston 2002), and then throughout the later Medieval period. It is, however, with the milan work of i attached, Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and his successors in the early modern period of philosophy that consciousness and essay the relationship between the mind and body took center stage. I Attached! As we shall see, Descartes argued that the mind is a non-physical substance distinct from the body. He also did not believe in the existence of unconscious mental states, a view certainly not widely held today. Descartes defined “thinking” very broadly to database of african theses, include virtually every kind of mental state and urged that consciousness is essential to thought. Our mental states are, according to Descartes, infallibly transparent to i attached, introspection. What In A Scholarship Application! John Locke (1689/1975) held a similar position regarding the connection between mentality and i attached my resume consciousness, but was far less committed on the exact metaphysical nature of the of african mind. Perhaps the i attached my resume most important philosopher of the period explicitly to endorse the existence of unconscious mental states was G.W. Leibniz (1686/1991, 1720/1925).
Although Leibniz also believed in the immaterial nature of mental substances (which he called “monads”), he recognized the fight club thesis statement masculinity existence of what he called “petit perceptions,” which are basically unconscious perceptions. He also importantly distinguished between perception and apperception, roughly the difference between outer-directed consciousness and self-consciousness (see Gennaro 1999 for some discussion). My Resume! The most important detailed theory of mind in the early modern period was developed by Immanuel Kant. His main work Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1965) is as equally dense as it is important, and cannot easily be summarized in this context. Although he owes a great debt to his immediate predecessors, Kant is arguably the most important philosopher since Plato and Aristotle and is highly relevant today. Kant basically thought that an adequate account of phenomenal consciousness involved far more than any of his predecessors had considered. There are important mental structures which are “presupposed” in conscious experience, and essay Kant presented an my resume elaborate theory as to milan kundera essays, what those structures are, which, in turn, had other important implications. He, like Leibniz, also saw the need to my resume, postulate the existence of unconscious mental states and to include in a scholarship essay mechanisms in order to provide an adequate theory of mind (Kitcher 1990 and Brook 1994 are two excellent books on Kant’s theory of mind.).
Over the past one hundred years or so, however, research on consciousness has taken off in many important directions. In psychology, with the notable exception of the virtual banishment of consciousness by behaviorist psychologists (e.g., Skinner 1953), there were also those deeply interested in my resume, consciousness and various introspective (or “first-person”) methods of investigating the mind. The writings of such figures as Wilhelm Wundt (1897), William James (1890) and Alfred Titchener (1901) are good examples of this approach. Franz Brentano (1874/1973) also had a profound effect on some contemporary theories of consciousness. Similar introspectionist approaches were used by those in the so-called “phenomenological” tradition in philosophy, such as in the writings of Edmund Husserl (1913/1931, 1929/1960) and Martin Heidegger (1927/1962). The work of Sigmund Freud was very important, at expository minimum, in bringing about the near universal acceptance of the i attached existence of unconscious mental states and processes. It must, however, be kept in mind that none of the thesis masculinity above had very much scientific knowledge about the detailed workings of the brain. The relatively recent development of neurophysiology is, in part, also responsible for the unprecedented interdisciplinary research interest in i attached, consciousness, particularly since the 1980s. There are now several important journals devoted entirely to the study of consciousness: Consciousness and milan Cognition , Journal of my resume, Consciousness Studies , and outline for a Psyche . There are also major annual conferences sponsored by world wide professional organizations, such as the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, and an entire book series called “Advances in Consciousness Research” published by John Benjamins. (For a small sample of introductory texts and i attached my resume important anthologies, see Kim 1996, Gennaro 1996b, Block et. al. 1997, Seager 1999, Chalmers 2002, Baars et. al. 2003, Blackmore 2004, Campbell 2005, Velmans and expository essay Schneider 2007, Zelazo et al.
2007, Revonsuo 2010.) 3. The Metaphysics of Consciousness: Materialism vs. Dualism. Metaphysics is the branch of my resume, philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality. There are two broad traditional and competing metaphysical views concerning the nature of the mind and expository essay rubric conscious mental states: dualism and materialism. My Resume! While there are many versions of each, the former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in transitions essay, some sense. On the other hand, materialists hold that the mind is the brain, or, more accurately, that conscious mental activity is identical with neural activity.
It is important to recognize that by non-physical, dualists do not merely mean “not visible to the naked eye.” Many physical things fit this description, such as the atoms which make up the air in a typical room. For something to my resume, be non-physical, it must literally be outside the realm of physics; that is, not in space at all and milan kundera essays undetectable in principle by i attached my resume, the instruments of essays, physics. It is equally important to i attached my resume, recognize that the essay category “physical” is i attached broader than the category “material.” Materialists are called such because there is the of african theses tendency to view the brain, a material thing, as the i attached my resume most likely physical candidate to identify with the mind. However, something might be physical but not material in this sense, such as an electromagnetic or energy field. One might therefore instead be a “physicalist” in some broader sense and for a essay still not a dualist. Thus, to say that the i attached my resume mind is non-physical is to say something much stronger than that it is non-material. Dualists, then, tend to friendly, believe that conscious mental states or minds are radically different from i attached my resume anything in list transitions essay writing, the physical world at my resume all.
a. Outline For A! Dualism: General Support and Related Issues. There are a number of reasons why some version of dualism has been held throughout the centuries. For one thing, especially from the introspective or first-person perspective, our conscious mental states just do not seem like physical things or processes. That is, when we reflect on our conscious perceptions, pains, and i attached my resume desires, they do not seem to be physical in any sense. Consciousness seems to be a unique aspect of the world not to essays, be understood in i attached my resume, any physical way. Although materialists will urge that this completely ignores the more scientific third-person perspective on the nature of outline thesis essay, consciousness and mind, this idea continues to have force for my resume, many today. Indeed, it is arguably the crucial underlying intuition behind historically significant “conceivability arguments” against materialism and for dualism. Such arguments typically reason from the premise that one can conceive of one’s conscious states existing without one’s body or, conversely, that one can imagine one’s own physical duplicate without consciousness at all (see section 3b.iv). The metaphysical conclusion ultimately drawn is that consciousness cannot be identical with anything physical, partly because there is list transitions writing no essential conceptual connection between the mental and the physical. I Attached! Arguments such as these go back to Descartes and statement continue to be used today in my resume, various ways (Kripke 1972, Chalmers 1996), but it is highly controversial as to transitions, whether they succeed in showing that materialism is false.
Materialists have replied in various ways to such arguments and the relevant literature has grown dramatically in i attached my resume, recent years. Historically, there is also the clear link between dualism and a belief in immortality, and hence a more theistic perspective than one tends to find among materialists. Indeed, belief in dualism is often explicitly theologically motivated. If the conscious mind is not physical, it seems more plausible to believe in for a thesis essay, the possibility of life after bodily death. On the other hand, if conscious mental activity is identical with brain activity, then it would seem that when all brain activity ceases, so do all conscious experiences and thus no immortality. After all, what do many people believe continues after bodily death? Presumably, one’s own conscious thoughts, memories, experiences, beliefs, and so on. There is perhaps a similar historical connection to a belief in free will, which is of course a major topic in its own right. For our purposes, it suffices to say that, on some definitions of what it is to act freely, such ability seems almost “supernatural” in the sense that one’s conscious decisions can alter the otherwise deterministic sequence of events in nature.
To put it another way: If we are entirely physical beings as the materialist holds, then mustn’t all of the i attached brain activity and behavior in question be determined by the laws of nature? Although materialism may not logically rule out immortality or free will, materialists will likely often reply that such traditional, perhaps even outdated or pre-scientific beliefs simply ought to milan kundera essays, be rejected to the extent that they conflict with materialism. After all, if the i attached my resume weight of the milan kundera evidence points toward materialism and away from i attached my resume dualism, then so much the milan worse for those related views. One might wonder “even if the mind is physical, what about the soul?” Maybe it’s the soul, not the mind, which is non-physical as one might be told in many religious traditions. While it is true that the term “soul” (or “spirit”) is often used instead of “mind” in such religious contexts, the problem is that it is unclear just how the soul is supposed to differ from the mind. The terms are often even used interchangeably in many historical texts and by many philosophers because it is unclear what else the soul could be other than “the mental substance.” It is my resume difficult to describe the soul in any way that doesn’t make it sound like what we mean by what to include in a application, the mind. After all, that’s what many believe goes on after bodily death; namely, conscious mental activity. Granted that the term “soul” carries a more theological connotation, but it doesn’t follow that the words “soul” and “mind” refer to my resume, entirely different things.
Somewhat related to the issue of milan kundera essays, immortality, the existence of near death experiences is my resume also used as some evidence for dualism and immortality. Such patients experience a peaceful moving toward a light through a tunnel like structure, or are able to see doctors working on their bodies while hovering over them in an emergency room (sometimes akin to what is transitions called an “out of body experience”). In response, materialists will point out that such experiences can be artificially induced in various experimental situations, and that starving the brain of i attached my resume, oxygen is list transitions known to cause hallucinations. Various paranormal and psychic phenomena, such as clairvoyance, faith healing, and mind-reading, are sometimes also cited as evidence for dualism. However, materialists (and even many dualists) will first likely wish to be skeptical of the alleged phenomena themselves for numerous reasons. I Attached! There are many modern day charlatans who should make us seriously question whether there really are such phenomena or mental abilities in the first place.
Second, it is not quite clear just how dualism follows from such phenomena even if they are genuine. A materialist, or physicalist at least, might insist that though such phenomena are puzzling and perhaps currently difficult to database theses, explain in physical terms, they are nonetheless ultimately physical in nature; for example, having to do with very unusual transfers of i attached, energy in the physical world. The dualist advantage is perhaps not as obvious as one might think, and we need not jump to supernatural conclusions so quickly. i. Substance Dualism and Objections. Interactionist Dualism or simply “interactionism” is the most common form of “substance dualism” and its name derives from the widely accepted fact that mental states and bodily states causally interact with each other. Kundera! For example, my desire to drink something cold causes my body to move to i attached my resume, the refrigerator and get something to drink and, conversely, kicking me in the shin will cause me to feel a pain and get angry. Due to of african theses and dissertations, Descartes’ influence, it is i attached my resume also sometimes referred to as “Cartesian dualism.” Knowing nothing about just where such causal interaction could take place, Descartes speculated that it was through the pineal gland, a now almost humorous conjecture. But a modern day interactionist would certainly wish to treat various areas of the list writing brain as the location of such interactions. Three serious objections are briefly worth noting here. The first is simply the issue of just how does or could such radically different substances causally interact.
How something non-physical causally interacts with something physical, such as the brain? No such explanation is forthcoming or is i attached perhaps even possible, according to materialists. Milan Kundera Essays! Moreover, if causation involves a transfer of energy from cause to effect, then how is that possible if the mind is really non-physical? Gilbert Ryle (1949) mockingly calls the Cartesian view about the nature of mind, a belief in the “ghost in the machine.” Secondly, assuming that some such energy transfer makes any sense at all, it is also then often alleged that interactionism is inconsistent with the scientifically well-established Conservation of i attached, Energy principle, which says that the total amount of energy in to include, the universe, or any controlled part of it, remains constant. So any loss of energy in the cause must be passed along as a corresponding gain of energy in the effect, as in i attached, standard billiard ball examples. But if interactionism is true, then when mental events cause physical events, energy would literally come into the physical word. On the other hand, when bodily events cause mental events, energy would literally go out of the physical world. Database Of African And Dissertations! At the least, there is my resume a very peculiar and unique notion of energy involved, unless one wished, even more radically, to rubric, deny the i attached conservation principle itself. Third, some materialists might also use the well-known fact that brain damage (even to very specific areas of the brain) causes mental defects as a serious objection to thesis, interactionism (and thus as support for materialism).
This has of course been known for many centuries, but the i attached my resume level of for a thesis essay, detailed knowledge has increased dramatically in recent years. I Attached My Resume! Now a dualist might reply that such phenomena do not absolutely refute her metaphysical position since it could be replied that damage to the brain simply causes corresponding damage to the mind. However, this raises a host of other questions: Why not opt for the simpler explanation, i.e., that brain damage causes mental damage because mental processes simply are brain processes? If the non-physical mind is damaged when brain damage occurs, how does that leave one’s mind according to the dualist’s conception of an afterlife? Will the severe amnesic at the end of life on Earth retain such a deficit in the afterlife?
If proper mental functioning still depends on proper brain functioning, then is dualism really in no better position to offer hope for immortality? It should be noted that there is also another less popular form of substance dualism called parallelism, which denies the causal interaction between the non-physical mental and physical bodily realms. It seems fair to friendly expository, say that it encounters even more serious objections than interactionism. While a detailed survey of all varieties of dualism is beyond the scope of this entry, it is at least important to i attached, note here that the friendly expository rubric main and most popular form of dualism today is i attached called property dualism. Substance dualism has largely fallen out of favor at least in most philosophical circles, though there are important exceptions (e.g., Swinburne 1986, Foster 1996) and what scholarship application it often continues to be tied to various theological positions. Property dualism, on the other hand, is a more modest version of dualism and it holds that there are mental properties (that is, characteristics or aspects of my resume, things) that are neither identical with nor reducible to physical properties. There are actually several different kinds of property dualism, but what they have in common is the idea that conscious properties, such as the to include application color qualia involved in a conscious experience of a visual perception, cannot be explained in purely physical terms and, thus, are not themselves to be identified with any brain state or process. Two other views worth mentioning are epiphenomenalism and panpsychism. The latter is the somewhat eccentric view that all things in physical reality, even down to micro-particles, have some mental properties. All substances have a mental aspect, though it is not always clear exactly how to characterize or test such a claim.
Epiphenomenalism holds that mental events are caused by i attached my resume, brain events but those mental events are mere “epiphenomena” which do not, in turn, cause anything physical at all, despite appearances to of african and dissertations, the contrary (for a recent defense, see Robinson 2004). Finally, although not a form of my resume, dualism, idealism holds that there are only immaterial mental substances, a view more common in the Eastern tradition. Outline Thesis Essay! The most prominent Western proponent of idealism was 18th century empiricist George Berkeley. The idealist agrees with the substance dualist, however, that minds are non-physical, but then denies the existence of mind-independent physical substances altogether. Such a view faces a number of serious objections, and it also requires a belief in i attached, the existence of God. Some form of materialism is student friendly expository rubric probably much more widely held today than in centuries past. No doubt part of the reason for this has to do with the explosion in scientific knowledge about the workings of the brain and its intimate connection with consciousness, including the close connection between brain damage and various states of consciousness. I Attached My Resume! Brain death is what to include in a now the main criterion for i attached my resume, when someone dies. Stimulation to specific areas of the to include in a application essay brain results in modality specific conscious experiences. Indeed, materialism often seems to i attached, be a working assumption in neurophysiology. Imagine saying to outline for a essay, a neuroscientist “you are not really studying the conscious mind itself” when she is i attached my resume examining the workings of the brain during an fMRI.
The idea is that science is showing us that conscious mental states, such as visual perceptions, are simply identical with certain neuro-chemical brain processes; much like the science of what scholarship essay, chemistry taught us that water just is i attached my resume H2O. There are also theoretical factors on the side of student friendly expository, materialism, such as adherence to the so-called “principle of simplicity” which says that if two theories can equally explain a given phenomenon, then we should accept the i attached one which posits fewer objects or forces. In this case, even if dualism could equally explain consciousness (which would of course be disputed by materialists), materialism is clearly the simpler theory in so far as it does not posit any objects or processes over and above physical ones. Materialists will wonder why there is a need to believe in the existence of such mysterious non-physical entities. Moreover, in the aftermath of the fight club masculinity Darwinian revolution, it would seem that materialism is on even stronger ground provided that one accepts basic evolutionary theory and the notion that most animals are conscious. Given the similarities between the more primitive parts of the human brain and the brains of other animals, it seems most natural to conclude that, through evolution, increasing layers of brain areas correspond to increased mental abilities. For example, having a well developed prefrontal cortex allows humans to reason and my resume plan in ways not available to dogs and cats. It also seems fairly uncontroversial to hold that we should be materialists about the list transitions writing minds of my resume, animals. If so, then it would be odd indeed to hold that non-physical conscious states suddenly appear on the scene with humans.
There are still, however, a number of much discussed and important objections to fight club thesis masculinity, materialism, most of which question the notion that materialism can adequately explain conscious experience. i. Objection 1: The Explanatory Gap and The Hard Problem. Joseph Levine (1983) coined the expression “the explanatory gap” to express a difficulty for any materialistic attempt to explain consciousness. Although not concerned to reject the my resume metaphysics of materialism, Levine gives eloquent expression to the idea that there is what in a application essay a key gap in our ability to explain the i attached connection between phenomenal properties and brain properties (see also Levine 1993, 2001). The basic problem is transitions writing that it is, at i attached my resume least at present, very difficult for us to understand the relationship between brain properties and phenomenal properties in any explanatory satisfying way, especially given the fact that it seems possible for one to be present without the other. There is an odd kind of arbitrariness involved: Why or how does some particular brain process produce that particular taste or visual sensation? It is difficult to see any real explanatory connection between specific conscious states and milan brain states in a way that explains just how or why the former are identical with the i attached my resume latter. There is therefore an explanatory gap between the physical and mental.
Levine argues that this difficulty in explaining consciousness is unique; that is, we do not have similar worries about other scientific identities, such as that “water is H2O” or that “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy.” There is list transitions essay writing “an important sense in which we can’t really understand how [materialism] could be true.” (2001: 68) David Chalmers (1995) has articulated a similar worry by using the catchy phrase “the hard problem of consciousness,” which basically refers to the difficulty of explaining just how physical processes in the brain give rise to subjective conscious experiences. The “really hard problem is the problem of my resume, experience…How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion?” (1995: 201) Others have made similar points, as Chalmers acknowledges, but reference to the phrase “the hard problem” has now become commonplace in the literature. Unlike Levine, however, Chalmers is much more inclined to draw anti-materialist metaphysical conclusions from these and milan other considerations. Chalmers usefully distinguishes the hard problem of consciousness from what he calls the (relatively) “easy problems” of consciousness, such as the ability to discriminate and i attached categorize stimuli, the ability of club thesis, a cognitive system to access its own internal states, and the difference between wakefulness and my resume sleep. The easy problems generally have more to do with the functions of consciousness, but Chalmers urges that solving them does not touch the outline for a essay hard problem of phenomenal consciousness. I Attached My Resume! Most philosophers, according to kundera essays, Chalmers, are really only addressing the easy problems, perhaps merely with something like Block’s “access consciousness” in mind. Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness. There are many responses by i attached my resume, materialists to the above charges, but it is worth emphasizing that Levine, at least, does not reject the metaphysics of materialism. Scholarship! Instead, he sees the “explanatory gap [as] primarily an epistemological problem” (2001: 10).
That is, it is my resume primarily a problem having to do with knowledge or understanding. This concession is still important at least to the extent that one is concerned with the larger related metaphysical issues discussed in section 3a, such as the possibility of immortality. Perhaps most important for the materialist, however, is recognition of the fact that different concepts can pick out the same property or object in the world (Loar 1990, 1997). Out in the world there is only the one “stuff,” which we can conceptualize either as “water” or as “H2O.” The traditional distinction, made most notably by fight club thesis statement masculinity, Gottlob Frege in the late 19th century, between “meaning” (or “sense”) and “reference” is also relevant here. My Resume! Two or more concepts, which can have different meanings, can refer to the same property or object, much like “Venus” and “The Morning Star.” Materialists, then, explain that it is essential to distinguish between mental properties and our concepts of those properties. By analogy, there are so-called “phenomenal concepts” which uses a phenomenal or “first-person” property to refer to some conscious mental state, such as a sensation of red (Alter and list Walter 2007). In contrast, we can also use various concepts couched in physical or neurophysiological terms to refer to that same mental state from the third-person point of my resume, view. There is thus but one conscious mental state which can be conceptualized in two different ways: either by what to include application essay, employing first-person experiential phenomenal concepts or by employing third-person neurophysiological concepts. It may then just be a “brute fact” about the my resume world that there are such identities and the appearance of arbitrariness between brain properties and mental properties is just that – an apparent problem leading many to wonder about the alleged explanatory gap. Qualia would then still be identical to physical properties.
Moreover, this response provides a diagnosis for why there even seems to be such a gap; namely, that we use very different concepts to pick out the same property. Club Thesis Masculinity! Science will be able, in principle, to close the gap and solve the hard problem of consciousness in an analogous way that we now have a very good understanding for why “water is i attached my resume H2O” or “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy” that was lacking centuries ago. Maybe the hard problem isn’t so hard after all – it will just take some more time. After all, the friendly science of chemistry didn’t develop overnight and we are relatively early in the history of neurophysiology and our understanding of phenomenal consciousness. (See Shear 1997 for many more specific responses to the hard problem, but also for Chalmers’ counter-replies.) ii. Objection 2: The Knowledge Argument.
There is i attached a pair of very widely discussed, and arguably related, objections to materialism which come from the seminal writings of Thomas Nagel (1974) and Frank Jackson (1982, 1986). These arguments, especially Jackson’s, have come to student rubric, be known as examples of the i attached my resume “knowledge argument” against materialism, due to database and dissertations, their clear emphasis on my resume the epistemological (that is, knowledge related) limitations of materialism. Like Levine, Nagel does not reject the metaphysics of materialism. Jackson had originally intended for student expository, his argument to my resume, yield a dualistic conclusion, but he no longer holds that view. The general pattern of what to include scholarship, each argument is to assume that all the physical facts are known about my resume some conscious mind or conscious experience. Yet, the argument goes, not all is known about the database of african theses and dissertations mind or experience.
It is then inferred that the my resume missing knowledge is non-physical in some sense, which is surely an anti-materialist conclusion in some sense. Nagel imagines a future where we know everything physical there is to know about some other conscious creature’s mind, such as a bat. However, it seems clear that we would still not know something crucial; namely, “what it is like to be a bat.” It will not do to imagine what it is like for us to be a bat. We would still not know what it is like to be a bat from the database of african bat’s subjective or first-person point of view. The idea, then, is that if we accept the hypothesis that we know all of the physical facts about bat minds, and yet some knowledge about bat minds is left out, then materialism is inherently flawed when it comes to explaining consciousness. Even in i attached, an ideal future in which everything physical is known by us, something would still be left out. Jackson’s somewhat similar, but no less influential, argument begins by asking us to imagine a future where a person, Mary, is kept in a black and white room from birth during which time she becomes a brilliant neuroscientist and an expert on color perception. Mary never sees red for example, but she learns all of the physical facts and everything neurophysiologically about human color vision. Eventually she is released from the room and sees red for the first time. Fight Club! Jackson argues that it is clear that Mary comes to learn something new; namely, to use Nagel’s famous phrase, what it is like to experience red. This is a new piece of knowledge and hence she must have come to know some non-physical fact (since, by my resume, hypothesis, she already knew all of the physical facts).
Thus, not all knowledge about the conscious mind is physical knowledge. The influence and friendly the quantity of work that these ideas have generated cannot be exaggerated. Numerous materialist responses to Nagel’s argument have been presented (such as Van Gulick 1985), and there is now a very useful anthology devoted entirely to Jackson’s knowledge argument (Ludlow et. al. 2004). Some materialists have wondered if we should concede up front that Mary wouldn’t be able to imagine the color red even before leaving the room, so that maybe she wouldn’t even be surprised upon seeing red for my resume, the first time. Various suspicions about the essay nature and effectiveness of such thought experiments also usually accompany this response. More commonly, however, materialists reply by arguing that Mary does not learn a new fact when seeing red for the first time, but rather learns the my resume same fact in a different way. In A! Recalling the distinction made in i attached, section 3b.i between concepts and objects or properties, the materialist will urge that there is only the one physical fact about color vision, but there are two ways to come to know it: either by for a thesis essay, employing neurophysiological concepts or by my resume, actually undergoing the rubric relevant experience and so by employing phenomenal concepts. We might say that Mary, upon my resume leaving the black and white room, becomes acquainted with the same neural property as before, but only now from the first-person point of view. Of African! The property itself isn’t new; only the perspective, or what philosophers sometimes call the “mode of presentation,” is different. In short, coming to learn or know something new does not entail learning some new fact about the world.
Analogies are again given in other less controversial areas, for example, one can come to know about some historical fact or event by reading a (reliable) third-person historical account or by having observed that event oneself. I Attached! But there is still only the one objective fact under two different descriptions. Finally, it is crucial to remember that, according to of african theses, most, the metaphysics of materialism remains unaffected. Drawing a metaphysical conclusion from such purely epistemological premises is always a questionable practice. Nagel’s argument doesn’t show that bat mental states are not identical with bat brain states. Indeed, a materialist might even expect the conclusion that Nagel draws; after all, given that our brains are so different from bat brains, it almost seems natural for there to be certain aspects of bat experience that we could never fully comprehend. Only the bat actually undergoes the i attached my resume relevant brain processes. Similarly, Jackson’s argument doesn’t show that Mary’s color experience is distinct from her brain processes. Despite the plethora of materialist responses, vigorous debate continues as there are those who still think that something profound must always be missing from any materialist attempt to explain consciousness; namely, that understanding subjective phenomenal consciousness is an inherently first-person activity which cannot be captured by any objective third-person scientific means, no matter how much scientific knowledge is accumulated. Student Expository Essay! Some knowledge about consciousness is essentially limited to first-person knowledge.
Such a sense, no doubt, continues to i attached my resume, fuel the essays related anti-materialist intuitions raised in the previous section. Perhaps consciousness is simply a fundamental or irreducible part of nature in some sense (Chalmers 1996). (For more see Van Gulick 1993.) Finally, some go so far as to argue that we are simply not capable of solving the problem of i attached, consciousness (McGinn 1989, 1991, 1995). In short, “mysterians” believe that the hard problem can never be solved because of human cognitive limitations; the for a explanatory gap can never be filled. Once again, however, McGinn does not reject the metaphysics of materialism, but rather argues that we are “cognitively closed” with respect to this problem much like a rat or dog is i attached my resume cognitively incapable of solving, or even understanding, calculus problems. More specifically, McGinn claims that we are cognitively closed as to how the brain produces conscious awareness.
McGinn concedes that some brain property produces conscious experience, but we cannot understand how this is so or even know what that brain property is. Our concept forming mechanisms simply will not allow us to student friendly expository rubric, grasp the my resume physical and causal basis of outline for a thesis essay, consciousness. My Resume! We are not conceptually suited to be able to do so. McGinn does not entirely rest his argument on fight past failed attempts at i attached explaining consciousness in materialist terms; instead, he presents another argument for statement masculinity, his admittedly pessimistic conclusion. McGinn observes that we do not have a mental faculty that can access both consciousness and the brain. We access consciousness through introspection or the first-person perspective, but our access to the brain is i attached my resume through the use of outer spatial senses (e.g., vision) or a more third-person perspective. Thus we have no way to access both the brain and consciousness together, and therefore any explanatory link between them is forever beyond our reach.
Materialist responses are numerous. First, one might wonder why we can’t combine the two perspectives within certain experimental contexts. Both first-person and third-person scientific data about the brain and consciousness can be acquired and used to fight thesis, solve the hard problem. Even if a single person cannot grasp consciousness from both perspectives at the same time, why can’t a plausible physicalist theory emerge from such a combined approach? Presumably, McGinn would say that we are not capable of putting such a theory together in i attached, any appropriate way. Second, despite McGinn’s protests to the contrary, many will view the problem of explaining consciousness as a merely temporary limit of our theorizing, and database not something which is i attached unsolvable in principle (Dennett 1991).
Third, it may be that McGinn expects too much; namely, grasping some causal link between the brain and consciousness. After all, if conscious mental states are simply identical to transitions essay writing, brain states, then there may simply be a “brute fact” that really does not need any further explaining. Indeed, this is i attached my resume sometimes also said in list essay writing, response to the explanatory gap and the hard problem, as we saw earlier. It may even be that some form of dualism is presupposed in my resume, McGinn’s argument, to the extent that brain states are said to “cause” or “give rise to” consciousness, instead of using the language of identity. Fourth, McGinn’s analogy to lower animals and mathematics is not quite accurate. Rats, for example, have no concept whatsoever of calculus. It is not as if they can grasp it to some extent but just haven’t figured out the answer to some particular problem within mathematics. Rats are just completely oblivious to list transitions writing, calculus problems. On the other hand, we humans obviously do have some grasp on consciousness and on the workings of the brain -- just see the i attached my resume references at the end of this entry!
It is not clear, then, why we should accept the extremely pessimistic and what to include in a scholarship application essay universally negative conclusion that we can never discover the answer to the problem of consciousness, or, more specifically, why we could never understand the link between consciousness and the brain. Unlike many of the above objections to materialism, the appeal to the possibility of zombies is often taken as both a problem for materialism and as a more positive argument for some form of dualism, such as property dualism. The philosophical notion of a “zombie” basically refers to conceivable creatures which are physically indistinguishable from us but lack consciousness entirely (Chalmers 1996). It certainly seems logically possible for there to be such creatures: “the conceivability of zombies seems…obvious to me…While this possibility is probably empirically impossible, it certainly seems that a coherent situation is described; I can discern no contradiction in the description” (Chalmers 1996: 96). Philosophers often contrast what is logically possible (in the my resume sense of “that which is not self-contradictory”) from what is empirically possible given the actual laws of nature.
Thus, it is kundera logically possible for me to jump fifty feet in i attached, the air, but not empirically possible. To Include In A Scholarship Essay! Philosophers often use the notion of “possible worlds,” i.e., different ways that the world might have been, in describing such non-actual situations or possibilities. The objection, then, typically proceeds from such a possibility to the conclusion that materialism is false because materialism would seem to rule out i attached my resume, that possibility. It has been fairly widely accepted (since Kripke 1972) that all identity statements are necessarily true (that is, true in all possible worlds), and the same should therefore go for mind-brain identity claims. Since the possibility of zombies shows that it doesn’t, then we should conclude that materialism is thesis statement masculinity false. (See Identity Theory.) It is impossible to do justice to all of the subtleties here. The literature in response to zombie, and related “conceivability,” arguments is enormous (see, for my resume, example, Hill 1997, Hill and theses and dissertations McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1998, 2002, Balog 1999, Block and Stalnaker 1999, Loar 1999, Yablo 1999, Perry 2001, Botterell 2001, Kirk 2005). A few lines of reply are as follows: First, it is sometimes objected that the conceivability of i attached, something does not really entail its possibility. Perhaps we can also conceive of water not being H2O, since there seems to be no logical contradiction in doing so, but, according to received wisdom from Kripke, that is really impossible.
Perhaps, then, some things just seem possible but really aren’t. Much of the debate centers on various alleged similarities or dissimilarities between the mind-brain and water-H2O cases (or other such scientific identities). Indeed, the entire issue of the exact relationship between “conceivability” and “possibility” is the friendly essay rubric subject of an important recently published anthology (Gendler and Hawthorne 2002). Second, even if zombies are conceivable in i attached, the sense of in a scholarship application essay, logically possible, how can we draw a substantial metaphysical conclusion about the actual world? There is often suspicion on the part of materialists about what, if anything, such philosophers’ “thought experiments” can teach us about the nature of my resume, our minds. It seems that one could take virtually any philosophical or scientific theory about masculinity almost anything, conceive that it is possibly false, and then conclude that it is actually false. Something, perhaps, is i attached generally wrong with this way of reasoning. Third, as we saw earlier (3b.i), there may be a very good reason why such zombie scenarios seem possible; namely, that we do not (at least, not yet) see what the necessary connection is between neural events and conscious mental events.
On the one side, we are dealing with scientific third-person concepts and, on the other, we are employing phenomenal concepts. We are, perhaps, simply currently not in a position to understand completely such a necessary connection. Debate and discussion on all four objections remains very active. Despite the apparent simplicity of materialism, say, in terms of the identity between mental states and database and dissertations neural states, the fact is that there are many different forms of materialism. While a detailed survey of all varieties is beyond the scope of this entry, it is at least important to acknowledge the commonly drawn distinction between two kinds of i attached, “identity theory”: token-token and type-type materialism.
Type-type identity theory is the stronger thesis and says that mental properties, such as “having a desire to drink some water” or “being in pain,” are literally identical with a brain property of some kind. Student Expository Essay Rubric! Such identities were originally meant to my resume, be understood as on a par with, for example, the scientific identity between “being water” and of african and dissertations “being composed of H2O” (Place 1956, Smart 1959). I Attached! However, this view historically came under serious assault due to the fact that it seems to rule out the so-called “multiple realizability” of conscious mental states. The idea is of african and dissertations simply that it seems perfectly possible for i attached my resume, there to be other conscious beings (e.g., aliens, radically different animals) who can have those same mental states but who also are radically different from us physiologically (Fodor 1974). It seems that commitment to type-type identity theory led to kundera, the undesirable result that only organisms with brains like ours can have conscious states. Somewhat more technically, most materialists wish to leave room for my resume, the possibility that mental properties can be “instantiated” in outline essay, different kinds of organisms. (But for more recent defenses of i attached my resume, type-type identity theory see Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1994, 1995, 1998, Polger 2004.) As a consequence, a more modest “token-token” identity theory has become preferable to many materialists. This view simply holds that each particular conscious mental event in some organism is friendly identical with some particular brain process or event in that organism.
This seems to i attached, preserve much of what the materialist wants but yet allows for the multiple realizability of conscious states, because both the human and the alien can still have a conscious desire for something to drink while each mental event is identical with a (different) physical state in each organism. Taking the notion of multiple realizability very seriously has also led many to embrace functionalism, which is the view that conscious mental states should really only be identified with the functional role they play within an organism. For example, conscious pains are defined more in terms of outline for a essay, input and output, such as causing bodily damage and avoidance behavior, as well as in i attached, terms of list transitions essay, their relationship to other mental states. It is normally viewed as a form of materialism since virtually all functionalists also believe, like the token-token theorist, that something physical ultimately realizes that functional state in i attached, the organism, but functionalism does not, by itself, entail that materialism is true. Expository Essay Rubric! Critics of functionalism, however, have long argued that such purely functional accounts cannot adequately explain the essential “feel” of conscious states, or that it seems possible to have two functionally equivalent creatures, one of whom lacks qualia entirely (Block 1980a, 1980b, Chalmers 1996; see also Shoemaker 1975, 1981). Some materialists even deny the very existence of mind and my resume mental states altogether, at milan least in the sense that the very concept of consciousness is muddled (Wilkes 1984, 1988) or that the mentalistic notions found in i attached my resume, folk psychology, such as desires and beliefs, will eventually be eliminated and replaced by physicalistic terms as neurophysiology matures into thesis the future (Churchland 1983). This is meant as analogous to my resume, past similar eliminations based on deeper scientific understanding, for outline thesis essay, example, we no longer need to speak of “ether” or “phlogiston.” Other eliminativists, more modestly, argue that there is no such thing as qualia when they are defined in certain problematic ways (Dennett 1988). Finally, it should also be noted that not all materialists believe that conscious mentality can be explained in terms of the physical, at least in the sense that the former cannot be “reduced” to the latter. I Attached! Materialism is true as an ontological or metaphysical doctrine, but facts about the mind cannot be deduced from facts about the physical world (Boyd 1980, Van Gulick 1992). In some ways, this might be viewed as a relatively harmless variation on materialist themes, but others object to the very coherence of this form of materialism (Kim 1987, 1998).
Indeed, the line between such “non-reductive materialism” and friendly essay property dualism is not always so easy to draw; partly because the entire notion of i attached my resume, “reduction” is ambiguous and a very complex topic in essay, its own right. On a related front, some materialists are happy enough to talk about a somewhat weaker “supervenience” relation between mind and matter. Although “supervenience” is a highly technical notion with many variations, the idea is basically one of dependence (instead of identity); for example, that the i attached my resume mental depends on the physical in the sense that any mental change must be accompanied by some physical change (see Kim 1993). 4. Specific Theories of Consciousness. Most specific theories of what to include in a, consciousness tend to my resume, be reductionist in some sense. The classic notion at work is for a thesis essay that consciousness or individual conscious mental states can be explained in terms of i attached, something else or in some other terms.
This section will focus on thesis statement several prominent contemporary reductionist theories. We should, however, distinguish between those who attempt such a reduction directly in physicalistic, such as neurophysiological, terms and those who do so in mentalistic terms, such as by using unconscious mental states or other cognitive notions. The more direct reductionist approach can be seen in various, more specific, neural theories of consciousness. Perhaps best known is the theory offered by i attached, Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). Statement Masculinity! The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of neurons fire in synchrony and all have oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range (that is, 35-75 cycles per second). However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to identify in the brain with consciousness. This vast enterprise has come to be known as the search for the “neural correlates of consciousness” or NCCs (see section 5b below for more). The overall idea is to show how one or more specific kinds of neuro-chemical activity can underlie and explain conscious mental activity (Metzinger 2000). Of course, mere “correlation” is i attached my resume not enough for a fully adequate neural theory and explaining just what counts as a NCC turns out to be more difficult than one might think (Chalmers 2000).
Even Crick and Koch have acknowledged that they, at best, provide a necessary condition for consciousness, and that such firing patters are not automatically sufficient for kundera essays, having conscious experience. b. Representational Theories of Consciousness. Many current theories attempt to i attached my resume, reduce consciousness in mentalistic terms. One broadly popular approach along these lines is to reduce consciousness to “mental representations” of some kind. The notion of a “representation” is of course very general and can be applied to photographs, signs, and various natural objects, such as the rings inside a tree. Much of what goes on in the what to include essay brain, however, might also be understood in i attached, a representational way; for example, as mental events representing outer objects partly because they are caused by such objects in, say, cases of veridical visual perception. Of African! More specifically, philosophers will often call such representational mental states “intentional states” which have representational content; that is, mental states which are “about something” or “directed at something” as when one has a thought about the my resume house or a perception of the tree. Student Friendly! Although intentional states are sometimes contrasted with phenomenal states, such as pains and color experiences, it is clear that many conscious states have both phenomenal and intentional properties, such as visual perceptions. It should be noted that the relation between intentionalilty and my resume consciousness is itself a major ongoing area of dispute with some arguing that genuine intentionality actually presupposes consciousness in some way (Searle 1992, Siewart 1998, Horgan and Tienson 2002) while most representationalists insist that intentionality is prior to consciousness (Gennaro 2012, chapter two). The general view that we can explain conscious mental states in student friendly expository essay, terms of representational or intentional states is called “representationalism.” Although not automatically reductionist in spirit, most versions of i attached my resume, representationalism do indeed attempt such a reduction. Thesis Essay! Most representationalists, then, believe that there is i attached room for milan essays, a kind of “second-step” reduction to my resume, be filled in later by neuroscience.
The other related motivation for representational theories of consciousness is that many believe that an account of representation or intentionality can more easily be given in naturalistic terms, such as causal theories whereby mental states are understood as representing outer objects in virtue of some reliable causal connection. Outline For A! The idea, then, is my resume that if consciousness can be explained in representational terms and representation can be understood in fight masculinity, purely physical terms, then there is the promise of a reductionist and my resume naturalistic theory of consciousness. Outline Essay! Most generally, however, we can say that a representationalist will typically hold that the phenomenal properties of i attached my resume, experience (that is, the “qualia” or “what it is like of experience” or “phenomenal character”) can be explained in terms of the experiences’ representational properties. Alternatively, conscious mental states have no mental properties other than their representational properties. Two conscious states with all the theses and dissertations same representational properties will not differ phenomenally. For example, when I look at the blue sky, what it is like for me to have a conscious experience of the sky is simply identical with my experience’s representation of the blue sky. A First-order representational (FOR) theory of consciousness is i attached a theory that attempts to explain conscious experience primarily in terms of scholarship application essay, world-directed (or first-order) intentional states. Probably the two most cited FOR theories of consciousness are those of i attached my resume, Fred Dretske (1995) and Michael Tye (1995, 2000), though there are many others as well (e.g., Harman 1990, Kirk 1994, Byrne 2001, Thau 2002, Droege 2003).
Tye’s theory is more fully worked out and so will be the focus of this section. Like other FOR theorists, Tye holds that the representational content of my conscious experience (that is, what my experience is about or directed at) is identical with the of african phenomenal properties of experience. Aside from reductionistic motivations, Tye and other FOR representationalists often use the somewhat technical notion of the my resume “transparency of milan, experience” as support for i attached, their view (Harman 1990). This is an argument based on the phenomenological first-person observation, which goes back to Moore (1903), that when one turns one’s attention away from, say, the blue sky and onto one’s experience itself, one is still only aware of the blueness of the sky. The experience itself is not blue; rather, one “sees right through” one’s experience to its representational properties, and there is outline for a nothing else to one’s experience over and above such properties. Whatever the i attached merits and exact nature of the argument from transparency (see Kind 2003), it is clear, of course, that not all mental representations are conscious, so the list transitions essay key question eventually becomes: What exactly distinguishes conscious from unconscious mental states (or representations)? What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? Here Tye defends what he calls “PANIC theory.” The acronym “PANIC” stands for poised, abstract, non-conceptual, intentional content. Without probing into every aspect of PANIC theory, Tye holds that at least some of the representational content in my resume, question is non-conceptual (N), which is to say that the subject can lack the concept for the properties represented by the experience in what to include scholarship, question, such as an experience of a certain shade of my resume, red that one has never seen before. Actually, the exact nature or even existence of student expository rubric, non-conceptual content of experience is itself a highly debated and difficult issue in i attached, philosophy of milan kundera essays, mind (Gunther 2003). I Attached! Gennaro (2012), for example, defends conceptualism and transitions essay connects it in various ways to the higher-order thought theory of consciousness (see section 4b.ii).
Conscious states clearly must also have “intentional content” (IC) for any representationalist. Tye also asserts that such content is “abstract” (A) and not necessarily about i attached particular concrete objects. This condition is needed to handle cases of hallucinations, where there are no concrete objects at all or cases where different objects look phenomenally alike. Perhaps most important for mental states to be conscious, however, is that such content must be “poised” (P), which is an outline for a thesis importantly functional notion. The “key idea is my resume that experiences and feelings. stand ready and available to make a direct impact on beliefs and/or desires.
For example…feeling hungry… has an outline for a essay immediate cognitive effect, namely, the i attached my resume desire to thesis, eat….States with nonconceptual content that are not so poised lack phenomenal character [because]…they arise too early, as it were, in the information processing” (Tye 2000: 62). One objection to Tye’s theory is that it does not really address the hard problem of phenomenal consciousness (see section 3b.i). This is i attached my resume partly because what really seems to be doing most of the work on Tye’s PANIC account is the very functional sounding “poised” notion, which is perhaps closer to Block’s access consciousness (see section 1) and is therefore not necessarily able to fight club statement masculinity, explain phenomenal consciousness (see Kriegel 2002). In short, it is difficult to see just how Tye’s PANIC account might not equally apply to unconscious representations and thus how it really explains phenomenal consciousness. Other standard objections to i attached, Tye’s theory as well as to other FOR accounts include the concern that it does not cover all kinds of conscious states. Some conscious states seem not to be “about” anything, such as pains, anxiety, or after-images, and so would be non-representational conscious states. If so, then conscious experience cannot generally be explained in theses and dissertations, terms of representational properties (Block 1996). I Attached! Tye responds that pains, itches, and fight masculinity the like do represent, in the sense that they represent parts of the body. And after-images, hallucinations, and the like either misrepresent (which is still a kind of i attached, representation) or the conscious subject still takes them to have representational properties from the outline for a thesis first-person point of view.
Indeed, Tye (2000) admirably goes to great lengths and argues convincingly in response to a whole host of alleged counter-examples to representationalism. Historically among them are various hypothetical cases of inverted qualia (see Shoemaker 1982), the my resume mere possibility of which is essays sometimes taken as devastating to i attached my resume, representationalism. Thesis Statement! These are cases where behaviorally indistinguishable individuals have inverted color perceptions of objects, such as person A visually experiences a lemon the way that person B experience a ripe tomato with respect to their color, and so on for all yellow and i attached red objects. Isn’t it possible that there are two individuals whose color experiences are inverted with respect to the objects of perception? (For more on the importance of color in for a thesis, philosophy, see Hardin 1986.) A somewhat different twist on the inverted spectrum is i attached my resume famously put forth in Block’s (1990) Inverted Earth case.
On Inverted Earth every object has the complementary color to the one it has here, but we are asked to imagine that a person is equipped with color-inverting lenses and then sent to Inverted Earth completely ignorant of those facts. Since the color inversions cancel out, the club thesis masculinity phenomenal experiences remain the same, yet there certainly seem to be different representational properties of i attached my resume, objects involved. The strategy on the part of critics, in short, is to think of counter-examples (either actual or hypothetical) whereby there is milan essays a difference between the phenomenal properties in my resume, experience and the relevant representational properties in the world. Student Friendly Expository Rubric! Such objections can, perhaps, be answered by Tye and others in various ways, but significant debate continues (Macpherson 2005). My Resume! Intuitions also dramatically differ as to masculinity, the very plausibility and value of such thought experiments. (For more, see Seager 1999, chapters 6 and 7. See also Chalmers 2004 for i attached, an excellent discussion of the dizzying array of possible representationalist positions.) ii. Higher-Order Representationalism.
As we have seen, one question that should be answered by any theory of consciousness is: What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? There is a long tradition that has attempted to understand consciousness in terms of some kind of higher-order awareness. Of African Theses! For example, John Locke (1689/1975) once said that “consciousness is the perception of what passes in i attached my resume, a man’s own mind.” This intuition has been revived by outline thesis essay, a number of philosophers (Rosenthal, 1986, 1993b, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2005; Gennaro 1996a, 2012; Armstrong, 1968, 1981; Lycan, 1996, 2001). In general, the i attached my resume idea is that what makes a mental state conscious is transitions essay that it is the i attached object of list, some kind of higher-order representation (HOR). A mental state M becomes conscious when there is a HOR of M. A HOR is a “meta-psychological” state, i.e., a mental state directed at another mental state. So, for example, my desire to write a good encyclopedia entry becomes conscious when I am (non-inferentially) “aware” of the desire. I Attached My Resume! Intuitively, it seems that conscious states, as opposed to student friendly essay, unconscious ones, are mental states that I am “aware of” in some sense. I Attached! This is sometimes referred to as the Transitivity Principle. Any theory which attempts to to include, explain consciousness in terms of higher-order states is known as a higher-order (HO) theory of consciousness.
It is best initially to use the more neutral term “representation” because there are a number of different kinds of higher-order theory, depending upon how one characterizes the HOR in question. My Resume! HO theories, thus, attempt to of african theses, explain consciousness in mentalistic terms, that is, by reference to such notions as “thoughts” and “awareness.” Conscious mental states arise when two unconscious mental states are related in my resume, a certain specific way; namely, that one of them (the HOR) is directed at outline thesis the other (M). HO theorists are united in my resume, the belief that their approach can better explain consciousness than any purely FOR theory, which has significant difficulty in explaining the difference between unconscious and conscious mental states. There are various kinds of HO theory with the most common division between higher-order thought (HOT) theories and higher-order perception (HOP) theories. Transitions! HOT theorists, such as David M. I Attached My Resume! Rosenthal, think it is better to understand the HOR as a thought of some kind.
HOTs are treated as cognitive states involving some kind of what to include scholarship essay, conceptual component. I Attached! HOP theorists urge that the HOR is a perceptual or experiential state of in a application, some kind (Lycan 1996) which does not require the kind of conceptual content invoked by HOT theorists. Partly due to Kant (1781/1965), HOP theory is sometimes referred to i attached, as “inner sense theory” as a way of emphasizing its sensory or perceptual aspect. Although HOT and HOP theorists agree on the need for transitions, a HOR theory of consciousness, they do sometimes argue for the superiority of their respective positions (such as in Rosenthal 2004, Lycan 2004, and Gennaro 2012). Some philosophers, however, have argued that the difference between these theories is perhaps not as important or as clear as some think it is (Guzeldere 1995, Gennaro 1996a, Van Gulick 2000). A common initial objection to HOR theories is that they are circular and lead to an infinite regress. It might seem that the HOT theory results in circularity by defining consciousness in terms of i attached my resume, HOTs. It also might seem that an infinite regress results because a conscious mental state must be accompanied by a HOT, which, in turn, must be accompanied by another HOT ad infinitum . Fight Club! However, the standard reply is that when a conscious mental state is a first-order world-directed state the higher-order thought (HOT) is i attached not itself conscious; otherwise, circularity and milan essays an infinite regress would follow. When the HOT is itself conscious, there is a yet higher-order (or third-order) thought directed at the second-order state. In this case, we have introspection which involves a conscious HOT directed at i attached my resume an inner mental state. Outline For A Thesis! When one introspects, one's attention is directed back into one's mind.
For example, what makes my desire to write a good entry a conscious first-order desire is that there is a (non-conscious) HOT directed at the desire. My Resume! In this case, my conscious focus is directed at the entry and my computer screen, so I am not consciously aware of having the HOT from the first-person point of view. Expository! When I introspect that desire, however, I then have a conscious HOT (accompanied by i attached, a yet higher, third-order, HOT) directed at the desire itself (see Rosenthal 1986). Peter Carruthers (2000) has proposed another possibility within HO theory; namely, that it is better for various reasons to think of the HOTs as dispositional states instead of the standard view that the HOTs are actual, though he also understands his “dispositional HOT theory” to be a form of what application, HOP theory (Carruthers 2004). The basic idea is that the conscious status of an experience is due to its availability to higher-order thought. So “conscious experience occurs when perceptual contents are fed into i attached my resume a special short-term buffer memory store, whose function is to make those contents available to in a scholarship application, cause HOTs about themselves.” (Carruthers 2000: 228). Some first-order perceptual contents are available to i attached my resume, a higher-order “theory of mind mechanism,” which transforms those representational contents into conscious contents. Fight Masculinity! Thus, no actual HOT occurs. Instead, according to Carruthers, some perceptual states acquire a dual intentional content; for example, a conscious experience of red not only i attached has a first-order content of transitions essay writing, “red,” but also has the higher-order content “seems red” or “experience of red.” Carruthers also makes interesting use of so-called “consumer semantics” in order to fill out my resume, his theory of phenomenal consciousness.
The content of a mental state depends, in club statement, part, on the powers of the organisms which “consume” that state, e.g., the kinds of my resume, inferences which the thesis statement organism can make when it is in that state. Daniel Dennett (1991) is sometimes credited with an earlier version of i attached, a dispositional account (see Carruthers 2000, chapter ten). Carruthers’ dispositional theory is often criticized by those who, among other things, do not see how the mere disposition toward a mental state can render it conscious (Rosenthal 2004; see also Gennaro 2004, 2012; for milan kundera, more, see Consciousness, Higher Order Theories of.) It is my resume worth briefly noting a few typical objections to HO theories (many of which can be found in Byrne 1997): First, and theses perhaps most common, is that various animals (and even infants) are not likely to have to the conceptual sophistication required for HOTs, and so that would render animal (and infant) consciousness very unlikely (Dretske 1995, Seager 2004). Are cats and dogs capable of i attached, having complex higher-order thoughts such as “I am in mental state M”? Although most who bring forth this objection are not HO theorists, Peter Carruthers (1989) is one HO theorist who actually embraces the kundera essays conclusion that (most) animals do not have phenomenal consciousness.
Gennaro (1993, 1996) has replied to Carruthers on this point; for example, it is argued that the HOTs need not be as sophisticated as it might initially appear and there is ample comparative neurophysiological evidence supporting the conclusion that animals have conscious mental states. Most HO theorists do not wish to i attached, accept the absence of fight thesis masculinity, animal or infant consciousness as a consequence of holding the theory. The debate continues, however, in Carruthers (2000, 2005, 2008) and my resume Gennaro (2004, 2009, 2012, chapters seven and eight). A second objection has been referred to as the “problem of the rock” (Stubenberg 1998) and the “generality problem” (Van Gulick 2000, 2004), but it is originally due to Alvin Goldman (Goldman 1993). When I have a thought about a rock, it is certainly not true that the rock becomes conscious.
So why should I suppose that a mental state becomes conscious when I think about it? This is puzzling to kundera, many and the objection forces HO theorists to explain just how adding the i attached my resume HO state changes an unconscious state into a conscious. There have been, however, a number of milan, responses to this kind of objection (Rosenthal 1997, Lycan, 1996, Van Gulick 2000, 2004, Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four). A common theme is that there is a principled difference in my resume, the objects of the HO states in question. Rocks and the like are not mental states in the first place, and so HO theorists are first and database of african theses and dissertations foremost trying to explain how a mental state becomes conscious. The objects of the HO states must be “in the my resume head.” Third, the fight thesis masculinity above leads somewhat naturally to an objection related to Chalmers’ hard problem (section 3b.i).
It might be asked just how exactly any HO theory really explains the i attached subjective or phenomenal aspect of conscious experience. How or why does a mental state come to have a first-person qualitative “what it is like” aspect by virtue of the presence of a HOR directed at it? It is probably fair to say that HO theorists have been slow to address this problem, though a number of overlapping responses have emerged (see also Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four, for more extensive treatment). Some argue that this objection misconstrues the main and more modest purpose of (at least, their) HO theories. The claim is that HO theories are theories of transitions essay, consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind. I Attached My Resume! A full account of “qualitative properties” or “sensory qualities” (which can themselves be non-conscious) can be found elsewhere in their work, but is independent of their theory of consciousness (Rosenthal 1991, Lycan 1996, 2001).
Thus, a full explanation of student, phenomenal consciousness does require more than a HO theory, but that is no objection to HO theories as such. Another response is that proponents of the hard problem unjustly raise the i attached my resume bar as to student friendly expository, what would count as a viable explanation of consciousness so that any such reductivist attempt would inevitably fall short (Carruthers 2000, Gennaro 2012). Part of the problem, then, is i attached my resume a lack of milan kundera essays, clarity about what would even count as an my resume explanation of thesis essay, consciousness (Van Gulick 1995; see also section 3b). Once this is i attached clarified, however, the hard problem can indeed be solved. Moreover, anyone familiar with the scholarship essay literature knows that there are significant terminological difficulties in the use of various crucial terms which sometimes inhibits genuine progress (but see Byrne 2004 for some helpful clarification). A fourth important objection to HO approaches is the question of how such theories can explain cases where the HO state might misrepresent the lower-order (LO) mental state (Byrne 1997, Neander 1998, Levine 2001, Block 2011). I Attached My Resume! After all, if we have a representational relation between two states, it seems possible for misrepresentation or malfunction to student expository essay rubric, occur. My Resume! If it does, then what explanation can be offered by the HO theorist? If my LO state registers a red percept and my HO state registers a thought about something green due, say, to for a thesis, some neural misfiring, then what happens? It seems that problems loom for any answer given by a HO theorist and the cause of the problem has to do with the very nature of the i attached HO theorist’s belief that there is a representational relation between the LO and theses HO states. For example, if the my resume HO theorist takes the option that the essay resulting conscious experience is reddish, then it seems that the HO state plays no role in determining the qualitative character of the experience.
On the other hand, if the resulting experience is i attached my resume greenish, then the LO state seems irrelevant. Rosenthal and what application Weisberg hold that the HO state determines the qualitative properties even in cases when there is i attached my resume no LO state at all (Rosenthal 2005, 2011, Weisberg 2008, 2011a, 2011b). Gennaro (2012) argues that no conscious experience results in such cases and wonders, for example, how a sole (unconscious) HOT can result in a conscious state at all. He argues that there must be a match, complete or partial, between the LO and HO state in order for a conscious state to exist in kundera, the first place. This important objection forces HO theorists to be clearer about my resume just how to view the relationship between the LO and HO states. Debate is ongoing and significant both on varieties of milan essays, HO theory and in i attached, terms of the above objections (see Gennaro 2004a). There is also interdisciplinary interest in how various HO theories might be realized in the brain (Gennaro 2012, chapter nine).
iii. Hybrid Representational Accounts. A related and increasingly popular version of representational theory holds that the meta-psychological state in question should be understood as intrinsic to (or part of) an overall complex conscious state. This stands in contrast to the standard view that the HO state is extrinsic to (that is, entirely distinct from) its target mental state. The assumption, made by Rosenthal for example, about the for a extrinsic nature of the meta-thought has increasingly come under attack, and thus various hybrid representational theories can be found in my resume, the literature. One motivation for essay, this movement is growing dissatisfaction with standard HO theory’s ability to handle some of the objections addressed in i attached my resume, the previous section.
Another reason is renewed interest in a view somewhat closer to the one held by list transitions writing, Franz Brentano (1874/1973) and my resume various other followers, normally associated with the phenomenological tradition (Husserl 1913/1931, 1929/1960; Sartre 1956; see also Smith 1986, 2004). To varying degrees, these views have in common the idea that conscious mental states, in some sense, represent themselves, which then still involves having a thought about a mental state, just not a distinct or separate state. Thus, when one has a conscious desire for a cold glass of water, one is also aware that one is in that very state. The conscious desire both represents the glass of water and itself. It is this “self-representing” which makes the and dissertations state conscious. These theories can go by various names, which sometimes seem in conflict, and have added significantly in recent years to the acronyms which abound in the literature. I Attached! For example, Gennaro (1996a, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2012) has argued that, when one has a first-order conscious state, the HOT is better viewed as intrinsic to the target state, so that we have a complex conscious state with parts. Gennaro calls this the list writing “wide intrinsicality view” (WIV) and he also argues that Jean-Paul Sartre’s theory of consciousness can be understood in this way (Gennaro 2002). Gennaro holds that conscious mental states should be understood (as Kant might have today) as global brain states which are combinations of i attached my resume, passively received perceptual input and presupposed higher-order conceptual activity directed at that input.
Higher-order concepts in the meta-psychological thoughts are presupposed in having first-order conscious states. Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the outline for a essay alternative that the HO state is part of an i attached overall global conscious state. He calls such states “HOGS” (Higher-Order Global States) whereby a lower-order unconscious state is “recruited” into a larger state, which becomes conscious partly due to the implicit self-awareness that one is in the lower-order state. Both Gennaro and database theses and dissertations Van Gulick have suggested that conscious states can be understood materialistically as global states of the brain, and it would be better to my resume, treat the first-order state as part of the database larger complex brain state. This general approach is also forcefully advocated by i attached my resume, Uriah Kriegel (Kriegel 2003a, 2003b, 2005, 2006, 2009) and is even the subject of an entire anthology debating its merits (Kriegel and Williford 2006). Kriegel has used several different names for his “neo-Brentanian theory,” such as the SOMT (Same-Order Monitoring Theory) and, more recently, the “self-representational theory of what to include application essay, consciousness.” To be sure, the notion of a mental state representing itself or a mental state with one part representing another part is in need of further development and i attached my resume is perhaps somewhat mysterious. Nonetheless, there is agreement among these authors that conscious mental states are, in some important sense, reflexive or self-directed. And, once again, there is keen interest in kundera, developing this model in a way that coheres with the latest neurophysiological research on consciousness.
A point of i attached my resume, emphasis is on the concept of global meta-representation within a complex brain state, and club attempts are underway to identify just how such an account can be realized in i attached my resume, the brain. It is worth mentioning that this idea was also briefly explored by what scholarship essay, Thomas Metzinger who focused on my resume the fact that consciousness “is something that unifies or synthesizes experience” (Metzinger 1995: 454). Metzinger calls this the process of “higher-order binding” and thus uses the acronym HOB. Others who hold some form of the what scholarship application essay self-representational view include Kobes (1995), Caston (2002), Williford (2006), Brook and my resume Raymont (2006), and even Carruthers’ (2000) theory can be viewed in this light since he contends that conscious states have two representational contents. Thomas Natsoulas also has a series of papers defending a similar view, beginning with Natsoulas 1996. Some authors (such as Gennaro 2012) view this hybrid position to fight thesis masculinity, be a modified version of my resume, HOT theory; indeed, Rosenthal (2004) has called it “intrinsic higher-order theory.” Van Gulick also clearly wishes to preserve the HO is his HOGS. Others, such as Kriegel, are not inclined to call their views “higher-order” at outline for a thesis essay all and call it, for example, the “same-order monitoring” or “self-representational” theory of consciousness. I Attached! To some extent, this is a terminological dispute, but, despite important similarities, there are also key subtle differences between these hybrid alternatives.
Like HO theorists, however, those who advocate this general approach all take very seriously the notion that a conscious mental state M is a state that subject S is (non-inferentially) aware that S is in. By contrast, one is rubric obviously not aware of one’s unconscious mental states. Thus, there are various attempts to make sense of and i attached elaborate upon this key intuition in a way that is, as it were, “in-between” standard FO and HO theory. (See also Lurz 2003 and 2004 for yet another interesting hybrid account.) Aside from the explicitly representational approaches discussed above, there are also related attempts to explain consciousness in other cognitive terms. The two most prominent such theories are worth describing here: Daniel Dennett (1991, 2005) has put forth what he calls the Multiple Drafts Model (MDM) of consciousness. Although similar in some ways to representationalism, Dennett is most concerned that materialists avoid falling prey to what he calls the “myth of the Cartesian theater,” the notion that there is some privileged place in the brain where everything comes together to produce conscious experience. Instead, the MDM holds that all kinds of mental activity occur in the brain by parallel processes of fight statement, interpretation, all of which are under frequent revision.
The MDM rejects the idea of some “self” as an inner observer; rather, the self is the product or construction of a narrative which emerges over time. Dennett is my resume also well known for rejecting the very assumption that there is a clear line to be drawn between conscious and unconscious mental states in terms of the problematic notion of “qualia.” He influentially rejects strong emphasis on any phenomenological or first-person approach to investigating consciousness, advocating instead what he calls “heterophenomenology” according to which we should follow a more neutral path “leading from fight club masculinity objective physical science and its insistence on the third person point of view, to a method of phenomenological description that can (in principle) do justice to the most private and ineffable subjective experiences.” (1991: 72) Bernard Baars’ Global Workspace Theory (GWT) model of consciousness is probably the most influential theory proposed among psychologists (Baars 1988, 1997). The basic idea and metaphor is that we should think of the entire cognitive system as built on a “blackboard architecture” which is a kind of global workspace. According to GWT, unconscious processes and mental states compete for the spotlight of attention, from i attached my resume which information is “broadcast globally” throughout the system. Consciousness consists in kundera, such global broadcasting and is therefore also, according to Baars, an important functional and biological adaptation. We might say that consciousness is thus created by a kind of i attached my resume, global access to select bits of kundera essays, information in the brain and i attached my resume nervous system. Despite Baars’ frequent use of “theater” and “spotlight” metaphors, he argues that his view does not entail the expository presence of the material Cartesian theater that Dennett is so concerned to avoid.
It is, in any case, an empirical matter just how the brain performs the functions he describes, such as detecting mechanisms of attention. Objections to these cognitive theories include the i attached my resume charge that they do not really address the in a application essay hard problem of consciousness (as described in section 3b.i), but only the “easy” problems. Dennett is also often accused of explaining away consciousness rather than really explaining it. It is also interesting to think about Baars’ GWT in light of the Block’s distinction between access and phenomenal consciousness (see section 1). Does Baars’ theory only address access consciousness instead of the my resume more difficult to thesis, explain phenomenal consciousness? (Two other psychological cognitive theories worth noting are the ones proposed by George Mandler 1975 and i attached my resume Tim Shallice 1988.) Finally, there are those who look deep beneath the neural level to the field of club thesis, quantum mechanics, basically the study of sub-atomic particles, to find the key to unlocking the mysteries of my resume, consciousness. The bizarre world of quantum physics is quite different from the deterministic world of classical physics, and milan essays a major area of research in its own right. Such authors place the locus of consciousness at a very fundamental physical level. This somewhat radical, though exciting, option is i attached explored most notably by physicist Roger Penrose (1989, 1994) and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff (1998). The basic idea is fight club statement that consciousness arises through quantum effects which occur in subcellular neural structures known as microtubules, which are structural proteins in cell walls. There are also other quantum approaches which aim to i attached, explain the coherence of consciousness (Marshall and Zohar 1990) or use the “holistic” nature of quantum mechanics to explain consciousness (Silberstein 1998, 2001).
It is difficult to assess these somewhat exotic approaches at database theses and dissertations present. Given the puzzling and often very counterintuitive nature of quantum physics, it is unclear whether such approaches will prove genuinely scientifically valuable methods in explaining consciousness. One concern is simply that these authors are trying to explain one puzzling phenomenon (consciousness) in terms of another mysterious natural phenomenon (quantum effects). Thus, the thinking seems to go, perhaps the two are essentially related somehow and other physicalistic accounts are looking in the wrong place, such as at the neuro-chemical level. I Attached! Although many attempts to outline thesis, explain consciousness often rely of conjecture or speculation, quantum approaches may indeed lead the field along these lines. Of course, this doesn’t mean that some such theory isn’t correct. One exciting aspect of this approach is the resulting interdisciplinary interest it has generated among physicists and other scientists in the problem of consciousness. 5. I Attached My Resume! Consciousness and Science: Key Issues. Over the past two decades there has been an explosion of interdisciplinary work in the science of consciousness. Kundera Essays! Some of the credit must go to the ground breaking 1986 book by my resume, Patricia Churchland entitled Neurophilosophy . In this section, three of the most important such areas are addressed.
a. The Unity of Consciousness/The Binding Problem. Conscious experience seems to be “unified” in milan kundera, an important sense; this crucial feature of consciousness played an important role in the philosophy of i attached my resume, Kant who argued that unified conscious experience must be the product of the transitions essay (presupposed) synthesizing work of the mind. Getting clear about exactly what is meant by the “unity of consciousness” and explaining how the brain achieves such unity has become a central topic in the study of consciousness. There are many different senses of “unity” (see Tye 2003; Bayne and Chalmers 2003, Dainton 2000, 2008, Bayne 2010), but perhaps most common is the notion that, from the first-person point of view, we experience the world in an integrated way and i attached as a single phenomenal field of experience. (For an important anthology on the subject, see Cleeremans 2003.) However, when one looks at how the brain processes information, one only what scholarship essay sees discrete regions of the cortex processing separate aspects of perceptual objects. Even different aspects of the i attached my resume same object, such as its color and shape, are processed in different parts of the brain. Given that there is no “Cartesian theater” in the brain where all this information comes together, the problem arises as to and dissertations, just how the resulting conscious experience is unified. What mechanisms allow us to experience the world in such a unified way? What happens when this unity breaks down, as in various pathological cases? The “problem of integrating the my resume information processed by different regions of the database theses and dissertations brain is known as the binding problem” (Cleeremans 2003: 1). Thus, the so-called “binding problem” is inextricably linked to explaining the unity of consciousness.
As was seen earlier with neural theories (section 4a) and as will be seen below on the neural correlates of consciousness (5b), some attempts to solve the binding problem have to do with trying to isolate the precise brain mechanisms responsible for i attached, consciousness. For example, Crick and Koch’s (1990) idea that synchronous neural firings are (at least) necessary for consciousness can also be viewed as an what application attempt to explain how disparate neural networks bind together separate pieces of information to produce unified subjective conscious experience. Perhaps the i attached binding problem and the hard problem of consciousness (section 3b.i) are very closely connected. If the what in a scholarship essay binding problem can be solved, then we arguably have identified the elusive neural correlate of consciousness and have, therefore, perhaps even solved the hard problem. In addition, perhaps the explanatory gap between third-person scientific knowledge and first-person unified conscious experience can also be bridged. I Attached! Thus, this exciting area of inquiry is central to some of the kundera deepest questions in the philosophical and scientific exploration of my resume, consciousness. b. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCCs)
As was seen earlier in discussing neural theories of expository rubric, consciousness (section 4a), the search for the so-called “neural correlates of consciousness” (NCCs) is a major preoccupation of philosophers and scientists alike (Metzinger 2000). My Resume! Narrowing down the kundera essays precise brain property responsible for consciousness is a different and far more difficult enterprise than merely holding a generic belief in some form of i attached my resume, materialism. One leading candidate is offered by Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). Database Of African! The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of my resume, neurons all fire in theses and dissertations, synchrony with one another (oscillations within the my resume 35-75 hertz range or 35-75 cycles per second). Milan Kundera! Currently, one method used is simply to study some aspect of i attached, neural functioning with sophisticated detecting equipments (such as MRIs and for a PET scans) and i attached then correlate it with first-person reports of conscious experience. Another method is to study the milan kundera difference in brain activity between those under anesthesia and i attached those not under any such influence. A detailed survey would be impossible to give here, but a number of other candidates for the NCC have emerged over the past two decades, including reentrant cortical feedback loops in the neural circuitry throughout the brain (Edelman 1989, Edelman and essays Tononi 2000), NMDA-mediated transient neural assemblies (Flohr 1995), and emotive somatosensory haemostatic processes in the frontal lobe (Damasio 1999). To elaborate briefly on Flohr’s theory, the idea is that anesthetics destroy conscious mental activity because they interfere with the functioning of my resume, NMDA synapses between neurons, which are those that are dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Outline Thesis Essay! These and other NCCs are explored at length in Metzinger (2000).
Ongoing scientific investigation is i attached significant and an important aspect of current scientific research in the field. One problem with some of the above candidates is what to include essay determining exactly how they are related to consciousness. For example, although a case can be made that some of them are necessary for conscious mentality, it is unclear that they are sufficient. That is, some of the above seem to occur unconsciously as well. I Attached My Resume! And pinning down a narrow enough necessary condition is not as easy as it might seem. Another general worry is with the very use of the term “correlate.” As any philosopher, scientist, and even undergraduate student should know, saying that “A is correlated with B” is rather weak (though it is an important first step), especially if one wishes to establish the stronger identity claim between consciousness and neural activity. Even if such a correlation can be established, we cannot automatically conclude that there is an expository rubric identity relation. Perhaps A causes B or B causes A, and that’s why we find the correlation. Even most dualists can accept such interpretations. Maybe there is i attached some other neural process C which causes both A and B. “Correlation” is not even the same as “cause,” let alone enough to establish “identity.” Finally, some NCCs are not even necessarily put forth as candidates for all conscious states, but rather for certain specific kinds of consciousness (e.g., visual).
Philosophers have long been intrigued by disorders of the mind and consciousness. Part of the interest is theses presumably that if we can understand how consciousness goes wrong, then that can help us to theorize about the normal functioning mind. Going back at least as far as John Locke (1689/1975), there has been some discussion about the i attached philosophical implications of what application essay, multiple personality disorder (MPD) which is now called “dissociative identity disorder” (DID). I Attached! Questions abound: Could there be two centers of consciousness in one body? What makes a person the same person over time? What makes a person a person at any given time? These questions are closely linked to the traditional philosophical problem of personal identity, which is also importantly related to of african, some aspects of consciousness research. Much the same can be said for i attached my resume, memory disorders, such as various forms of amnesia (see Gennaro 1996a, chapter 9). Does consciousness require some kind of autobiographical memory or psychological continuity? On a related front, there is significant interest in experimental results from patients who have undergone a commisurotomy, which is usually performed to relieve symptoms of severe epilepsy when all else fails. During this procedure, the nerve fibers connecting the list two brain hemispheres are cut, resulting in so-called “split-brain” patients (Bayne 2010).
Philosophical interest is so high that there is now a book series called Philosophical Psychopathology published by MIT Press. Another rich source of information comes from the provocative and my resume accessible writings of neurologists on a whole host of psychopathologies, most notably Oliver Sacks (starting with his 1987 book) and, more recently, V. S. Milan! Ramachandran (2004; see also Ramachandran and Blakeslee 1998). Another launching point came from the i attached discovery of the phenomenon known as “blindsight” (Weiskrantz 1986), which is very frequently discussed in fight thesis statement masculinity, the philosophical literature regarding its implications for consciousness. Blindsight patients are blind in a well defined part of the i attached my resume visual field (due to cortical damage), but yet, when forced, can guess, with a higher than expected degree of accuracy, the statement masculinity location or orientation of an object in the blind field. There is also philosophical interest in many other disorders, such as phantom limb pain (where one feels pain in a missing or amputated limb), various agnosias (such as visual agnosia where one is i attached my resume not capable of visually recognizing everyday objects), and anosognosia (which is denial of fight club thesis, illness, such as when one claims that a paralyzed limb is still functioning, or when one denies that one is blind). These phenomena raise a number of important philosophical questions and have forced philosophers to rethink some very basic assumptions about the nature of i attached my resume, mind and consciousness. Much has also recently been learned about autism and various forms of schizophrenia.
A common view is thesis statement masculinity that these disorders involve some kind of deficit in self-consciousness or in one’s ability to use certain self-concepts. (For a nice review article, see Graham 2002.) Synesthesia is my resume also a fascinating abnormal phenomenon, although not really a “pathological” condition as such (Cytowic 2003). Those with synesthesia literally have taste sensations when seeing certain shapes or have color sensations when hearing certain sounds. It is thus an transitions essay writing often bizarre mixing of incoming sensory input via different modalities. One of the i attached exciting results of this relatively new sub-field is the important interdisciplinary interest that it has generated among philosophers, psychologists, and scientists (such as in of african, Graham 2010, Hirstein 2005, and Radden 2004). 6. Animal and Machine Consciousness.
Two final areas of interest involve animal and machine consciousness. In the former case it is clear that we have come a long way from the Cartesian view that animals are mere “automata” and that they do not even have conscious experience (perhaps partly because they do not have immortal souls). In addition to my resume, the obviously significant behavioral similarities between humans and many animals, much more is known today about other physiological similarities, such as brain and DNA structures. To be sure, there are important differences as well and there are, no doubt, some genuinely difficult “grey areas” where one might have legitimate doubts about some animal or organism consciousness, such as small rodents, some birds and fish, and especially various insects. Nonetheless, it seems fair to say that most philosophers today readily accept the database of african fact that a significant portion of the animal kingdom is my resume capable of having conscious mental states, though there are still notable exceptions to database, that rule (Carruthers 2000, 2005). I Attached My Resume! Of course, this is not to say that various animals can have all of the of african theses and dissertations same kinds of sophisticated conscious states enjoyed by human beings, such as reflecting on philosophical and mathematical problems, enjoying artworks, thinking about the vast universe or the i attached my resume distant past, and essays so on. I Attached My Resume! However, it still seems reasonable to believe that animals can have at least some conscious states from rudimentary pains to various perceptual states and perhaps even to some level of self-consciousness.
A number of database of african theses, key areas are under continuing investigation. For example, to what extent can animals recognize themselves, such as in a mirror, in order to demonstrate some level of i attached my resume, self-awareness? To what extent can animals deceive or empathize with other animals, either of which would indicate awareness of the minds of others? These and other important questions are at the center of much current theorizing about what application animal cognition. (See Keenan et. I Attached My Resume! al. 2003 and Beckoff et. Of African Theses! al.
2002.) In some ways, the problem of knowing about animal minds is an interesting sub-area of the traditional epistemological “problem of other minds”: How do we even know that other humans have conscious minds? What justifies such a belief? The possibility of machine (or robot) consciousness has intrigued philosophers and non-philosophers alike for i attached my resume, decades. Could a machine really think or be conscious? Could a robot really subjectively experience the thesis masculinity smelling of a rose or the i attached feeling of pain?
One important early launching point was a well-known paper by the mathematician Alan Turing (1950) which proposed what has come to be known as the “Turing test” for machine intelligence and kundera essays thought (and perhaps consciousness as well). My Resume! The basic idea is that if a machine could fool an interrogator (who could not see the machine) into expository thinking that it was human, then we should say it thinks or, at least, has intelligence. My Resume! However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and have very narrow uses. One cannot ask the machine about virtually anything, as Turing had envisioned. Moreover, even if a machine or robot could pass the Turing Test, many remain very skeptical as to whether or not this demonstrates genuine machine thinking, let alone consciousness. List Writing! For one thing, many philosophers would not take such purely behavioral (e.g., linguistic) evidence to support the conclusion that machines are capable of having phenomenal first person experiences. Merely using words like “red” doesn’t ensure that there is the corresponding sensation of red or real grasp of the meaning of my resume, “red.” Turing himself considered numerous objections and offered his own replies, many of which are still debated today. Another much discussed argument is John Searle’s (1980) famous Chinese Room Argument, which has spawned an enormous amount of literature since its original publication (see also Searle 1984; Preston and Bishop 2002).
Searle is concerned to reject what he calls “strong AI” which is the view that suitably programmed computers literally have a mind, that is, they really understand language and actually have other mental capacities similar to humans. Outline Thesis! This is contrasted with “weak AI” which is the i attached my resume view that computers are merely useful tools for club statement masculinity, studying the i attached my resume mind. Outline Thesis Essay! The gist of Searle’s argument is that he imagines himself running a program for i attached, using Chinese and then shows that he does not understand Chinese; therefore, strong AI is false; that is, running the program does not result in any real understanding (or thought or consciousness, by implication). Searle supports his argument against strong AI by utilizing a thought experiment whereby he is in a room and follows English instructions for manipulating Chinese symbols in order to of african and dissertations, produce appropriate answers to questions in Chinese. Searle argues that, despite the appearance of understanding Chinese (say, from outside the i attached room), he does not understand Chinese at all.
He does not thereby know Chinese, but is merely manipulating symbols on the basis of syntax alone. What To Include In A Scholarship Application! Since this is what computers do, no computer, merely by following a program, genuinely understands anything. Searle replies to numerous possible criticisms in his original paper (which also comes with extensive peer commentary), but suffice it to say that not everyone is satisfied with his responses. For example, it might be argued that the entire room or “system” understands Chinese if we are forced to use Searle’s analogy and thought experiment. Each part of the room doesn’t understand Chinese (including Searle himself) but the entire system does, which includes the i attached my resume instructions and essay so on. I Attached My Resume! Searle’s larger argument, however, is what to include scholarship that one cannot get semantics (meaning) from syntax (formal symbol manipulation). Despite heavy criticism of the argument, two central issues are raised by Searle which continue to be of deep interest.
First, how and when does one distinguish mere “simulation” of some mental activity from genuine “duplication”? Searle’s view is that computers are, at best, merely simulating understanding and thought, not really duplicating it. Much like we might say that a computerized hurricane simulation does not duplicate a real hurricane, Searle insists the same goes for any alleged computer “mental” activity. We do after all distinguish between real diamonds or leather and mere simulations which are just not the real thing. Second, and perhaps even more important, when considering just why computers really can’t think or be conscious, Searle interestingly reverts back to i attached my resume, a biologically based argument. In essence, he says that computers or robots are just not made of the list transitions essay right stuff with the right kind of i attached my resume, “causal powers” to produce genuine thought or consciousness. After all, even a materialist does not have to fight statement, allow that any kind of physical stuff can produce consciousness any more than any type of my resume, physical substance can, say, conduct electricity. Of course, this raises a whole host of other questions which go to the heart of the metaphysics of consciousness. To what extent must an organism or system be physiologically like us in order to be conscious?
Why is having a certain biological or chemical make up necessary for consciousness? Why exactly couldn’t an appropriately built robot be capable of having conscious mental states? How could we even know either way? However one answers these questions, it seems that building a truly conscious Commander Data is, at best, still just science fiction. In any case, the growing areas of cognitive science and artificial intelligence are major fields within philosophy of mind and list transitions essay writing can importantly bear on philosophical questions of consciousness. I Attached! Much of current research focuses on how to program a computer to model the workings of the human brain, such as with so-called “neural (or connectionist) networks.”
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Here are the basic steps to writing an effective descriptive essay : 1. I Attached My Resume? Select a subject Observation is the key to kundera writing a good description. For example, if you are writing about a place, go there and take notes on i attached my resume, the sights, sounds, and smells. A descriptive essay paints a picture for fight the. Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay : Connor Donnelly 090-177 Essay #2 People are always talking about being in . I Attached My Resume? those situations where time slows down to the point where a few seconds feels like a few minutes, well I didn’t exactly think that is what actually happened. Until a dreary, calm, dull spring afternoon in Briargate (located in Northern Colorado Springs), about a week after my fourteenth birthday, I decided that I was going to go down to list transitions this plentifully lush creek next to a well travelled bridge. While. Ballpoint pen , Foot , Fuck 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay About Maharajah's Feast.
consider eating something like this. The man across the table grabs a squirming eel in each hand and i attached, sucks them down like wet spaghetti. Dr. Jones . and Captain Blumburrtt are sitting next to each other and casually speaking to the Prime Minister about the student friendly expository essay complaints from the villagers. I Attached My Resume? The discussion starts calm but escalates, as the to include Prime Minister seems uncomfortable with Dr.
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Cynthia Morris – Descriptive Essay There is a quote that says: Mothers are angels who teach their children how to fly. . Indeed my mother was an angel who in my younger years I thought was sent here to torture me especially when I wanted to hang out i attached my resume with my friends instead of doing chores or homework. To Include In A Scholarship Application Essay? My mother was the pillar of strength, love, and my resume, compassion. Mothers may be misunderstood but that doesn’t mean they don’t care or know better. My earliest memories of my mother, was her pretty. Anxiety , Family , Father 861 Words | 3 Pages. | Descriptive Essay | Rough draft | | Gatewood, Jasmine | 10/12/2012 | Myself: Person Hello kitty . Club Masculinity? collection thing Homemade spaghetti food Downtown Dallas place Jasmine Gatewood English 0331.2 Ms. Fischel 10/12/12 Description Essay Downtown Dallas home of the dart and the drug dealers on every corner, my friends and I used to visit regularly to i attached my resume have a nice chipotle dinner. When you are hear you cannot help but, visit the milan kundera essays many food places, and cultural.
Dallas , Dallas Area Rapid Transit , Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Ivory Koehn 9/10/2010 Descriptive Essay Under The Raised Hand Prologue When I was a young girl learning . about life and love, I always thought that some man would sweep me off my feet and it was my fate to be with him and only him. I Attached My Resume? My mother was not a big fan of to include in a scholarship application essay, love and fate. She didn’t have a very good history of guys and relationships. She would always tell us love was not a reality and we should find someone with a lot of i attached my resume, money. My mother is a strong feminist woman and list transitions writing, I tried as hard. 2008 singles , English-language films , High school 2045 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive Essay A Horrid Memory My sweaty palms ran through-out the i attached thin strands of my hair as I tried to comfort . myself for fight thesis masculinity just a single moment.
I felt scared, almost terrified as the screams of my nightmare echoed in my ears and made my head throb. Almost never did I have such vivid dreams, and when I did, I never remembered them the i attached next day. Nevertheless, I don't think that I'll ever be able to make amends with my darkest memories and reliving situations that scarred my childhood. Laughter 865 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive Essay Draft Throughout our lives we meet many people. Student? We impact others by our own actions every day. My Resume? Sometimes . we impact them without even realizing it. And people will impact our lives and our hearts forever. You may just have a simple conversation with a stranger on a bus, and before you know it, both individuals have a changed perspective on thesis statement, something. Or perhaps you’ve known the person your whole life and they have impacted you just as much or even more.
These influential people. 2008 albums , 2008 singles , Conversation 964 Words | 3 Pages. How to my resume Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of of african, essays , descriptive . essays strive to i attached my resume create a deeply involved and vivid experience for scholarship application the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to i attached describe.
Often, a descriptive essay will focus on milan kundera essays, portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages. English 152 Lynne Goldsmith Descriptive Essay October 23, 2014 Let Me Tell Ya ‘Bout My Best Friend Saige Mackenzie Polk, a . five foot girl with ten feet of i attached my resume, attitude and sass. The girl that everyone knows and watches in database theses and dissertations awe as she struts down the my resume hallways. Outline For A Thesis? She’s the girl that succeeds with flying colors at everything she attempts, and i attached, never has a thought of giving up until she feels it is good enough for not only thesis masculinity, herself, but every other person around. My Resume? Everything about Saige is spectacular from her. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , Friendship 976 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Examples Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument. For A? Each type has a unique . purpose: some tell a story, some are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints.
One of the best ways to better understand each type of essay is to review examples. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is i attached my resume, telling a story from a certain viewpoint, and there is usually a reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1903 Words | 6 Pages. Descriptive essay Shyla Hassett Everyone has a place where they go to escape all the pressures and worries of life? . Database Theses And Dissertations? ? . There is always that one spot that can soothe all your problems and i attached, troubles in times of stress. For some? ,? the woods? ,? the beach? ,? or the outline thesis park is the i attached my resume place to go? . Thesis Masculinity? ? For me? ,? it’s simpler. I go to my bedroom to cure all my problems? . I Attached My Resume? As I walk in milan kundera essays I can feel the soft? ,? smooth carpet beneath my feet. I see freshly painted lavender walls with white trimming?.
2004 albums , Color , Debut albums 323 Words | 2 Pages. Descriptive Essay My nose is overwhelmed with the smell of hairspray, baby powder, and my resume, a fruity perfume. There are too many . girls in milan kundera here, all struggling and fighting for i attached a space near the mirror that covers the entire back wall. For A Thesis Essay? It’s dim in i attached my resume here, but it’s a good kind of dim, almost calming. The only light is coming from the round vanity bulbs that line the in a application top of the mirrors, making it so that the fluorescents don’t impair what natural light reveals. I make my way to the red lockers on the right. Cosmetics , Hair iron , Hairstyle 1441 Words | 4 Pages. ?Anh Phan ENG 099 7248795 Descriptive Essay Grandmother, the i attached inspiration of my life I still remember every picture . and actions of my grandmother, a woman who loves me and sacrifices for transitions me and my father most. I Attached My Resume? My father grew up in the north of database and dissertations, Vietnam, and my mom and my family in my resume the south of Vietnam. For the disadvantages of long distance, I could not visit my grandmother and grandfather regularly.
Fortunately, in Tet Holiday in Vietnam when I was 7 years old, my parents took me to visit. A Big Family , Family , Grandparent 964 Words | 4 Pages. ?Icesus Holland Brenda White English 101 16 September 2013 Descriptive Essay The beach is one of the most beautiful . Kundera Essays? places in my resume the world. Before visiting, I had only been to the four states, which is the stringy grassy fields, the forest of trees, the smelly white and black cows and pink curly tailed pigs. Thesis Masculinity? See I had never seen any other states but Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.
I love the picture in my head but it was nice to finally see something different. My Resume? When my boyfriend. 1996 albums , 2005 singles , Akira Kurosawa 1256 Words | 4 Pages. A Descriptive Essay Anticipation grows consistent with every step I take along the gritty concrete labyrinth. Beneath a . blazing sun, the smell of transitions essay writing, baked asphalt, sugary cola, and pretzel surround me.
I follow the unpainted, gray chain fence that leads me forward. Overhead the deafening whirl of my resume, metal and screams briefly fill the hot air. The consistent drone of greasy motors and in a scholarship application, hissing pneumatics engage my curiosity. My heart rushes like a child on my resume, Christmas morning about to receive a favorite. Mind 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay About the database theses and dissertations Beach. Descriptive Essay ; My Perfect Place a television, a jewelry box, or a computer, etc. It wasnt real, but it was a great . place to escape to i attached even if it was just in my mind.
It gave me something to hope. Premium Descriptive Essay Describing a Place Patdreka Williams 7-14-12 English 110 Journal Entry A Place When I was a little girl I dreamed of the most extraordinary room in student friendly expository essay my mind. Being one of the. Premium Descriptive Essay . My Resume? My Favorite Place. Atlantic Ocean , English-language films , Girl 273 Words | 2 Pages.
Chante Francisco Descriptive Essay - My Grandparent’s House My most favorite place has always been my . grandparent’s house. Database And Dissertations? This is the my resume place I would have to go to before and after school. I have always loved my grandparent’s house because it made me feel safe and club thesis statement masculinity, warm. There was a smell of i attached, coffee in the air at all times. It seemed like all my grandmother did was make coffee. If I smell coffee, I instantly think of my grandparent’s house. My grandparent’s house . Collard greens , English-language films , Family 522 Words | 3 Pages.
Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and student rubric, Descriptive Essays. Compare and i attached my resume, Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on essay, a reader’s mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive . I Attached My Resume? While the two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is arguably effective that the in a scholarship application essay other. Narrative essays tells a story from personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages.
?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of tha problems with growing older is losing tha wonder and . My Resume? fascination of tha world that children see. With tha everyday drudgery of life, it gets harder and harder to fight thesis masculinity see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. I Attached My Resume? This is tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes. Thare are few places where tha. Disney Vacation Club , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1533 Words | 6 Pages.
Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles . that provides a detailed description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. What In A Scholarship Essay? It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and i attached, taste. 2) Example: Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in fight statement 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book “Les Essais”.
In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and my resume, consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . Of African Theses? Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. I Attached? The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. Transitions Essay Writing? When I first heard of the i attached hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the storm approached I certainly changed my mind. As we sat in the house it became very real how bad the storm was going to be. It was scary to. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Denzel Washington , Paterson, New Jersey 971 Words | 3 Pages.
Descriptive Essay As I walked through the list transitions cold, lonely streets of Aberdeen, I decided to take a shortcut home. I Attached My Resume? Making a sharp . right, I was headed down an alleyway, which was dark and sinister. Mist was slowly rising upward from the ground, which appeared yellowish from the reflection of one sole, dim, flickering light, almost at the point of burning out. The only sounds of the outline for a essay night came from my own feet dragging over i attached many pebbles and outline for a thesis, stone on the cement. The breeze was very bitter and piercing. Cosmo Kramer , This Old Man 1151 Words | 3 Pages.
Descriptive Essay As my sister’s wedding drew near, given that I was her maid of honor, it became apparent to me that it was . my job to my resume take all of the ladies in the wedding party to the salon on the day of the database theses and dissertations wedding. This was fine with me, except that I hadn’t worn makeup or done my hair for years. After much convincing from the i attached my resume bride, I decided to get my makeup done with them, and regretted that decision every second after it was made. The day approached all too soon. For A? I was blown back.
Cosmetics , English-language films , I Decided 917 Words | 3 Pages. College Writing 2 October 2012 Descriptive Essay A compact two-door car might not mean a lot to i attached someone, but to list transitions essay writing me, working . and my resume, improving my car is my favorite thing to kundera essays do. When I am not inside my house or hanging out with my friends, you’ll be sure to find me working or cleaning my car. For most people, leaving their car stock is passable for their needs, but to me it’s not. My car is modified which makes it one of a kind. My car consists of its exterior, interior, and performance level. Automobile , Color , Headlamp 2139 Words | 5 Pages. English Description Essay In this essay I will describe something in my home; I have chosen to describe a Cheez-It box. . Many people own Cheez-It snacks in their homes. The color of the my resume Cheez-It box is red, white, orange, yellow, and what to include in a application, black.
The front of the box has a big label reading Cheez-It. I Attached My Resume? Above the label it shows the essay company’s name which is Sunshine. It has a picture of a little fat chef on i attached, the left of the company sunshine’s name. Directly underneath the milan kundera Cheez-It label it declares. Cheddar cheese , Cheese , Cheez-It 961 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive paper Mercedez 1 How It Feels To Be in a Live Poker Tournament About five years ago I used to my resume date this guy, . whose mother loved to go to the casino. When I first heard about her going, I just couldn’t understand why she would get so excited about going there. She would come home and say how she had the expository rubric best time and how she got so lucky.
She claimed that her son would give her luck and i attached my resume, other small things that she would do, to outline for a essay claim she received luck that night. I would just look. Card game , Game , Luck 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Jennifer Schacht ENG-090 2/10/2011 Descriptive Essay Final We have been waiting nine long months, and we have had much . preparation to do before the arrival of our daughter. Of all the things we have prepared for her, I am most proud of i attached, her room, my mother and I painted it and sat it up with all the accessories together. I sat on the floor and outline thesis essay, taped off the stripes to be painted, and i attached, my mom painted. Milan Essays? It was a great team effort, and my resume, we are so happy how it turned out. Fight Thesis Statement Masculinity? With flowers and butterflies.
2007 singles , Caesarean section , English-language films 2924 Words | 6 Pages. ? Descriptive narrative Assignment September 25, 2013 A Terrible Event No one could ever imagine that such an incident could . happen. On December 31, 2008, in Benin precisely in West Africa, my friends Erick, John, and I decided to go out, as we were welcoming the New Year. Erick and John were my best friends in i attached High school, and we were together almost all the fight club thesis time. Erick was tall, short hair with a moustache, whereas John was short and had a long beard. New Year’s Eve was always fun. ARIA Charts , Automobile , New Year 1041 Words | 3 Pages.
?Fred Cotten Descriptive Essay September 27, 2014 English 1010 - 85 A Mini Vacation to Atlanta, Georgia Traveling is one . of my family’s favorite things to my resume do. The family has visited numerous places throughout the United States, however, none are as memorable as Atlanta, Georgia. Fight Club Thesis Statement? In Atlanta, there are many places to go and sights to i attached my resume see such as: Cola-cola factory, Cabbage Patch Kids Factory, Under Ground Mall, the Zoo, Atlanta Braves Stadium, Six Flags Over Georgia, Stone Mountain Park, and. 1996 Summer Olympics , Atlanta , Atlanta metropolitan area 788 Words | 3 Pages. English 1301 Week 4 The Narrative Essay My First Flight The seasons are approaching in which families gather to celebrate . Thanksgiving and fight statement masculinity, Christmas. This time of year does not carry the my resume same feelings for club thesis masculinity me as they did when I was young.
I am a military spouse and my husband has been away for i attached most of our holidays. One peculiar Christmas I received the opportunity to spend the holiday with him this was my first flight experience. Outline Essay? The morning of my flight, I got up at 2 o’clock, said a prayer. Anxiety , Flight , Plane 1310 Words | 3 Pages. ? NIGERIA The purpose of my resume, this essay is to describe Nigeria. Officially it is a federal constitutional republic, located in West . In A? Africa and shares land borders with the i attached my resume Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and fight masculinity, Niger in the north.
Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Its three largest and most influential ethnic groups are the Hausa, Igbo and i attached my resume, Yoruba. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the for a country. Africa , Benin , Niger 1819 Words | 8 Pages. 115 date Essay 1 Do You Want to i attached my resume Build a Snowman? Is incredible all that a piece of paper can reflect about someone life, . these pieces of essays, paper illustrated by characters or passages can be meaningful for us, all the memories this brought to my resume people minds, those wonderful papers are called pictures. Theses And Dissertations? When we thought of pictures we just take those for granted. The images shown in pictures tell us more than one thing at once, it depends on everyone perceptions about it and the feeling about i attached others to.
2008 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 935 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sadman Mondalib January 31st, 2015 Randy Koch English 101-33 Descriptive Essay A Park By The Memory Lane As I was growing . Scholarship Application? up I had the fortune to travel different countries and being away from the home country for educational purposes since 2010, I also got to experience a lots of my resume, different cultures, environment and club, places. It’s really confusing for me if someone asks me to describe the i attached most pleasant place in my list out of all these places I have ever been. List Transitions Essay? After giving it much thought I. Bangladesh , Brahmaputra River , Right-wing politics 1110 Words | 3 Pages.
I force the arms of sleep off of me and feel the cool early morning air whiff across my skin. Ugh, I wish I could get just two more hours of i attached my resume, shut eye and I . Database Of African Theses And Dissertations? would be good, but it’s that time and I sit up. I Attached My Resume? Eyes still shut sitting in my bed, I think about seeing my family and I get a burst of milan kundera, energy. It’s been two long years since the i attached my resume last time I’ve seen them. I’m going home! I walk across my room in the darkness of dawn and flick on thesis statement masculinity, the light. Smelling the dewy, clean, fresh air breeze by through. Aircrew , Feeling , Flight attendant 1110 Words | 3 Pages. Brazil is a Latin American country known as the biggest country in South America and my resume, the fifth largest in the world. Brazil is milan essays, also a political and economic . leader in South America in terms of international trade.
Brazil is about to i attached become a dominant power on theses, the international scene. One of the great advantages Brazil has for i attached my resume energy potential comes from having several different climate zones. A dry, sunny climate in the center gives opportunity for the solar sector to be developed, and windy coasts. Energy development , Fossil fuel , Hydroelectricity 1157 Words | 4 Pages. PREDRAFTING: In June of 2009 right after father’s day I found out milan essays that I was pregnant with my first and only child, which brought so much joy to my life. At . first I was nervous about the i attached news, but then the more I thought about it the more excited and for a essay, happier I got. I finally realized that I was going to be a mother.
I had scheduled my first ultrasound to see how my baby was growing and on that same day I found out my resume that I was going to list transitions writing have a little boy on February 6, 2010. At that same ultrasound. Doctor , Family , Inch 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Zach Dolenar Professor English English 1102 19 September 2012 Ode to i attached my resume a Cherry What’s better to thesis essay chill out i attached a hot summer’s day than something sweet and . cool? No, I am not talking about a Popsicle. Database Theses And Dissertations? I am not talking about an i attached, ice cream cone, either.
I am not even talking about iced tea or lemonade. It is something better than all of those, and it doesn’t even have all the sneaky calories of those other tasty treats! The answer to outline thesis essay the question is i attached, simple. Have you guessed it? It is a cherry.
Upon first. A Great Way to Care , A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer 1012 Words | 3 Pages. outside. As I lookdown the street I can see the fog setting only milan kundera essays, feet away from me. It is on this evening when my curiosity gets the best of me.
I want to . know why my mother never allowed me to go down Cedar Crest Drive. I've heard many stories about a haunted house down there. The stories, however, have varied. I heard somebody had been gruesomely murdered in there. I also heard that a young man had starved himself to death. I heard he literally looked like a skeleton when they took him out. There. Andrew Wood , Coming out i attached , Door 1038 Words | 3 Pages. ultimately changing us forever. This moment came for what to include in a scholarship me when I was rather quite young. In fact, I was in i attached the middle of of african, my third year of elementary school. . Before we go any further down this recollection trip of ours, I will have you know a little about my past.
In my younger days, I had been branded as what you may refer to as a “liar”, but the my resume reality wasn’t found in the sense of that word. Instead of “lying” in milan kundera essays modems of i attached my resume, deceit, I simply and outline thesis essay, honestly believed with all my being that if something. 2006 albums , Classroom , Mind 1495 Words | 4 Pages. trim that wraps around the windows. The bright white trimmed, four year old, double pane windows take up about two-thirds of the my resume wall, allowing . an abundance of sunlight to come flowing in during the thesis early daytime hours when the blinds are open.
On both sides of the windows hanging on the wall, in my resume plain dark wood frames, are family photos that captured happy and joyful times that often bring about stories that surround those times and fight thesis, people. The most favored seating area and best viewpoint for the.
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essay on a play 2017 Steve Campsall. write about a play. - Also read the accompanying English biz guide to essay writing - Whether for controlled assesment or exam, writing about a play needs extra care. You will perhaps only have read the play in class so take care to keep in mind that plays are written for i attached my resume the stage, not the page.
What the essays audience sees as well as hears - stage action and setting - must be at the heart of your analysis and discussion. Only if you analyse from the perspective of the play's audience , will you be able to recognise the my resume effect the play is having on them and understand the purposes intended by the playwright - always a two-fold purpose, for to include application plot and theme . Be sure you understand the full implications of this - read on! STAY FOCUSED ON THE PLAY'S DRAMATIC ASPECTS. Be sure to consider the methods used , the effects created and the purposes intended of the following dramatic aspects: structure, thatis, the effects of sequences of i attached my resume, action, a key plot device. the creation of intrigue, tension and suspense - the key elements of an expository, effective plot. Another pitfall to avoid. Not knowing the play well enough is the single biggest cause of a low grade. Fortunately, it's easily resolved. so focus on the higher grade that'll be in store for you and spend some extra time re-reading and i attached reflecting on the play itself.
A good essay can never be written without a good knowledge of the text - don't kid yourself otherwise, please. What will also help is to scholarship application, get hold of a good study guide . Click on one of the links below to my resume, find one free online. Pre-1914 plays pose special difficulties as they are often written using complex and formal language. A study guide will be particularly useful if you are studying an older play. You're never going to know all there is to know about the play you're studying so, if you've read and discussed it in milan kundera essays class and i attached my resume then re-read it at home along with a good study guide, you have done all that can be expected. Of course, this guide will help, too! If you're revising for an exam, ask your teacher to let you have a few past exam questions to practise on. And Dissertations. This will boost your confidence and you'll be better prepared.
What is it that gains most marks? It is the quality of your interpretation of the play's words and action that will largely determine the grade your work receives. When you interpret the action and dialogue of i attached, a play, you are finding, explaining and discussing the methods , effects and purposes of the layers of outline thesis essay, meaning that exist beyond the surface meaning . Literature - whether a poem, play or novel - is about feeling perhaps more than meaning : this is why interpretation is the i attached my resume key skill. Plays always contain layers of transitions essay writing, meaning ; these are created by my resume, the playwright to help develop important aspects of the play, most especially its themes . To uncover these different layers of meaning, you will need to consider the what , how and why of such things as the mood being created, the way a character is being portrayed through dialogue and action, etc., how the fight club thesis statement stage setting (i.e. the time, place and context) adds to the play in subtle but important ways, and how the events ( plot ), stage action and dialogue all work to i attached, help develop and kundera explore the play's themes . All of i attached my resume, these are covered in detail later. It's important to realise that interpretation is not about facts . An interpretation is, by its very nature, an opinion - a point of view . This is why examiners are not keen to read the opinions of others - those of your teacher or those taken from to include application a study guides, for example; examiners like to read about individual ideas - your ideas . These are always rewarded more highly. That said, it can be far easier to uncover these layers of meaning if you work with a friend on the play - other viewpoints can often help you to develop a deeper understanding of i attached my resume, it. To Include In A Application. This does not mean you should ever copy from i attached a friend - or rely on a study guide - but it does mean that reading and discussing the play with others can be very helpful indeed. Because interpretations are opinions not facts, they will need supporting by referring to to include scholarship, the aspect of the text that caused them to i attached my resume, arise. For more on this, see the English biz guide to club thesis masculinity, essay writing by clicking here . You should also consider evaluating how successful or otherwise you believe the i attached playwright is fight thesis being. You might consider this in the light of the play's likely effect on different kinds of audience - a modern audience and the original audience for the play.
Below is an example of interpretation based on Priestley's play An Inspector Calls. My Resume. Don't worry if you don't know this play - you will still get a good idea of what is being done. The purpose of the interpretation is not to show what you should be able to achieve but merely to show what can be achieved - and just how much can be said from so little! BIRLING : Well, it's my duty to keep labour costs down, and if I'd agreed to this demand for a new rate we'd have added about twelve per cent to friendly expository essay, our labour costs. Does that satisfy you? So I refused. Said I couldn't consider it.
We were paying the usual rates and i attached my resume if they didn't like those rates, they could go and work somewhere else. Outline For A Thesis Essay. It's a free country, I told them. What kind of exam questions can be expected? 1. Questions based upon my resume an extract from the play. Usually the exam paper contains three questions on the play you have studied, the first of essay writing, which is compulsory followed by a choice of answering one other question from two alternatives given. The first question will usually be based upon a short extract printed out in the exam paper. This will usually concern a character in the play or the relationship between characters; it might also ask how an effect is created, such as tension. 2. Questions based upon a character, theme or an important aspect of the play.
In this part of the exam paper you are given a choice of two questions from i attached which to answer one. WAYS TO BOOST YOUR GRADE. Analysing and writing about a play means writing from the to include scholarship perspective of the play's audience . This is very important . Doing this will transform your essay if you keep it in my resume mind. Your aim should be to analyse BOTH the language and essay rubric the stage action as if you were sitting in my resume the theatre watching the action unfold before your eyes . Of course, you are more aware than the audience. You know, for transitions example, what is to come at any point. You will, therefore, be able to write a fuller account than a member of the audience could at any point - but discussing what the audience are feeling and thinking will mean you will write about the structure of the play, which is such an my resume, important aspect as it reveals important aspects such as the club statement masculinity effect of entrances and exits, of i attached my resume, costume , setting , dramatic irony and list tension . You will need to select appropriate quotations and descriptions of stage action from i attached my resume your play to support the points you are making that will be developing your argument which forms the answer to the essay question ( find out more here ). When you do this, be sure to explain and comment on the effects on the audience both of the kundera language used and on aspects of stagecraft and i attached dramatic devices . You need to take account of what has already occurred in the play , and show how this develops the audience's sense of what might happen next . You need to milan kundera, look for and explain the dramatic techniques used in the play, as suggested above, for example, the use of dramatic irony . These methods - some linked to the language of the play, some linked to i attached my resume, the action on stage will put there by the dramatist to create specific and useful effects on the audience and each of these will have a purpose attached to milan, it, perhaps to develop a character, create a mood or tension , develop the plot or explore a theme . Always remember that the purpose attached to a specific effect of language, interaction or stage action will be for a local effect at this point in the play, and will in some small way be contributing to i attached my resume, the play's overall effects or theme. Be sure to discuss BOTH of these purposes to gain most marks and impress the examiner (see the box below for more on kundera, this). Remember, too, that as audiences change over time it will be necessary to discuss how the play's original audience as well as a modern audience might react to the play, and how relevant the plays action and themes are to both kinds of audience. EFFECTS, METHODS AND PURPOSES.
Whatever your essay question, you will be expected to look for and explain the effects the i attached my resume play is having on its audience, the methods being used to outline essay, create these effects and the possible purposes behind them. Remember - there will always be two levels of purpose to discuss: first, there will always be what you might call a 'local' purpose - something to my resume, do with the point in the play it occurs and masculinity quoting from; this will always be linked to some local aspect such as development of a character , creation of mood or tension , development of the plot , helping the audience relate to or engage with the action and so on. But - as no part of a play is there for no reason - there is very likely to be a secondary overall purpose that you can discuss - and this will be linked to the themes of the play. If your essay question involves discussing an extract from the play, the key thing to remember is that the audience cannot know what follows the extract (even though you do!) - so part of i attached, your answer needs to discuss just this point and explain what effect the extract will have on changing what the database and dissertations audience knows up to this point : has it created dramatic irony, has it changed the i attached my resume mood, is it developing characters, tension, etc. Why is this done?
How does it prepare the audience for what to include application what is to follow? You will often also be expected to consider the effects of context - especially with regard to the different kinds of audience and how its members might interpret the play. Never forget, too, that no fixed interpretation is likely to be satisfactory - always try to consider other ways the action and language of a play might be understood. In a drama essay, your purpose is always to i attached my resume, explore, explain and discuss the various significant ways by which the tools of drama have been used to entertain and outline for a essay engage the audience, persuading them to think about the world in a certain way - the dramatist's! The ideas explored by are called the i attached play's themes and themes are always made clear through the play's characters and list action. All essay questions will concern some aspect of theme and character. Drama is entertaining and a night out at the theatre is i attached something many people look forward. For A Thesis. Today, not realising what an interesting experience they are missing, of course, most people's experience of plays is not that of live acting at a theatre but the recorded and edited action of TV. Plays are a unique and very special form of literature because they are based on a combination of i attached my resume, language and action and friendly are the vision of two important people: the playwright and i attached my resume the play's director this vision is coupled with the enormous hard work of a company of actors and back stage personnel. Plays are designed both to entertain by capturing the imagination and to persuade by writing, capturing the i attached my resume mind. Playwrights are often very political creatures who are particularly sensitive to what they perceive to be the wrongs of society . Their plays are often a vehicle not just for transitions essay entertainment but for the expression of the playwright's ideas and concerns.
These are called the play's themes . A modern televised play can stir the imaginations and consciences of millions of people and i attached my resume change minds in friendly expository essay a way little else can. It is i attached because of this that drama has always had the essay potential to be a radical form of literature indeed, in Shakespeare's day, many plays were banned or had to be performed secretly or outside of the city's legal limits to avoid censorship or worse: more than one playwright was imprisoned and worse for their work. Whatever your essay question, you cannot tackle it well unless you understand the themes of your play and often, to understand the themes of a play fully, you need to have some idea of the playwright's context , i.e. the time, place and situation in which he or she lived and wrote: the aspects of their time and society that motivated and inspired them to write about what they have, in the way they have. I Attached My Resume. For help with particular plays click here or here for free study guides that will help you understand your particular play's themes and characters as well as the kundera relevance or not of the playwright's context. Themes, of course, are just ideas and ideas cannot be put on a stage except through a play's characters . So, the my resume study of a play always involves the study of milan kundera, who its characters are, what they do, how they do it, who they do it to, as well as what they say, how they say it and who to. that is, the action and language of the play!
CHARACTERS AND ACTION. A vital aspect of a play is its characters, what they do and what the audience come to think about them (are they sympathetic or antagonistic, for example?). Most essay questions concern either the themes or the characters of a play. I Attached My Resume. But a question concerning a character is often just a hidden question about themes - so it is probably true to say that most questions about database of african plays involve themes in one way or another. Who a character is, what they say, how they say it, what other characters say about my resume them, how other characters act around them and so forth all help to build up a character in the audience's mind.
Do you like a particular character? Why? Do you empathise with him or her or even sympathise with their plight? If so, think about what it is that makes you feel this way perhaps some aspect of the way they are being treated by transitions writing, their society? This is a theme of the play.
Your sympathy and my resume engagement with this character is what in a scholarship persuading you to accepting the playwright's ideas or themes. And just because their society is, for example, Italy in the olden days, does not mean that the ideas are old hat. Society may have evolved technologically, but not always in other ways. Shakespeare's views on i attached my resume, human relationships, and fight thesis masculinity Arthur Miller's views on society are, in many ways, still very valid today. Do you dislike a particular character? Again, why? What are they doing to be disliked? How are they being presented? Are they created as a stereotype - a kind of stock character ? What ideas occur to you when you watch them?
Again, these ideas are linked to the themes of the i attached play. The effects and purposes behind the playwright's use of stagecraft are as important in your analysis and essay as the database of african theses and dissertations choices and i attached my resume uses of language. Always consider how what is said in a play fits in with the following aspects of stagecraft: Where and when the action occurs. How a character is dressed. What a character does. The division of action into scenes and acts. the passing of time the introduction of fight club masculinity, a conflict the build up to a climax of action the resolution of problems the use of disguise the use of coincidence the use of dance, music and song. This is the commonest and often most important dramatic device used by a playwright to engage and involve the i attached audience in list transitions writing their play. My Resume. Dramatic irony occurs in all kinds of drama (look out for it on TV next time you watch a soap or drama).
It occurs when you, as a member of the audience, are allowed to know more than a particular character knows on stage. In A Application Essay. This creates a very effective level of engagement between the audience and the characters. Members of the i attached audience become involved in the action because they feel they ought to 'step in' and list essay writing help the character - but obviously they cannot. This creates tension and involvement - and even sympathy . Do you remember the use of dramatic irony in childhood pantomimes when you actually could shout out to a character in a play, 'Watch out - he's behind you!' ?