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Pride And Prejudice: Irony Essay, …
Assyrian Empire Essay Research Paper There are. Assyrian Empire Essay, Research Paper. There are two main reasons why the essay in irony prejudice pride, Neo-Assyrian Empire became so powerful between 934 ? 610 B.C. First, through this era, the power of for essay, Assyria was largely dependant on the success of its army (Saggs, 1962). Winer (1961) states that the essay, Assyrian military perfected the essays, art of war. During this time period, some 180 punitive expeditions or campaigns were launched against foreign foes, rebellious vassals or other anti-Assyrian groups (Olmstead, 1923). Essay Prejudice Pride! Second, the Assyrians developed an efficient and essayons corps, effective administrative system with which to maintain, supply and expand their empire. In Assyria, warfare was a way of life (Saggs, 1962) and its government was run as a military state (Winer, 1961).
Early wars had been like raids; undertaken to obtain booty, settle disputes over land and water rights, or fought for military notoriety. During the second Assyrian Empire, war became a part of the state policy. The raid was replaced by a detailed and carefully planned scheme of conquest (Sayce, 1899). The Assyrian Empire maintained a powerful standing army, not only to satisfy its imperialistic appetite, but also to safeguard the King against potential rebellious provincial governors. Sayce (1899) writes that nothing was spared to make the army as effective as possible. Army discipline was raised to the highest pitch of perfection, and its weapons and uniforms constantly underwent improvements (Sayce, 1899). Part of the army was composed of mercenaries, while another part was recruited by conscription (Sayce, 1899). Almost every male citizen had to bear arms. Only the pride, essential services of bankers, carpenters, merchants and metal workers could, under special favour of the government expect to be occasionally made exempt from military service (Trueman, 1964). The army was directly commanded by the King, or at on my motherland, times, his commander-in-chief, the Tartannu (Sayce, 1899). The main force of the army consisted of light and heavily armoured infantry.
Both units were equipped with bows, pikes and swords. The army also contained a mobile contingent of cavalry that featured mounted archers and lancers. Slingers, archers on foot and chariots driven by three-man crews were further components of the main army. Also attached to the army were units of the King?s staff officers, intelligence personnel, interpreters and scribes. Engineers accompanied the army to build bridges, boats, rafts, roads, and to construct ramps for use during a siege.
Breasted (1944) states Assyrian forces were the first large armies to be extensively equipped with iron weapons. Assyrians were especially skilled in besieging cities, using battering rams to break down enemy walls. Siege towers on wheels were further used to pummel enemy cities. Essay In Irony Prejudice Pride! During its military campaigns, the Assyrians had an effective transport and supply system in place to provide for its army. The Assyrian commissariat carefully calculated everything from daily rations for its troops to the hay and straw needed to essayons corps of engineers, feed its horses.
While captured enemy supplies were often used to essay in irony prejudice, feed the troops during military forays, the Assyrians also proved to be adept military planners to ensure that its army was well provisioned if such supplies were not available. A powerful army allowed the Assyrians to control the trade routes that ran from Iran and beyond to rat kiley, the west. Trueman (1964) states that because of Assyria?s strategic position on the Fertile Crescent, only constant warfare or an essay pride, empire prepared for war could maintain these east-west trade highways. Under the reign of Asasnirai II, a system of fortified posts was constructed to motherland, protect these trade routes. This practice was continued through the essay pride, New-Assyrian era.
Much of the military and administration efficiency of the marketing papers consumer, Assyrian army rested upon a strong communication and intelligence system. After a revolt was put down, a garrison of Assyrian troops was maintained in the area. These troops were not only expected to maintain the essay prejudice pride, status quo, but also to report on research papers consumer, the possibility of any further anti-Assyrian activity. Prejudice! Intelligence reports of any suspected activity were passed back to essays, the capital for evaluation. If these reports indicated an impending attack of more significant numbers than these outposts could handle, then a larger more powerful Assyrian force would be sent to address the problem. Once a revolt was put down, Assyrian justice would be quick, punitive and essay in irony, severe. Under Tiglath III, the Assyrian practice of deporting rebellious people to of engineers, other parts of the Empire was begun.
This continue to be an important Assyrian practice as a means of breaking up any patriotic feeling among conquered people that might pose a further threat to Assyrian security (Sayce, 1899). Essay In Irony Prejudice! Leading craftsmen and their families were often carried off to the leading cities of Assyria where they were employed in beautifying the royal palaces. Other deported people were forced to work on government projects or conscripted into the army. Slave labour, therefore, became an important part of maintaining and enhancing the state?s infrastructure. Another important tool of the Assyrian military was its use of marketing papers behaviour, psychological warfare. Much has been written about the ruthlessness of the Assyrian army. Villages were frequently burned, rebel leaders flayed alive and their skins nailed up as an example to others who might harbour similar thoughts of rebellion. Assyrian chroniclers delighted in describing the in irony pride, treatment handed out to essayons corps, the King?s enemies: ?I slew one of every two. I built a wall before. the in irony prejudice pride, great gates of the cities; I flayed the chief. men of the rebels, and I covered the wall with. their skins.
Some of them were enclosed alive. within the bricks of the wall; I caused a great. multitude of them to be flayed in my presence, and I covered the an essay, walls with their skins.? (Trueman, 1964, p. 51) The employment of terrorism foe the essay in irony, purposes of propaganda had a profound effect on Assyria?s enemies. In his victories over the main armies of the rat kiley character essay, Urartu and Zikirtu, Sargon II stated that the very fear of Assyria?s army caused his enemies? soldiers to in irony, fight like dead men (Saggs, 1965). Sayce (1899) writes that the Assyrians taught the the process of writing ideas, world not only how to build an empire, but also how to administer it. Attached to the King was his chief advisor called the Rab-saki and his department heads known as Rab-saris.
The Assyrians organized their empire into in irony prejudice pride provinces, ruled by a governor who was appointed by the King. By messengers, governors were expected to send frequent and detailed reports to the capital. In the interests of efficient administration, each province was subdivided into smaller areas under the control of lesser officials, but who had the right to lodge complaints or make representation directly to the King (Saggs, 1962). In the character analysis essay, buffer states beyond the main Assyrian provinces, the King often appointed a vassal ruler from the local royal family. In exchange for an oath of allegiance, the essay prejudice, payment of a tribute and the acceptance of Assyria directing their foreign policy, these vassals were guaranteed the protection of the Assyrian Empire (Saggs, 1962). To further ensure their allegiance, the sons of these foreign vassals were often held as hostages in the capital at the alchemist theme, the King?s Court. Olmstead (1923) states that for the first time in history, conquered states came to be organized into effective administrative units.
Appointed Assyrian officials closely watched the rule of provincial governors and vassals. This system of appointing officials to monitor Assyrian interests at the Court ensured the loyalty, honesty and diligence of these rulers. These ?watch dogs? were in essay prejudice close communication with the capital. Ruling governors or vassals acted only on definite and detailed orders from the analysis, Crown. The expectation of the Assyrian King in this matter is essay in irony prejudice pride evident in Esarhaddon?s message to the vassal ruler of Tyre: ?You shall not open a letter I send you. without the Qipu-official. If the Qipu-official. is not at hand, you shall await him and. (Saggs, 1965, p. 118) If they failed to act in the best interests of the Assyrian government, provincial governors or vassal rulers were always subject to immediate recall or punishment. Such a system ensured very tight control of the internal affairs of the Empire by the central government at the capital (Saggs, 1965). The booty obtained from Assyria?s military campaigns was used to glorify its cities and minimize the expenses of its wars. However, an efficient tax system was also implemented by the Assyrians to finance its Empire.
The collection of taxes was the responsibility of the rab alani, or town chief. Essay! A scribe serving as a tax inspector was also appointed by the King to assist and monitor the rab alani in these duties. A record was kept to prejudice pride, assist in the collection of taxes. For Essay! Besides direct taxation, there were also indirect taxes (Sayce, 1899). An octroi duty was charged on in irony pride, all cattle, sheep, horses and goods that that entered a town. Tolls were also charged on ships anchored in Assyrian quays and exacted from those who used the consumer, bridges that spanned the Euphrates River (Sayce, 1899). Detailed records were kept on the annual condition of in irony prejudice, crops, so the of engineers, amount of grain due as tax could be calculated.
Once this taxed grain was collected, it was either stored for use by the Assyrian army or forwarded to Assyria?s central cities. To increase grain production and ultimately tax revenues, irrigation was used by damming some of the streams. Breatsed (1944) states that the Assyrian government further regulated the social and business life of its people with a code of laws. In Irony Pride! These laws allowed the government to control everything from marriage to property rights. It was further the responsibility of the rab alani to maintain the military and essays, political stability of his/her area. As was the case with the essay prejudice pride, governor?s other subordinate officials, the rab alani was in constant contact with not only the governor, but also the capital. Theme Essays! To facilitate an effective line of communication with the pride, King, a good road system was constructed to link the character analysis, capital with its outlying areas, towns and provincial capitals. Breasted (1944) states this was the earliest known example of an effective road building system in Asia.
Permanent posts were maintained along these roads that kept horses and mules in prejudice pride readiness to carry dispatches to and from the the alchemist essays, capital (Saggs, 1962). These messengers related to the King all of the important on goings in the land. In Irony Pride! The Assyrian Empire?s military machine and infrastructure became a paradigm for other great empires that followed. Olmstead (1923) states that whether we admire imperialism or not ?it is simple fact that modern empires owe their government of dependencies to Assyria? (p. 650). Apa Style! Olmstead (1923) suggests that the Persians, Romans and the Greeks modeled much of their empires after the Assyrians. The Persians and Romans, for example, turned their occupied lands into prejudice pride provinces under the rule of governors. Corps Of Engineers! Like the Assyrians, the Persians and Romans built excellent roads to keep in touch with their empires.
Both Persians and Assyrians used posting stages (Saggs, 1962), across their empires so messages could be rapidly passed between the King and his governors. Persian kings also appointed riyal inspectors to essay in irony prejudice pride, monitor the rule of its governors. Unlike the Assyrians, the Romans did not employ such a system of supervision and rat kiley character analysis essay, consequently many of these governors often turned to graft and greed. With respect to their treatment of defeated foes, Olmstead (1923) states that the pride, Assyrians were arguably no worse than any other conquerors. Olmstead writes, ?where the the alchemist essays, Assyrians impaled, the in irony prejudice pride, Romans crucified? (p. 646).
While much has made of Assyrian cruelty, it has been estimated Caesar?s conquest destroyed one million lives (Olmstead, 1923). In conclusion, the power of the Neo-Assyrian Empire was largely built on the back of for essay, its army. It was a military state that operated an effective and efficient administration system that allowed it to essay in irony prejudice pride, maintain and the process of writing musical ideas, expand its empire. Its civil administration and military science became a future model for some of history?s greatest empires (Saggs, 1962).
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Wit, Humor and Irony in Pride and …
Grammar and Style in British English: The modern essay is a fairly short piece of work of between 500 and 3,000 words, written on a well-defined subject intended for essay, reading in a. single session. Shorter works are known as vignettes while longer ones are called extended essays or dissertations. A doctoral thesis can. reach100,000 words, after which the work becomes book size. Like all scripts, essays draw from the two principal styles of writing, narrative and rat kiley analysis essay exposition.
To summarise I n short, narrative is artistic writing and exposition is academic writing. This is not to say that these two forms of essay in irony pride, writing never converge. On the contrary, the corps works of in irony prejudice, journalists, travel writers and essayons corps biographers often draw. heavily upon the techniques of both, b ut exposition and narrative remain recognisably different styles, and essays, for the most part, are written in. one or the other. The narrative and expository essay each has a close relation. The descriptive essay is an offshoot of the narrative essay, and essay pride the argumentative. essay, an offshoot of the expository. Four kinds of essay are thus discussed here, followed by a few tips on drafting the expository essay (analysing, defining or explaining) Narrative is storytelling, the chronological relation of events.
It is the most natural way of for essay, writing because it is the most natural way of speaking ( first I. did this and essay in irony prejudice pride then I did that ) which is why it is the most deceptively simple of styles. Consider, for example, how one person can relate an the alchemist essays, anecdote. about her children and have us in fits of laughter while another does the same and bores us to distraction. Some people are skilled narrators while. What goes for in irony pride, speech, goes for writing. To write narrative well is difficult; to write it badly in the belief that it has been written well is unfortunately all. too easy. A probable reason for this self-deception is the virtual universality of papers consumer behaviour, literacy. Few among us can paint a picture or play a musical instrument, so we easily recognise the essay in irony prejudice skills of those who can. But everybody ‘writes’. The Alchemist Theme Essays. Little wonder, then, that far more people say they are going to write a book.
one day than say they are going to master the in irony prejudice pride violin, while they are as ill-equipped to corps, do the one as do the other. Many useful learn-to-write books are. available, and one of their most frequent pieces of advice is worth repeating: If you suspect it’s rubbish, it is . Writing narrative writing to entertain people might be the most difficult kind of prose to essay pride, write, but we have all probably attempted it. The most. rudimentary examples are the time-honoured titles we tackled in motherland primary school: 'A Rainy Day'; 'How I Spent my Summer Holidays'. More. sophisticated examples range from the essay in irony pride short stories of such masters as Saki and an essay on my motherland O. Henry to modern novels, the consummate form of narrative.
Narrative essays, in fact, usually appear in the form of short stories or biographical anecdotes, and the author, just like the essay in irony novelist, needs to appeal. to the reader's emotions and rat kiley character analysis essay draw him into pride, a world of the author's creation. How this is achieved, of course, is more easily said than done, yet there. are several devices that can be recognised in apa style for essay the works of successful authors. Narrative essays and short stories are often written in the first person ( I ). This lends them authenticity and prejudice pride allows the reader more easily to on my, identify. with the character experiencing the events. The drawback is that the first person constrains the writer to one point of view, allowing nothing to occur. in the essay in irony prejudice script that the central character does not himself or herself directly experience. Musical Ideas Is Called. There can be no he thought and in irony she thought , only I thought . While it is important in all essays to win the reader’s attention quickly, nowhere is papers consumer behaviour, this more important than in narrative.
With an expository essay, as. we shall see, the reader is looking for information or explanation. Entertainment is a bonus. With the narrative essay, on the other hand, entertainment. is expected. This initial interest can be achieved by means of the narrative hook, whereby the first few sentences capture the reader’s attention.
The. hook can be dramatic, funny, thought-provoking, mysterious or controversial, just as long as it motivates the reader to in irony prejudice pride, turn the crucial first few pages.. Narrative almost always focuses on some form of conflict: a conflict between people, between a person and the elements or between one person’s. desires and conscience. A lack of conflict is one of the main reasons readers give up on scripts and say that ‘nothing was happening’. Conflict also.
helps to create tension and suspense, and the writer needs to learn the skill of revealing information partially and slowly. The denouement (plot. resolution) finally resolves the conflict or tension and creates that sense of satisfaction that readers of narrative expect. Writers of good narrative follow the much-proffered advice for papers consumer, all story writing: Don’t tell! Show! In other words, readers should be allowed to see. characters in action rather than have those actions described for them. My partner, John, had taken a new teaching post at St. In Irony. Giles’, a tough. new comprehensive school, but after only a month it became obvious. that the job was wearing him down.
He came home from work one. evening, looking dreadful and essayons corps of engineers clearly very upset, and announced that. I sighed as the front door slammed again with unnecessary force. Just. four weeks at St. Giles’ Comprehensive and John was turning into a man. I neither knew nor liked.
He walked into the living room and sank into in irony prejudice, the. settee. That facial muscle had begun to twitch again as he stared at nothing. at all. Then he looked at an essay motherland me, as if surprised to find himself at home. In the same way, characters’ moods and feelings should be revealed rather than described, an end achieved by essay in irony pride using nouns and verbs more than. adjectives and adverbs. Adverbs, in particular, are often apologies for poor narrative Samantha stared worriedly out of the window. (Describing) Samantha stared out of the window, gnawing her lower lip. (Revealing)
Sometimes, the adverbs can simply be deleted Readers want to infer the moods and feelings of characters for themselves, not be led by the nose. T he writer should also minimise the uses of he said and she said . Essays. But where necessary, it is wiser to keep to essay, said rather than employ the rat kiley essay so-called. ‘elegant variation’ that is characteristic of the amateur: she exclaimed , he retorted . In contrast to expository essays, opinions need not be supported by evidence. Feelings more than reasoned arguments are what interest the reader. Narrative enjoys considerable grammatical licence in order to represent the ways in which people speak and think. The fused sentence is never. advisable, but sentence fragments, the one-word ‘sentence’ and sentences that begin with conjunctions are all effective devices for emulating. thought, as if the character were actually thinking aloud How dare he talk to me like that!
And in front of Katy, too. I said. nothing. Just watched him strut off to essay, the kitchen in his socks. Theme. Then. he cried out and essay in irony prejudice pride swore as he stubbed his toe against the leg of the. Finally, short narratives (in distinction to longer works such as novels) often follow one or more of the apa style for essay ‘unity’ principles: unity of essay in irony prejudice pride, person, place and. time. Unity of person keeps the reader in one person’s mind; unity of place keeps him in the same location, rather like a scene from a play or a film; and unity of time keeps him moving in real time; there are no jumps forward ( The following day, ) and certainly no flashbacks. Everything unfolds in.
an unbroken duration. Although by no means rules, these principles of unity often make for excellent narrative . 1. Descriptive essays as such are rarely encountered outside creative-writing courses. Their nearest approximations elsewhere are passages or entire. chapters from larger works, such as novels, where the plot is temporarily suspended in order to linger on something of interest. But the description. must be graphic, not encyclopaedic.
An essay describing quantum theory or describing how a bill goes through Parliament would be an expository, not a descriptive, essay. A descriptive essay creates a vivid and the process of writing ideas on paper colourful picture of essay pride, something, along with a central mood or impression, and the. writing is sensuous, appealing to as many of the five senses as possible; at appropriate times, the an essay on my writer will describe not just sight and sound, but. also touch, taste and smell. The subject of description might be almost anything: a room, a valley, a person, a storm, an erotic experience. Essay Prejudice Pride. The important thing is that the reader. feels he is vicariously experiencing something rather than simply reading about apa style for essay it It was near midnight, and ever since dusk I had been tramping the naked. moors, in the teeth of essay in irony prejudice pride, as vicious a nor’-wester as ever drenched a man to. the skin, and then blew the cold home to theme, his marrow. Essay. My clothes were. sodden; my coat-tails flapped with a noise like pistol shots; my boots.
squeaked as I went. Character Essay. Overhead, the October moon was in her last quarter, and might have been a slice of finger-nail for essay in irony pride, all the light she afforded. Two-thirds of the time the wrack blotted her out altogether; and I, with. my stick clipped tight under my armpit, eyes puckered up, and head bent. aslant, had to keep my wits alive to distinguish the road from the black. heath to right and left.
For three hours I had met neither man nor man’s. dwelling, and (for all I knew) was desperately lost. Indeed, at the cross- roads two miles back, there had been nothing for me but to choose the. way that kept the wind on my face, and it gnawed me like a dog. (Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, ‘The Two Householders’) 2. Expository and argumentative essays are the ones most commonly encountered in academia, and are much more formal compositions than those. described above. Exposition means ‘explaining’, ‘analysing’ or ‘defining’, and the subject of an expository essay is anything so exposed: the meaning.
of a poem, a political doctrine, a philosophical idea, the causes of a war, an economic development and so forth. The exposition, moreover, is. precise. A philosophy essay, for example, will need scrupulously to define its central concepts, a task that requires a fastidiousness of thought for. which the analysis essay impressionistic language of narrative is wholly unsuited. Essay. In some cases (explained below), elements of narrative might be permissible, but. this shifts the essay closer to the journalistic article, a move of which some academics might disapprove. As we might remember from school, the expository essay comprises three sections: the introduction, the for essay body and the conclusion. The introduction typically consists of about ten per cent of the essay and essay in irony prejudice pride normally includes a thesis statement: usually one or two sentences that.
explain the purpose of the essay. The thesis statement is to the essay what the topic sentence is to the paragraph: a brief outline of what is to. follow. Its length and research consumer behaviour position, however, will be determined by essay in irony the nature of the material and by the reader’s requirements, although it should not. normally appear later than the second paragraph. In the most intellectually demanding of essays, the entire introduction might be a virtual thesis statement, forming, so to speak, the writer’s briefing. to her readers before taking them on rat kiley a journey. In Irony Pride. That journey is likely to be difficult, so her readers will need a map. On My Motherland. They will need to know their. destination and in irony prejudice pride what the main stopping places are to be along the way.
And while there might be a few relevant diversions en route , there will be no. radical change of direction from the process of writing on paper that plotted in the introduction (which is why the introduction is often the last part of the essay to be written). In this. way, the introduction becomes an encapsulation of the entire essay, including the conclusion To examine the concept of essay in irony, justice in Plato’s Republic , we need first to. distinguish the several ways in for essay which that concept can be understood. Having outlined the four principal meanings of the word, we shall.
proceed to investigate which (or which combination) of them the. Platonic Socrates most likely has in mind in prejudice pride his dialogues, first with. Glaucon and for essay then Thrasymachus. We shall conclude that the. preponderant concept is pride, distributive justice, with possible connotations. of remedial justice, and research consumer that, given Socrates’ paradoxical belief that ‘no.
one does wrong willingly’, retributive justice does not figure at all. Assuming the reader to be familiar with Plato’s Republic , he now has a fairly good idea of what to expect from the essay. He knows from the opening. clause that the purpose is to examine Platonic justice, while the rest of the paragraph (and there might be two or three) brings the thesis more sharply. into focus for him. An introduction such as this might also include an explanation of any unfamiliar or stipulated terms to be used in the essay ( We. shall understand procedural justice to mean ), but it is arguably wiser to deal with them as they occur in the body of the essay where they are likely. to be better remembered. In expository essays of a less intellectually rigorous nature, the thesis statements will be correspondingly shorter The subject of inquiry is how AIDS is being combated in developing. The problem to be addressed is why, in spite of the government’s ban. on hand guns, there has been a dramatic rise in armed crime since the.
What do we mean by ‘freedom of the press’? This is the question we. shall attempt to answer. The evidence will be considered both for and against the claim that. David Copperfield was Dickens’s clandestine autobiography. Jazz is arguably America’s greatest contribution to world culture. Here. we will examine its three main early influences: ragtime, gospel and essay in irony prejudice the. Note the specificity of the statements and that the ‘statements’ can actually be questions. A thesis statement that proposes to discuss ‘the problem.
of AIDS’ or ‘the problem of corps, armed crime’ could be considered rather too general. The most natural place for the thesis statement is at the beginning. In Irony Prejudice Pride. As the opening sentence or sentences, the statement immediately informs the. reader of what the essay is to be about before he settles down to read it. This is probably the wisest course if the essay is being written for an. exclusively academic readership (e.g. Research. a college tutor).
If, on the other hand, the prejudice essay is to appeal to the wider readership of, say, a magazine, the. writer might wish to build up some interest before coming to essay, the thesis statement. This technique, called funnelling, feeds the reader a little. anecdotal information that gradually tapers to the thesis statement, usually at the end of the first paragraph. Suppose, for example, that the pride topic is to be the surprise result of the 1992 British general election. Behaviour. If the essay prejudice work is an undergraduate politics essay, the writer would be wise to open with the thesis statement The topic of investigation is why, in the run up to the general election of. April 1992, the an essay on my opinion polls so spectacularly failed to predict a Conservative. If, instead, the in irony prejudice work is to appear in a journal or magazine, the theme writer might choose to funnel it with an introduction such as this On the essay prejudice morning of 9 April, 1992, Neil Kinnock, Leader of the for essay Labour.
Party since 1983, was in essay in irony prejudice buoyant mood. He had good reason to be. Under. the Conservatives, Britain was going through its worst recession since. the 1930s, and theme essays the devaluation crisis of ‘Black Wednesday’ was still. painfully fresh in essay prejudice people’s minds. An Essay. He sensed victory, and the opinion polls.
encouraged him. Labour, they said, was heading for a clear victory. Thirty-six hours later, notwithstanding 39 Tory losses and 42 Labour. Gains, it was clear that John Major would be the man to walk back. through the door of Number Ten to lead his party in its fourth consecutive.
term of essay pride, office. Why, then, did the apa style opinion polls so spectacularly fail? Here, the writer has included an element of narrative in her exposition in order to generate interest in readers who, unlike college tutors, are under no. obligation to read the script. Assuming all the essay in irony pride research has been completed, the writer now has to organise her information into a coherent body of paragraphs, each setting out.
one or more points that develop the thesis statement. This can be done in a number of ideas, ways, but it is worth noting that readers tend to remember the. beginning and the end of the essay pride body more than the research behaviour middle. The recommended technique, therefore, is to arrange the material into a hierarchy of. arguments from the most to the least important and then to present them accordingly. To continue with our election example, this might be achieved. In her notes, suppose, the writer has randomly listed six explanations of essay in irony, why the polls were so wide of the mark 1. So-called ‘floating voters’ are notoriously fickle and apt to change. their minds even in the polling booth. campaign against the Labour Party in the last few days before the.
3. Although John Major presented a softer image than Margaret. Thatcher, the latter’s ‘uncaring’ legacy was such that many. Conservative supporters were afraid of being perceived as immoral. by revealing their party allegiance to the opinion pollsters. 4. Opinion pollsters need quick, unambiguous answers, and for essay Conservative. supporters are traditionally more circumspect about their voting. intentions than their Labour counterparts. 5. Opinion pollsters are almost always racing against the clock, and among. their temptations is to prejudice pride, avoid knocking the doors of houses with long. drives, the more likely dwellings of Conservative supporters.
6. The Labour Party seemed to papers, be celebrating victory prematurely, and. many of their potential voters resented this ‘arrogance’. These six points will comprise the essay in irony prejudice pride body of the the process musical ideas on paper essay and the writer now has to arrange them in order of essay prejudice pride, importance. The first thing she spots is that only three of these points specifically address the 1992 election as opposed to elections in general, namely 2, 3. and 6. These, then, are the most important topics and will somehow be arranged to appear at the beginning and the end of the body. Of these, the an essay writer might now decide that the press campaign (2) has the greatest explanatory value. For while the Tories’ uncaring image (3) and.
Labour’s premature celebrations (6) were contributory factors, they were nothing like as decisive in in irony pride thwarting the opinion polls as the an essay on my motherland final press. onslaught on Labour’s taxation policy led by The Sun . Point 2, then, will be the pride last to be made and will be given full paragraph status. On My. Next, she. decides that point 6 is more important than point 3, so 6 will come somewhere in the first paragraph and 3 in the penultimate. So far, then, the arrangement of the six-point body is Of the remaining points, those most likely to in irony pride, provide new and interesting information to the reader are probably the problems and practices of opinion. pollsters (4 and 5), while the prevarication of floating voters (1) is fairly common knowledge. In fact, our writer decides that 1 has the least explanatory.
value and might as well be got quickly out of the way in a dependent clause as a point of an essay on my motherland, small consequence Here, then, is the completed body with the introductory paragraph again On the morning of 9 April, 1992, Neil Kinnock, Leader of the Labour. Party since 1983, was in buoyant mood. He had good reason to be. Under the Conservatives, Britain was going through its worst recession. since the 1930s and the devaluation crisis of ‘Black Wednesday’ was. still painfully fresh in people’s minds. He sensed victory, and essay in irony prejudice pride the opinion. polls encouraged him. Labour, they said, was heading for a clear victory.
Thirty-six hours later, notwithstanding 39 Tory losses and an essay on my motherland 42 Labour. Gains, it was clear that John Major would be the essay in irony prejudice pride man to walk back. through the marketing research papers consumer behaviour door of Number Ten to in irony pride, lead his party in its fourth consecutive. term of office. Why, then, did the opinion polls so spectacularly fail? Apart from the notoriously fickle behaviour of floating voters, who have.
been known to prevaricate even with the pencil in their hands (1) , the. Labour machine was celebrating victory early. No one admires pessimism. in politics, but this flamboyant optimism - the almost indecent haste of. moving the Kinnock furniture into Number Ten before the count had. properly begun - was perceived as rather un-British. The Alchemist. This would almost. certainly have been enough to tip the essay prejudice pride scales to the Tories for potentially. first-time Labour supporters (6) . A second reason is the considerable difficulty opinion polls encounter in. acquiring truly representative samples.
Pollsters require neat unambiguous. answers, and Labour supporters are traditionally more forthcoming in this. respect than their Conservative counterparts (4) . To exacerbate the essayons corps of engineers problem, they are almost always racing against the clock, and among their temptations. is to avoid knocking the doors of houses with long drives, the more likely. dwellings of Conservative supporters (5) . Odd though it might seem, another factor that contributed to the inaccurate. predictions was embarrassment. For thirteen years, the image of the.
Conservative Party had inexorably been hardening. During Margaret. Thatcher’s premiership, it came to be seen, rightly or wrongly, as the party. of naked capitalism, a capitalism no longer tempered by the noblesse oblige. of gentleman Tories such as Edward Heath and essay prejudice pride Lord Carrington. On My Motherland. Both by. her rhetoric and essay in irony prejudice pride her deeds, the Iron Lady seemed to have revived the. nineteenth-century belief that it is a necessary condition of progress that the.
weak go to research consumer, the wall. That John Major might have presented a softer image. could make no impact on essay in irony the legacy of successive governments that were. clandestinely privatising the health service and binding the rat kiley character analysis hands of prejudice, trade. unions with legal tape. Little wonder, then, that many of the alchemist essays, its supporters were. reluctant to stand and essay in irony prejudice be counted (3) . No one, however, was prepared for the unprecedented onslaught against the. Labour Party led by The Sun . In just a few days, the paper managed to turn.
the tide to the Tories’ advantage by raising the spectre of Labour’s taxation. policy (‘Will the on my last person to leave Britain please turns off the lights’). Notwithstanding that many of those frightened by the tax Bogey Man were the. low waged who stood materially to benefit by Labour’s progressive income tax, the campaign succeeded, sealing Labour’s fate and essay prejudice causing some red faces. among the professional pollsters (2) . Different and an essay motherland better constructions of the body might be possible, but the principle remains: priority is best given to the beginning and the end. One of the in irony prejudice pride weaknesses of conclusions sometimes is that they exist at all. Having produced a reasonably good essay, the writer will often feel. constrained to write ‘a conclusion’ because this is what she has been told she should do, not realising that she might already have concluded it. well. What, for example, could fruitfully be added to our sample essay on character the 1992 election?
If we accept that the main purpose of in irony prejudice, a conclusion is. to confirm that the essay has fulfilled its thesis statement, then there is really nothing more to research behaviour, say. At 500 words, on the other hand, our sample. essay is very short. In longer essays, with a correspondingly greater number of paragraphs in support of the thesis statement, the case for a formal. conclusion would be stronger. What, then, should a conclusion look like? Firstly, it should not merely be a summary of the essay; it must have. something original to say. Secondly, any questions set in the introduction or essay title should be explicitly answered. In Irony Prejudice. The evidence will have been.
provided in the body and now is the time to an essay motherland, formulate it into answers. These answers might be preceded by a summary of the in irony pride arguments that. appeared in the body, but only if those arguments have been sufficiently great in number or sufficiently complex to essayons corps of engineers, warrant one. Essay In Irony Pride. A summing up in our. short essay above would be unnecessary and appear amateurish. Thirdly, the conclusion might be an character, inference drawn from the evidence of the body. Had it run to 2,000 words, say, the conclusion of our essay on prejudice the 1992 election might look like this Predicting human behaviour, then, is perhaps an art more than a science. However much the opinion pollsters agonise over their ‘blunder’ of an essay on my motherland, 1992, it is inescapably the case that the factors influencing human conduct are. ones that are not easily amenable to scientific study.
Lastly, the conclusion could draw the reader’s attention to the wider implications of the thesis statement, indicating that there are other important. questions which can be raised. It will be beyond the scope of the present essay to answer these questions, but they can be posed in order to. stimulate interest and further research. For example, should polling organisations consider how they might achieve more representative samples? Should the prejudice apparent power of the press be a cause for concern? In order to investigate the relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, I first interviewed five people from social grades C2. and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, I interviewed five people from. the same grades who consistently voted Conservative.
This way of writing is probably the one that comes most naturally to us all, and the way an uninstructed first-year might produce her first expository. essay. The passage is clear and on my motherland grammatically correct, but the use of the essay in irony prejudice first person I is inappropriate. To make matters worse, the writer is using the first person to describe what she is doing rather than what she is thinking. The reader does not need.
to be told who carried out the research since the author’s name will be on the document. In the text, the rat kiley character analysis writer should concern herself only with what. was done and what was discovered, not with the fact that it was she who did or discovered it. As we shall see, the first person is sometimes justified. in the argumentative essay to essay in irony, express the writer’s opinions, but mere exposition should be completely impersonal. One method by which this impersonality might be achieved (and the method sometimes recommended) is to use the more detached third person In order to an essay motherland, investigate the prejudice relationship between working-class occupations.
and voting behaviour, the author first interviewed five people from social. grades C2 and marketing research papers behaviour D who consistently voted Labour. Essay Prejudice. Next, she interviewed five. people from the same grades who consistently voted Conservative. But this merely adds affectation to the problem. The writer is still drawing attention to herself by explaining what she did, succeeding only in.
compounding the issue by the inauthentic and archaic practice of referring to herself as if she were someone else. A better technique is to avoid reference to herself altogether In order to investigate the essayons of engineers relationship between working-class occupations. and voting behaviour, five people were interviewed from social grades C2. and D who consistently voted Labour. Next, five people from the same. grades were interviewed who consistently voted Conservative. The writer is now well out of sight. Essay Prejudice Pride. That the people in the survey were interviewed by her is understood but unsaid. The writer has maintained. authorial invisibility by using passive rather than active sentences.
But the the alchemist drawback with a series of passive sentences is that they can make. for rather dull reading. One way around this problem is for the author to in irony prejudice pride, combine passive sentences with active ones in which he survey, or its. results, are the subject rather than she herself The results of the survey show that (active with a third-person subject) Another of the writer’s options is to use the first-person plural we as the subject of active clauses and sentences. It is straying a little into essayons, informal. territory, but it is established academic practice and has the advantage of engaging the essay prejudice reader by creating the impression that he is papers consumer, sitting side- by-side with the author As can be seen from the diagram (passive and formal) As we can see from the diagram (active, engaging and formally acceptable)
What conclusions can be drawn from this? What conclusions can we draw from this? Two things need to be clarified We need to be clear about two things In expository essays, then, the writer is best advised to keep her head down by using a combination of essay in irony, • active sentences in which the subject is the apa style for essay research method. (the survey, interview, questionnaire, experiment, etc.) (the author and her readers)
In a sense, all academic essays are argumentative. The explanations and definitions of expository essays can always be challenged, so that even. they have a necessarily persuasive element. But argumentative or persuasive essays, per se, are much more explicitly prescriptive compositions. and are generally encountered at and above the undergraduate rung of the academic ladder. Such essays (called papers if they are published or read to learned societies) might ostensibly appear as expository essays that purport merely. to explain something, but the original, radical or controversial nature of that explanation transforms them into argumentative essays. Prejudice. Sir Isaiah.
Berlin’s essay, ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, 3 for example, sets out ideas on paper is called, ‘to examine’ two kinds of freedom, but it rapidly becomes clear that the definitions. are not ones with which everyone will agree. The essay thus becomes argumentative by virtue of the opposition it sets out to attract. But argumentative does not mean ‘belligerent’ (although academics can be as churlish and vindictive as anyone else). There is a world of difference. between persuading someone of something and in irony merely winning an argument. The polemics of the party-political pamphlet, or the diatribes of.
‘Disgusted’ in the correspondence pages of the local newspaper, have no place in an argumentative essay. Such scripts must be just what they claim. to be: argumentative, not a series of unsubstantiated or one-sided claims. It takes at least two to argue, so that the essay must either express at least. two points of view (one challenged and an essay motherland the other defended) or be ‘one-sided’ only in the sense of throwing down the academic gauntlet. If the former. technique is chosen, the essay author must create a genuine dialogue of ideas with her opponent, real or imaginary, expressing the opposing view fairly and. acknowledging any difficulties with her own. Equally importantly, there can be no and-that’s-an-end-of-the-matter tone in an argumentative essay.
There is, and motherland can be, no end to academic. debate, and an essay’s conclusion will necessarily be one with which readers can disagree. If disagreement is not possible, then the argument has. been circular or tautologous. No academic argument is impenetrable, and every one is an invitation to further understanding. The purpose of the. argumentative essay is to show that the writer’s point of view is plausible and internally consistent, not that it is absolutely and incontestably true. The structure of the argumentative essay is the same as that of the expository essay discussed above. The main stylistic difference between expository and argumentative essays concerns person.
For while the first-person singular I is inappropriate in. the expository essay, it is occasionally permissible in the argumentative essay where the author is essay in irony prejudice pride, expressing a personal opinion. Even so, an over- abundance of such expressions as I think and rat kiley essay it seems to essay pride, me smack of essayons corps, egotism and can irritate the reader. It is therefore wise to be frugal with the. The first person can, of essay pride, course, be used freely in the early stages as the writer gathers her thoughts, but most occurrences are easily banished in. the drafting stages. The simplest way is often to delete them. Thus In my opinion, Herzberg’s theory has two major weaknesses.
Herzberg’s theory has two major weaknesses. But in what circumstances may the essayons of engineers author legitimately raise her head? Firstly, in cases where she herself has not set the essay prejudice essay, the title itself can. be a guide. For example, 'How Plausible is musical on paper, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation?' does not invite the prejudice use of the first person in quite the same. way as 'How plausible do you consider Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation to be?' Secondly, as noted earlier, the first person should never. be used to describe what the author did, but only what she thinks.
First-person statements are best kept to essayons, a minimum, reserved for the most important or thought-provoking ideas in the script or, occasionally, to. It seems to me, then, that the reasons for the fall in the birth rate have. less to do with the advent of oral contraception than the conscious decision. by women to balance their careers with their family commitments. However, I am less sure of Jones’s (2001) claim that such a fall could have resulted. But even here, the first person can be avoided if the writer feels it is in danger of in irony prejudice, overuse. Thus the opening of the first sentence is easily changed. Arguably, then, the reasons for the fall in the birth rate while the opening of the second sentence can be changed to Less convincing, however, is Jones’s (2001) claim that
Few writers will produce a satisfactory essay in one sitting. Most will find themselves with a lengthy first draft in considerable need of apa style for essay, pruning and. refining before it meets the essay prejudice requirements of quality and size a task that can involve more work than was spent on the research. But while sweat. is necessary, tears are not. If the writer is rat kiley character analysis, faced with the prejudice pride distressing prospect of having to dispose of motherland, substantial, well-written passages on which. considerable effort has been spent, then those passages are either irrelevant to the thesis statement or the consequences of its overdevelopment. Let us deal with irrelevance first. A dangerous temptation for the unwary is to in irony prejudice, focus on the alchemist a key word or phrase in the essay title and then to write down all that is known about it, which.
more often than not involves needless definition. The writer, that is, will unnecessarily define or explain a concept when what is essay pride, required is the. application of that concept to explain something else. Take, for example, the the process of writing musical ideas essay title, 'Assess the essay pride value of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with. reference to a business organisation'. Research Behaviour. Some students will immediately plunge in with something like this Maslow’s Hierarchy comprises five levels of need from low to essay pride, high which.
people seek to marketing papers consumer, satisfy in ascending order: (1) physiological needs (such as. food, water and shelter); (2) safety needs (security and pride freedom from. danger); (3) social needs (affection and acceptance in the process of writing ideas on paper groups); (4) esteem. needs (being valued and essay prejudice pride respected by others); and (5) self-fulfilling needs. True but irrelevant. The writer has wasted time (and probably marks) defining Maslow’s Hierarchy instead of apa style, getting on with the business of. assessing its value The investigation into essay in irony prejudice pride, Anyfirm revealed how it is analysis, possible to descend. Maslow’s Hierarchy as well as ascend it. It became evident from essay prejudice the. interviews with the corps of engineers staff that, following the announcement of possible. redundancies, there was now far less concern with the satisfaction of the.
higher needs and a corresponding increase in concern with the lower. With their jobs under threat, the essay in irony prejudice pride lofty goal of self-fulfilment was sacrificed. for the humbler and essayons more urgent goal of job security. That the writer understands Maslow’s theory is apparent from its application. Overdevelopment, on the other hand, is the result of essay prejudice, poor planning. Academics writing papers for publication usually have some discretion in. respect of the of writing musical length of their work. The hapless student does not. Essay In Irony. A victim of her own enthusiasm, she can find herself with a script so far in. excess of the process of writing ideas is called, what is essay pride, admissible that to prune it without mutilation becomes impossible.
What needs to be remembered is that writing an essay of two or three thousand words is like furnishing a small living room; we can acquire some. beautiful items but, without the space, they merely transform the room into an obstacle course. All we need is essayons corps, a centrepiece (the thesis statement) and a few well-chosen, coordinated items (the supporting arguments and conclusion). Essay Prejudice. As the body of the essay is being constructed, therefore, the. writer should get a feel for the size of her creation and realise, sooner rather than later, whether it is going to fit into the available space.
This is not. to say that interesting digressions should be ignored. They can be noted for future development, but it must be realised that they are unlikely to. find a place in the current essay. These errors aside, the character analysis purpose of the drafting stages will be to refine the in irony prejudice work in order to achieve optimum clarity and to rid it of dross.
Advice on. how to achieve these ends can be found in the sections on an essay motherland expletive sentences and clichés, pleonasms and verbosity. The remainder of this page. consists of a few reminders. It is a well-known fact that
It has often been said that There can be little doubt that All these verbose phrases are easily replaced with adverbs such as doubtless , evidently , generally , naturally and so forth. We can also shorten expressions and improve the quality of English at the same time When he had written his business plan, he arranged an interview with. His business plan written, he arranged an interview with his bank. The research showed that, as far as the in irony electorate is the alchemist theme, concerned, monetary union is not an important issue. The research showed that monetary union is not an important electoral issue.
Very often, we need make no change except to delete the expression Ed Miliband was elected as the in irony prejudice Leader of the Labour Party in 2010. The interviewees were questioned, the forms were collected and the. Most of Bach’s orchestral works were written while he was in Cöthen. He specialised in selling while his partner specialised in character essay accounts. No one else but the secretary is allowed to in irony prejudice, sign cheques. Other windbags include in spite of the fact that notwithstanding that. in view of the fact that because. on a daily basis daily, every day. the question as to whether whether. We can also weed out the tautologies.
Each of the following, for example, should have one word deleted Finally, we should also guard against our own naïvety. An Essay Motherland. All writers want to impress their readers, but using verbosity to disguise a commonplace is. not the in irony prejudice pride way to do it The investigation method used to obtain the information necessary to. complete this essay was the questionnaire. of seven words, or forty-four per cent of the sentence) Some writers also fail to realise that what for them is a new discovery is rat kiley essay, common knowledge to their readers. They are consequently fond of the. grand announcement, rather like a drum roll before a circus feat that ends in a flop In 1513, a man by the name of Machiavelli wrote a book entitled, The. Machiavelli’s Prince appeared in 1513. (A reduction of ten words, or sixty- seven per cent of the sentence)
In these ways, the writer takes up more and more slack until the final version is as taut as a piano wire, the entire essay employing a minimum. number of in irony prejudice, words working at maximum capacity. 1 Among the many well-crafted short stories that exemplify one or more of these principles of the process of writing musical on paper is called, unity are the following: Roald Dahl, ‘ The Hitch-Hiker ’ , in William Pattrick (ed.), Duel: Horror Stories of the Road , W. H. Allen, London, 1987, pp. 211 23 ; Ernest Hemingway, ‘Hills Like White Elephants ’ , in Hemingway: Men Without Women , Grafton Books, Collins Publishing Group, London, 1977, pp. Prejudice. 44 48; Richard Matheson, ‘Duel ’ , in William.
Pattrick (ed.), op. cit ., pp. 149 73; Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, ‘The Two Householders: Memoirs of Gabriel Foot, Highwayman’ in Selected Short. Stories , Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1957, pp. 49 60; and corps Saki (H. H. Munro), ‘The Open Window ’ , in The Penguin Complete Saki , Penguin.
Books, Harmondsworth, 1984, pp. Pride. 259 62. 2 Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, op. cit . 3 Sir Isaiah Berlin, ‘ Two Concepts of Liberty ’ in an essay Anthony Quinton (ed.), Political Philosophy , OUP, London, 1967, pp. 141 152. Website Disclaimers Creative Commons 2.0 licence - cc by essay nc nd.
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What Is the Best Argument for the Existence of God? There are a number of common arguments for the existence of God. But most of these arguments are not as effective as many Christians would like to think. Pride? Let’s consider a hypothetical conversation between a Christian and rat kiley an atheist. Christian: “Everything with a beginning requires a cause. The universe has a beginning and therefore requires a cause. That cause is God.” Atheist: “Even if it were true that everything with a beginning requires a cause, how do you know that the cause of the essay prejudice, universe is God? Why not a big bang? Maybe this universe sprang from another universe, as some physicists now believe.”
Christian: “The living creatures of this world clearly exhibit design. Therefore, they must have a designer. And that designer is God.” Atheist: “The living creatures only appear to be designed. Natural selection can account for this apparent design. Poorly adapted organisms tend to die off, and do not pass on their genes.” Christian: “But living creatures have irreducible complexity. An Essay Motherland? All their essential parts must be in place at the same time, or the organism dies.
So God must have created these parts all at prejudice pride the same time. A gradual evolutionary path simply will not work.” Atheist: “Just because you cannot imagine a gradual stepwise way of constructing an organism does not mean there isn’t one.” Christian: “DNA has information in it—the instructions to form a living being. And information never comes about by chance; it always comes from a mind.
So DNA proves that God created the first creatures.” Atheist: “There could be an undiscovered mechanism that generates information in the DNA. Give us time, and we will eventually discover it. And even if DNA did come from intelligence, why would you think that intelligence is God? Maybe aliens seeded life on earth.” Christian: “The Resurrection of Jesus proves the existence of corps of engineers God. Only God can raise the in irony prejudice, dead.” Atheist: “You don’t really have any proof that Jesus rose from the essayons of engineers, dead.
This section of the Bible is simply an embellished story. And even if it were true, it proves nothing. Perhaps under certain rare chemical conditions, a dead organism can come back to life. It certainly doesn’t mean that there is a God.” Christian: “The Bible claims that God exists, and that it is His Word to us.
Furthermore, what the Bible says must be true, since God cannot lie.” Atheist: “That is a circular argument. Only if we knew in advance that God existed would it be reasonable to even consider the possibility that the Bible is His Word. If God does not exist—as I contend—then there is no reason to in irony prejudice trust the research consumer behaviour, Bible.” Christian: “Predictive prophecy shows that the Bible really must be inspired by God. All of the prejudice, Old Testament prophecies concerning Christ, for example, were fulfilled. The odds of that happening by chance are very low.” Atheist: “A low probability isn’t the same as zero. People do win the lottery. Besides, maybe the Gospels have embellished what Jesus did, so that it would agree with the motherland, Old Testament prophecies.
Perhaps some so-called prophetic books were actually written after the essay in irony, events they ‘predict.’ Maybe certain gifted individuals have abilities not yet understood by science and can occasionally predict the apa style for essay, future. It certainly doesn’t prove the Bible is inspired by God.” Christian: “I have personally experienced God, and essay in irony pride so have many other Christians. He has saved us and of engineers transformed our lives. We know that He exists from experience.” Atheist: “Unfortunately, your personal experiences are not open to investigation; I have only your word for it. Prejudice? And second, how do you know that such subjective feelings are really the result of God? The right drug might produce similar feelings.” It should be noted that all the facts used by the Christian in the above hypothetical conversation are true . Yes, God is the first cause, the designer of life, the resurrected Christ, the motherland, Author of Scripture, and the Savior of Christians. Essay Prejudice Pride? Yet the way these facts are used is not decisive. That is, none of the above arguments really prove that God exists.
Some of the above arguments are very weak: appeals to rat kiley analysis essay personal experience, vicious circular reasoning, and pride appeals to a first cause. While the facts are true, the arguments do not come close to proving the research, existence of the biblical God. Some of the arguments seem stronger; I happen to think that irreducible complexity and in irony prejudice information in DNA are strong confirmations of biblical creation. And predictive prophecy does confirm the inspiration of Scripture. Nonetheless, for marketing research behaviour each one of these arguments, the atheist was able to invent a “rescuing device.” He was able to propose an explanation for in irony prejudice pride this evidence that is compatible with his belief that God does not exist. Moreover, most of the atheist’s explanations are actually pretty reasonable, given his view of the world. An Essay On My? He’s not being illogical.
He is being consistent with his position. Christians and essay in irony pride atheists have different worldviews—different philosophies of life. And we must learn to argue on for essay the level of worldviews if we are to argue in a cogent and in irony prejudice pride effective fashion. The Christian in the above hypothetical conversation did not have a correct approach to apologetics. Marketing Research Papers Consumer Behaviour? He was arguing on the basis of specific evidences with someone who had a totally different professed worldview than his own. Essay Pride? This approach is never conclusive, because the critic can always invoke a rescuing device to for essay protect his worldview.1 Thus, if we are to be effective, we must use an argument that deals with worldviews, and not simply isolated facts. The best argument for essay prejudice pride the existence of God will be a “big-picture” kind of argument.
The Bible teaches that atheists are not really atheists. That is, those who profess to be atheists do ultimately believe in God in their heart-of-hearts. The Bible teaches that everyone knows God, because God has revealed Himself to all ( Romans 1:19 ). In fact, the Bible tells us that God’s existence is so obvious that anyone who suppresses this truth is “without excuse” ( Romans 1:20 ). Apa Style For Essay? The atheist denies with his lips what he knows in his heart. But if they know God, then why do atheists claim that they do not believe in prejudice pride God? The answer may be found in character analysis Romans 1:18 . God is angry at unbelievers for their wickedness. And an all-powerful, all-knowing God who is angry at in irony you is a terrifying prospect. So even though many atheists might claim that they are neutral, objective observers, and an essay on my motherland that their disbelief in God is prejudice, purely rational, in reality, they are strongly motivated to reject the theme essays, biblical God who is rightly angry with them.
So they suppress that truth in unrighteousness. Essay In Irony? They convince themselves that they do not believe in God.2 The atheist is intellectually schizophrenic—believing in God, but believing that he does not believe in God.3. Therefore, we do not really need to corps give the atheist any more specific evidences for God’s existence. He already knows in his heart-of-hearts that God exists, but he doesn’t want to believe it. Essay In Irony? Our goal is to expose the atheist’s suppressed knowledge of God.4 With gentleness and the process ideas respect, we can show the atheist that he already knows about God, but is suppressing what he knows to be true. Because an atheist does believe in God, but does not believe that he believes in God, he is simply a walking bundle of inconsistencies.
One type to in irony prejudice pride watch for the alchemist theme is a behavioral inconsistency ; this is where a person’s behavior does not comport with what he claims to believe. For example, consider the essay in irony, atheist university professor who teaches that human beings are simply chemical accidents—the end result of theme a long and purposeless chain of biological evolution. But then he goes home and kisses his wife and hugs his children, as if they were not simply chemical accidents, but valuable, irreplaceable persons deserving of in irony respect and worthy of papers love. Consider the essay, atheist who is outraged at seeing a violent murder on the ten o’clock news. He is very upset and hopes that the murderer will be punished for his wicked actions. But in his view of the world, why should he be angry? In an atheistic, evolutionary universe where people are just animals, murder is no different than a lion killing an antelope.
But we don’t punish the on my, lion! If people are just chemical accidents, then why punish one for killing another? We wouldn’t get upset at baking soda for reacting with vinegar; that’s just what chemicals do. The concepts that human beings are valuable, are not simply animals, are not simply chemicals, have genuine freedom to make choices, are responsible for essay in irony pride their actions, and are bound by a universal objective moral code all stem from a Christian worldview. Such things simply do not make sense in an atheistic view of life. Many atheists behave morally and expect others to behave morally as well. But absolute morality simply does not comport with atheism. Why should there be an the process absolute, objective standard of behavior that all people should obey if the universe and essay in irony the people within it are simply accidents of nature? Of course, people can assert that there is a moral code.
But who is to theme say what that moral code should be? Some people think it is okay to be racist; others think it is okay to kill babies, and others think we should kill people of in irony other religions or ethnicities, etc. Who is to say which position should be followed? Any standard of our own creation would necessarily be subjective and arbitrary. Now, some atheists might respond, “That’s right! Morality is subjective. We each have the right to of writing on paper create our own moral code. And therefore, you cannot impose your personal morality on other people!” But of essay prejudice pride course, this statement is self-refuting, because when they say, “you cannot impose your personal morality on other people” they are imposing their personal moral code on on my other people. When push comes to shove, no one really believes that morality is merely a subjective, personal choice. Another inconsistency occurs when atheists attempt to be rational.
Rationality involves the use of laws of logic. Laws of logic prescribe the essay pride, correct chain of for essay reasoning between truth claims. For example, consider the argument: “If it is in irony, snowing outside, then it must be cold out. For Essay? It is in irony, snowing. Therefore, it is cold out.” This argument is correct because it uses a law of logic called modus ponens . Apa Style For Essay? Laws of logic, like modus ponens , are immaterial, universal, invariant, abstract entities. They are immaterial because you can’t touch them or stub your toe on one. They are universal and invariant because they apply in all places and at all times ( modus ponens works just as well in Africa as it does in the United States, and just as well on Friday as it does on Monday). In Irony Pride? And they are abstract because they deal with concepts.
Laws of logic stem from God’s sovereign nature; they are a reflection of the way He thinks. Laws of logic stem from God’s sovereign nature; they are a reflection of the way He thinks. They are immaterial, universal, invariant, abstract entities, because God is an motherland immaterial (Spirit), omnipresent, unchanging God who has all knowledge ( Colossians 2:3 ). Thus, all true statements will be governed by God’s thinking—they will be logical. In Irony Prejudice Pride? The law of non-contradiction, for example, stems from the fact that God does not deny Himself ( 2 Timothy 2:13 ). The Christian can account for laws of logic; they are the apa style, correct standard for reasoning because God is sovereign over all truth. We can know some of essay God’s thoughts because God has revealed Himself to us through the words of Scripture and the person of Jesus Christ.
However, the atheist cannot account for laws of analysis essay logic. He cannot make sense of them within his own worldview. Pride? How could there be immaterial, universal, invariant, abstract laws in a chance universe formed by rat kiley character essay, a big bang? Why should there be an absolute standard of reasoning if everything is essay in irony prejudice pride, simply “molecules in motion”? Most atheists have a materialistic outlook—meaning they believe that everything that exists is material, or explained by material processes. But laws of logic are not material! You cannot pull a law of logic out of the the alchemist theme essays, refrigerator! If atheistic materialism is true, then there could be no laws of logic, since they are immaterial. Thus, logical reasoning would be impossible! No one is denying that atheists are able to reason and use laws of prejudice pride logic.
The point is that if atheism were true, the atheist would not be able to essayons reason or use laws of logic because such things would not be meaningful. The fact that the atheist is able to prejudice pride reason demonstrates that he is the process of writing on paper, wrong. By using that which makes no sense given his worldview, the atheist is being horribly inconsistent. He is using God’s laws of logic, while denying the biblical God that makes such laws possible. How could there be laws at all without a lawgiver? The atheist cannot account for (1) the existence of laws of logic, (2) why they are immaterial, (3) why they are universal, (4) why they do not change with time, and essay (5) how human beings can possibly know about them or their properties. But of course, all these things make perfect sense on the Christian system. Laws of logic owe their existence to the biblical God. Yet they are required to reason rationally, to the alchemist theme essays prove things.
So the biblical God must exist in order for reasoning to be possible. Therefore, the best proof of God’s existence is that without Him we couldn’t prove anything at all! The existence of the biblical God is the in irony prejudice, prerequisite for knowledge and rationality. This is called the “transcendental argument for God” or TAG for short. It is a devastating and conclusive argument, one that only theme, a few people have even attempted to refute (and none of prejudice them successfully).5. Though the transcendental argument for God is theme essays, deductively sound, not all atheists will be convinced upon hearing it. It may take time for them to even understand the argument in the first place.
As I write this chapter, I am in the midst of an electronic exchange with an in irony prejudice atheist who has not yet fully grasped the argument. Real-life discussions on this issue take time. But even if the on my, atheist fully understands the argument, he may not be convinced. We must remember that there is a difference between proof and persuasion. Proof is objective, but persuasion is subjective.
The transcendental argument does indeed objectively prove that God exists. However, that does not mean that the atheists will necessarily cry “uncle.” Atheists are strongly motivated to in irony prejudice not believe in essayons corps the biblical God—a God who is rightly angry at them for their treason against prejudice Him. The atheist’s denial of God is an emotional reaction, not a logical one. But the atheist’s denial of analysis God is an emotional reaction, not a logical one. We might imagine a disobedient child who is about to prejudice be punished by his father. Essayons Corps Of Engineers? He might cover his eyes with his hands and say of his father, “You don’t exist!” but that would hardly be rational. Atheists deny (with their lips) the biblical God, not for logical reasons, but for psychological reasons.
We must also keep in essay in irony prejudice pride mind that the unbeliever’s problem is not simply an emotional issue, but a deep spiritual problem ( 1 Corinthians 2:14 ). It is the Holy Spirit that must give him the ability to repent ( 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Timothy 2:25 ). So we must keep in mind that it is not our job to convert people—nor can we. Our job is to give a defense of the faith in a way that is faithful to the Scriptures ( 1 Peter 3:15 ). It is the Holy Spirit that brings conversion. But God can use our arguments as part of the process by the alchemist essays, which He draws people to essay in irony prejudice pride Himself. Do you have answers to the big questions about the Christian faith, evolution, creation, and the biblical worldview? Now you get the musical is called, important information you need regarding the existence of God, global warming and climate change, cloning and stem cells, human and chimp DNA, the importance of Mount St.
Helens, and essay in irony prejudice more. Of course, sometimes people are persuaded by such arguments. But that doesn’t mean the argument is cogent. Theme Essays? After all, people can be persuaded by very bad arguments. This is called an “iterated belief ”—a belief about a belief. Self-deception is essay in irony, quite common. People frequently attempt to convince themselves of what they want to believe.
The Bible tells us that those who hear God’s Word but do not act on it are self-deceived ( James 1:22 ). In some cases, we can use scientific evidence to expose such inconsistency. Apa Style? Consider the evolutionist who admits that the prejudice, probability of a cell forming by chance is apa style for essay, infinitesimal. He is going against the odds. Yet, he decides to carry an umbrella with him when there is a 90 percent chance of rain. Perhaps most significantly, philosopher Michael Martin has attempted to rebut TAG indirectly by making a transcendental-style argument for the non-existence of in irony pride God (TANG).
Martin’s argument has been refuted by John Frame, and independently by Michael Butler. Get the latest answers emailed to you or sign up for our free print newsletter. Thank you for character analysis essay signing up to essay prejudice pride receive email newsletters from Answers in Genesis. You're almost done! Please follow the instructions we emailed you in order to finish subscribing.
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alumni resume sample As you begin to build a network of contacts to help in your internship or career search, you will have a need to write a variety of letters effectively. Essay Prejudice Pride! Inquiry Letter—an opportunity to begin the networking process and ask for an informational interview; discuss organization needs and your ability to solve them; be the solution. Cover Letter or Application Letter—relates your skills to the needs of the organization and theme essays, asks for an interview. Thank You Letter—sent as a follow-up to any networking opportunity or interview. Follow-up Letter—an opportunity to inquire about your previous communications or encounters with a potential employer. Accept/Decline Letter—your immediate acceptance or declination of an essay in irony prejudice employment offer. Whether you are following up after an interview or developing a relationship with a potential employer, keep the lines of communication open. If you say you are going to essayons corps, follow-up within a specified time frame, be sure to do so (see Follow-up) Send via email, hard copy, or handwritten note. Use clear and concise writing. Prejudice Pride! Address the essayons corps, letter to a specific person if possible; otherwise, use a subject line instead of a salutation.
Keep it brief. Match yourself to the opportunity. Essay! Illustrate your interest and passion for the field. Create a system to track letters for follow-up. Proofread carefully for the alchemist theme essays, grammar, spelling, and format (use modern business format). A resume is a sales brochure about you.
It describes your abilities, your experiences, and pride, your education—all of essays which should support your job objective. Essay Prejudice! A resume has one purpose: to get you an interview. Before you write your resume, ask yourself, “Is my work experience related to motherland, the job. I’m applying for?”. If “yes,” consider using a chronological resume. If “no,” consider using a skills resume. Writing Chronological Skills Resumes. A chronological resume is essay in irony pride often used when you easily meet the skill, experience, and/or education requirements for a specific position.
This format is good for essayons, demonstrating growth in essay in irony a single profession. This format starts with the current or most recent employment, then works backward. Of Engineers! The work experience section is the distinguishing characteristic of the essay in irony pride, chronological resume, because it ties your job responsibilities and achievements to specific employers, job titles, and dates (see Chronological Resume Outline and Resumes-Samples AB). The skills resume focuses on the professional skills you have developed rather than on when, where, or how you acquired them. The attention is always focused on the skill rather than the place or time the skill was obtained. Job titles and employers play a minor role with this type of resume. The focus is on essayons corps, the results you delivered rather than the dates of a particular job (see Skills Resume Outline and Resumes-Samples CD). You may also use a combination of the two formats. Resumes often get less than one minute of an essay prejudice pride employer's time—make that time count for you. Be clear, concise, accurate, and make sure your resume is easily readable. Proofread carefully—often when emailing, people tend to the process ideas, be careless with typos, spelling, errors, and grammar.
See your Career Coach for assistance in editing. Keep your resume to one page (two if you have advanced degrees or lengthy work experience). When mailing and emailing a resume, always include a well-written cover letter. If mailing, use good quality paper; white, off-white, or buff-colored paper is preferable. Essay Prejudice! Personal data (height, weight, age, marital status, religion, or health). Employers want to rat kiley essay, avoid any possible hint of essay discrimination Titles (Resume or Curriculum Vitae) Reasons for leaving a job References — create on a separate sheet Salary — if a salary record or requirements are requested, discuss it in the cover letter Early childhood and upbringing Weaknesses or exaggerations — keep it honest Long paragraphs — use short statements or bulleted items Hobbies — unless they relate to apa style for essay, professional interests or show traits an employer wants. Can I Use One Resume for All Jobs?
Generally, no. A resume should be targeted to the job you are seeking or to the company to which you are submitting your resume. This means that you should research the essay in irony, company to determine which kinds of positions are available and match your skills and achievements to the job. Important Tips for a Reference Sheet. Always ask your references if they are prepared to give you a good recommendation. Provide your references with a resume and job description or type of for essay job you are applying for so they can speak about you and your qualifications effectively. Use three to prejudice, five references. Use at least one (more is better) employment-related reference. Good sources include previous supervisors, co-workers, faculty, advisors, or community/service leaders.
Keep personal references to a minimum. On My Motherland! Use the same color and quality of paper for the reference sheet as you do for your resume. In Irony! Only submit your references when requested. Otherwise, take your reference sheet with you to essays, the interview. Thank your references and essay in irony pride, anyone else instrumental in your job search when you accept a job offer. As your career builds, keep your reference list up-to-date. A Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a summary of your educational and academic background. In the United States, a curriculum vitae is used primarily when applying for academic, administrative, scientific, and corps, research positions or fellowships/grants. Its length can range from two to four pages (or more as your career progresses). Prejudice Pride! Please keep in mind each field has a different standard. Ask the faculty in your department, as well as your Career Coach at Career Services, for feedback on apa style for essay, your CV.
The Differences between a Resume and a Curriculum Vitae. Essay! A CV is essayons of engineers a longer, more detailed synopsis of your background and skills. Pride! A CV includes a summary of your educational and academic backgrounds as well as teaching and research experience, publications, presentations, awards, honors, affiliations, and other details. As with a resume, you may need different versions of a CV for different types of positions. Often, a briefer one- to essayons of engineers, two-page document can also be developed as a distillation of the more important points in the CV. If a job announcement requests a resume, you may send the briefer document in an initial response letter, with the essay in irony prejudice, notation in your cover letter that the CV can be sent if needed. Rat Kiley Essay! If you are confused about whether a hiring individual or institution really wants a resume or a vita, you should contact them and ask. Essay In Irony Prejudice! Often these terms are used interchangeably; however, if a CV is requested, have yours prepared to send.
As is essayons true with resumes, your CV may get as little as 30-60 seconds of consideration by essay prejudice pride a potential employer, grant reviewer, or other reader. An effective vita must be able to an essay, positively attract attention, stimulate the reader's interest, create a desire to get to know you better, and generate action. To maximize effectiveness, your CV should be: Clear. Prejudice Pride! This means well-organized, logical, readable, and easily understood. Concise.Since the CV is typically longer than the resume, there is sometimes a tendency to rat kiley analysis essay, pad — avoid the in irony prejudice pride, temptation! Be absolutely sure that there are no double entries — no item should appear in the CV in more than one place. Present everything that is relevant and necessary, but keep it brief. Complete. Be sure you have included all of the on my, important and relevant information that the reader needs in essay pride order to make an informed decision about your application.
Consistent. Don't use an the alchemist extensive mix of styles (such as an essay in irony array of apa style different fonts). Be sure to essay prejudice pride, use the same order in presenting information — present your experiences from most recent to least recent. Current. Remember to include dates with all information. It is particularly critical to continually update the of writing on paper, information; ideally, the CV should be revised at least once a year. While the content is critical, you should also be conscious of the essay in irony, image you present with this document.
Remember, your CV and accompanying letter may be your first contact with a prospective graduate program, employer, or grant reviewer. A CV needs to corps of engineers, be visually appealing and should not contain any typographical or grammatical errors. The categories listed below are often included in CV's. However, no CV contains all of them, and some CVs will contain other categories that are not listed here. The basic rule is that your own unique educational and work experiences should be carefully considered when deciding which categories will be most effective. The first step in pride actually developing your CV is to write down all relevant information; later you can organize it into musical on paper categories and do whatever editing is necessary. After you have written down all relevant information, you should develop a hierarchy, placing the most important and relevant categories and information first.
Typical Sections to Include in Your Curriculum Vitae. Additional Relevant Skills. References (separate sheet) Each year, the National Association of essay prejudice Colleges and Employers (NACE) asks employers to rate the importance of certain attributes they look for when interviewing and hiring candidates. Visit your career coach to identify strategies to develop these skills through internships, involvement, study abroad, etc. (Based on a 5-point scale; 5 = extremely important) Verbally communicate with persons inside/outside the organization Work in character essay a team situation Make decisions and solve problems Plan, organize, and prioritize work Obtain and process information Analyze quantitative data Technical knowledge related to the job Proficiency with computer software programs Create and/or edit written reports Sell or influence others.
Source: Job Outlook 2013, National Association of Colleges Employers.
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case study pneumonia Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine. Chapter VI.11. Pulmonary Infections. Return to Table of Contents. A previously healthy 4 year old boy is brought to an urgent care center by his mother for difficulty breathing for one day. Essay Prejudice Pride! Three days prior he had developed a runny nose, cough, and low grade fevers with a temperature maximum of 101 degrees F (38.3 degrees C).
He continued to on my take liquids well, but his solid intake has decreased. His temperature this morning was 103 degrees F (39.4 degrees C) and he was breathing fast and working hard to breathe. He does not have any ill contacts. In Irony Prejudice! He has never been hospitalized or had any surgeries. Marketing Research Consumer Behaviour! He was born at term without any complications. He is not taking medications other than acetaminophen. His immunizations are up to date for his age (except he had not received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). His parents and 10 year old sister are healthy and essay in irony pride the remainder of his family history is non-contributory. Of Engineers! There are no smokers in the household, and he has not traveled recently. He does not have a history of choking or vomiting.
He has not had frequent ear or skin infections. He does not have a history of foul-smelling stools. Exam: VS T 40 degrees C (104 degrees F), P 130, RR 40, BP 100/70, oxygen saturation 87% in room air. His height and weight are in the 50th percentile for his age. Essay! He is awake and marketing alert, in moderate distress. His conjunctiva and TMs are normal. His nasal mucosa is erythematous with yellowish discharge.
His lips and mucous membranes are dry. Essay Prejudice Pride! His neck is supple, with several small anterior cervical lymph nodes. Lungs: Moderate subcostal, intercostal, and supraclavicular retractions, symmetric expansion, dullness to rat kiley essay percussion at the right base, increased vocal fremitus over the right base, decreased air entry over right lower lobe with crackles, no wheezes. Heart: Tachycardia, regular rhythm without murmur. Pulses are 2+, and in irony pride capillary refill time is the alchemist theme essays, 3 seconds.
His abdomen, skin, and essay pride neurological examinations are unremarkable. CBC WBC 20,000, 70% segs, 11% bands, 15% lymphs, 3% monos, 1% eos. Hemoglobin 12.4, platelet count 280,000. Chest x-ray (CXR): Right lower lobe opacity consistent with a round pneumonia (technically air/space disease, commonly called infiltrates by most physicians). Because of the hypoxia, he is given supplemental oxygen (with subsequent improvement in oxygen saturation), as hospitalization arrangements are made. A 20 cc/kg infusion of normal saline was given through an intravenous (IV) line and then maintenance fluids are started. A blood culture is obtained and he is started on IV cefuroxime. He improves over the next day. His respiratory distress slowly resolves and he is weaned off supplemental oxygen over the next two days.
His blood culture shows no growth. He is the alchemist theme essays, discharged home on prejudice pride, high dose amoxicillin for a total of 10 days of therapy. His discharge diagnosis is probably pneumococcal pneumonia. Acute childhood respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality is the alchemist theme, high in developing countries with up to one-third of deaths in children less than 5 years caused by acute respiratory infections (ARI) (1). The disparity in mortality is due to the severity of infection (perhaps due to differences in nutrition, overall health, immunization practices, and medical care availability) since the incidence of pride acute respiratory infections is similar between developed and developing countries with infants experiencing about 4-8 episodes per year (1).
In the US, mortality from ARIs has declined since 1968 (1,2). There are 2 basic classification systems used for the alchemist essays, acute respiratory tract infections: the case-management classification system used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the traditional clinical classification system (1). The case management system divides ARIs by symptoms (i.e., stridor, wheezing, and no wheezing) and their severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, and very severe). The traditional system classifies ARIs by upper respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis), middle respiratory tract infections (e.g., croup and epiglottitis), and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., bronchiolitis, bronchitis, pneumonia). Therefore, studies evaluating ARIs are not uniform and use different definitions from essay pride, clinical findings alone to clinical findings in combination with other various ancillary tests (e.g., chest radiography). Of the acute respiratory infections, pneumonia has the highest mortality rate accounting for approximately 70% of the worldwide 4.5 million deaths from acute respiratory infections (4).
Although mortality from pneumonia in children in the United States has declined by 97% between 1939 and 1996 (5), pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of morbidity in children. The risk of acquiring pneumonia is highest in children less than 5 years of papers age (1). The etiology of pneumonia varies and depends on: the age of the child, where the prejudice pride pneumonia was acquired (i.e., community vs. nosocomial), local epidemiology (e.g., influenza epidemics), host factors (e.g., immunologic status, recent or intercurrent antibiotic use, vaccination, and the alchemist essays overall health status of the child), and environmental factors (e.g., travel, season of the year, daycare, or crowded living conditions) (4,6-9). Determination of the precise etiology of pneumonia often requires invasive testing (e.g., lung biopsy), and therefore, this is done infrequently. Rather the etiology of pneumonia is usually based on generalizations in the relevant clinical setting.
In the essay prejudice pride neonatal period, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS) and gram negative enteric bacilli (e.g., E.coli), the same organisms associated with neonatal sepsis (4). In infants and essay children outside of the neonatal period, viruses are the essay pride most common cause of pneumonia (4,6,10-11) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common causes in infancy, especially in an essay, premature infants (9,12). Of the bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) occurs most frequently (6,9,11,13); however, the in irony pride studies isolating S. pneumoniae were performed prior to the licensure of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (6). Outcome analysis of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine demonstrated that up to 33% of chest radiograph confirmed pneumonia were prevented in immunized patients compared to those who were not immunized (14). Therefore, a different bacterial pathogen may supersede S. pneumoniae as the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in an essay on my, the coming years. Other organisms to consider are Chlamydia trachomatis in essay in irony, infants 3-19 months of age (4) and Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children and adolescents (8-9,11-12). In special cases, for example, patients with neuromuscular impairment and impaired swallowing, aspiration pneumonia with anaerobic bacteria should be considered (15). Theme! The etiology of pride pneumonia varies in other conditions including immunosuppressed patients, nosocomial infections, cystic fibrosis patients, and anatomic airway anomalies (e.g., tracheostomies). The Alchemist Theme! In addition, the etiology of pneumonia is complicated since mixed infections (e.g., viral-bacterial) can occur in 16-34% of patients (7,11,13). The lower respiratory tract in healthy persons is sterile (16).
Bacteria access the in irony respiratory tract by on my inhalation, microaspiration, or by essay in irony pride hematogenous spread. Theme! If bacteria gain access to alveoli, host immunologic systems begin to essay prejudice pride work on eliminating bacteria. There are 2 major mechanisms by which lung defenses work to character essay keep the airways sterile: physical defenses (i.e., mucociliary clearance and lymphatic drainage) and mechanisms that destroy bacteria (i.e., opsonization, specific immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG), alveolar macrophage ingestion, or complement mediated bacterial lysis) (17). If these mechanisms fail, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are recruited with a resultant inflammatory response. Perpetuation of this inflammatory response leads to in irony prejudice pride pneumonia. There are 4 major histologic steps seen in pneumococcal pneumonia described by Tuomanen, et al (18): engorgement, red hepatization, grey hepatization, and rat kiley character resolution. Pride! Engorgement is associated with presence of bacteria in the alveoli and an associated serous exudate.
This then progresses to red hepatization secondary to leakage of erythrocytes into the alveoli. An Essay On My Motherland! The next phase, grey hepatization, results from leukocyte migration to the affected area with intravascular fibrin deposition disrupting perfusion to the area. The final phase results in essay in irony pride, resolution, with phagocytosis of pneumococci and clearance of fibrin and other debris. Outside of the neonatal period, pneumonia is suspected in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of impairment of the lower respiratory tract. On My Motherland! Distinguishing bacterial from other causes of pneumonia cannot be accomplished by clinical findings alone (7). Prejudice Pride! Symptoms of pneumonia are nonspecific and include: fever, ill appearance, cough, fatigue, decreased appetite and sometimes, abdominal pain. Signs of lower respiratory tract involvement include: tachypnea (greater than 50 breaths/minute in an essay on my motherland, children less than 12 months, and greater than 40 breaths/minute for older children) (4), cyanosis, increased work of breathing (i.e., use of accessory muscles, grunting), pleuritic pain, and essay abnormal auscultatory findings. These signs do not differentiate a viral from bacterial process. A chest radiograph is used to verify the clinical suspicion of pneumonia and characterize the disease process, but may not be performed on every patient. Viral respiratory tract infections are often associated with hyperinflation, perihilar peribronchial infiltrates, segmental or lobar atelectasis, and hilar adenopathy (19). Lobar consolidation and marketing papers consumer behaviour fluffy alveolar infiltrates with air bronchograms are more characteristic of bacterial infection (13).
However, there is overlap between these two groups (13). Computed tomography and ultrasound of the chest are used in special circumstances (e.g., evaluate for pleural effusion, adenopathy, improved imaging of lung architecture) but these are not routinely obtained (4). Commonly used screening laboratory tests such as white blood cell count with differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and essay in irony pride the C-reactive protein (CRP) are not accurate in differentiating between bacterial, viral, mixed, or idiopathic causes of childhood pneumonia (7). Determination of precise etiology of rat kiley character analysis pneumonia is essay in irony pride, difficult due to the lack of sensitive and specific tests. Many clinicians treat pneumonia empirically with minimal laboratory or radiographic evaluation and thus up to 80% of non-bacterial pneumonia may be treated with antibiotics (6).
This approach is motherland, satisfactory when clinical risk is deemed to in irony pride be low. When a more precise diagnosis is required, more invasive techniques are required. Bacteria found in the blood, pleural fluid (thoracentesis), or lung tissue is considered diagnostic in a patient presumed to have pneumonia (4). Blood cultures are only positive in 1-8% of pneumonia (11) but continue to rat kiley essay be recommended (4). Some question the essay in irony prejudice necessity of blood culture after cost-based analyses (6, 11).
Transthoracic needle aspirates, transtracheal aspirates, and open lung biopsy (the gold standard for diagnosis) are rarely performed due to apa style the risk involved for these procedures (11,20), except in severe cases or in prejudice pride, immunocompromised hosts (4). Sputum is often contaminated with organisms unrelated to rat kiley character the specific etiology (16) and essay in irony prejudice is difficult to motherland obtain in children less than 8 years old (4). A sputum sample that may be helpful is characterized by many polymorphonuclear cells and a bacteria of single morphology on gram stain (4). Bronchoalveolar lavage from essay prejudice, bronchoscopy is difficult to interpret as well. Theme! The results are non-specific (i.e., higher neutrophil counts than lymphocyte counts in patients with infection) and the organism found may or may not be the etiologic agent (16). Bacterial serology and bacterial antigen testing are often difficult to interpret (4,6). Bacterial cultures of the nasopharynx or throat correlate poorly with lung tissue cultures and are not helpful in establishing a diagnosis (16). Specific viral antigen testing, along with cultures for suspected pathogens, serologies for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia, and in irony pride PPD skin testing for tuberculosis may be helpful (6). Pneumonia is treated with antimicrobials when the marketing papers consumer clinical suspicion for bacterial etiology is high. Greater pneumonia severity and findings that are consistent with bacterial pneumonia (e.g., lobar consolidation, leukocytosis, high fever) are more likely to warrant antimicrobial treatment.
Young infants, unreliable parents, poor access to medical care, and more severe infections often require hospitalization. Essay In Irony Prejudice! Treatment of pneumonia is often empirically based and thus, information on antibiotic resistance patterns and analysis essay mechanisms of resistance is important to determine the prejudice most appropriate treatment. For S. An Essay On My Motherland! pneumoniae, the most common mechanism of in irony prejudice resistance to penicillins is alteration of penicillin-binding sites that can be overcome with higher doses of the drug (6). For macrolides, alteration to the 50S ribosomal binding site of the macrolide inhibits binding of the antibiotic and thus, prevents protein synthesis inhibition (6). In addition, there is essayons of engineers, also an increase in efflux pumps for macrolides and this property can be overcome by using macrolides that achieve high tissue concentrations at the site of infection (e.g. azithromycin) (6). Penicillin resistant pneumococci are often resistant to essay in irony prejudice multiple drugs including macrolides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (21).
Therefore, high-dose amoxicillin and/or azithromycin are recommended for empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in rat kiley, children (6,8-9,11-12,20). Some clinicians will use clinical factors and ancillary tests in aggregate such as age, exposures, CXR pattern, fever, and leukocytosis, to stratify the risk to favor pneumococcus (high dose amoxicillin would be better) or Mycoplasma/Chlamydia (macrolide would be better). For those children requiring hospitalization, a second or third generation cephalosporin, occasionally in combination with a macrolide, is generally recommended (8,20). Most treatment regimens are continued for a total of essay prejudice pride 7-14 days although this is based on little evidence (4). Pneumonia due to the process of writing ideas on paper Staphylococcus aureus is uncommon, but particularly severe. S. aureus pneumonia usually results from inhalation of organisms, but it may also occur in patients with a cutaneous source (e.g., impetigo, boils, abscesses) with hematogenous spread or staphylococcal bacteremia from prejudice pride, another source (e.g. osteomyelitis, central line infection). If S. aureus pneumonia is suspected, vancomycin should be started empirically. Culture and sensitivity data permits changing to an alternate antibiotic later.
Pleural effusion (empyema), pneumothorax, and pneumatoceles often complicate S. aureus pneumonia. Pleural effusions can be classified in several ways. They can be a transudate or an exudate based on their protein content. A subpulmonic effusion versus an marketing research papers behaviour empyema is more clinically relevant. The former implies a transudate which is usually sterile, while the term empyema is usually used to describe pus (purulent exudate) with a positive gram stain and culture. The overall outcome in children with pneumonia is excellent. Essay In Irony Prejudice! The majority of children will recover without complications (11). Follow up chest radiographs are not required routinely, but should be performed for patients with complicated pneumonia, persistent respiratory problems, pleural involvement, and neonates (4,22).
About 80% of infiltrates on theme essays, CXR will resolve by 3-4 weeks and essay prejudice pride the remainder will usually resolve by 3 months (22). Recurrent pneumonia with radiologic clearance between episodes requires further evaluation (e.g., immunodeficiencies, gastroesophageal reflux, pulmonary anomalies, etc.) (4). Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization for corps of engineers, respiratory tract infections in young children (4,23-25). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the primary cause of bronchiolitis, but parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus may also cause bronchiolitis (23-24). In the United States, the majority of RSV infections occur during the essay pride months of November to the process of writing musical ideas March (4,23). RSV infections account for a significant amount of morbidity and essay prejudice pride health care expense in apa style, the young age group (24). RSV is transmitted by essay direct contact with large droplets or fomites. Marketing Papers Behaviour! Transmission can be limited by good handwashing (23). RSV bronchiolitis results from the spread of RSV to the lower respiratory tract after an incubation period 2-8 days where the virus undergoes replication in the nasopharynx (23).
The infection results in infiltration of the respiratory epithelium with resultant inflammation and essay in irony prejudice necrosis, sloughing of the epithelium and increased mucus production causing airflow limitation in the alchemist, the small airways leading to the hallmarks of the disease (23). Thus, affected infants have signs of airflow limitation including hyperinflation, atelectasis, and wheezing. The diagnosis is often made on essay, clinical grounds during the RSV season. Diagnostic testing can be done by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) tests if the diagnosis is unclear. Therapy is often supportive which may include: supplemental oxygen, fluids, and upright positioning. Corps! Aerosolized ribavirin is the only known proven therapy for RSV infection, but its expense, potential toxicity, difficulty of administration, and essay pride lack of conclusive evidence for essay, its efficacy (24,26) limit its use. The use of bronchodilators and corticosteroids are controversial and may only be mildly effective at in irony prejudice best (i.e., not been proven to of writing on paper be highly efficacious) (24-26).
For those with moderate to severe disease, helium-oxygen mixtures or nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in improving gas-exchange and symptomatology (27-30). Essay Prejudice! Montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist, has recently been reported to make a difference in future wheezing episodes (31). The Process Of Writing Ideas On Paper! Prophylaxis with palivizumab (RSV monoclonal antibody) or RSV-IVIG is given to select pediatric populations recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics during RSV season to reduce RSV infection risk (32). Growing premature infants and infants with congenital heart disease and other chronic lung conditions are at increased risk for RSV pneumonia, apnea and respiratory failure. Healthy term infants with RSV usually develop mild bronchiolitis. Older children, teens and adults with RSV will usually have cold symptoms.
Bronchiolitis is usually a self limited disease and complete resolution takes about 4-8 weeks. In neonates and young infants, bronchiolitis may present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms, but the apnea is usually short-lived (33). Although bronchiolitis self-resolves, patients with RSV bronchiolitis may be predisposed to future episodes of wheezing (34). RSV infection can recur since there is an incomplete and poorly sustained immune response (23). In summary, bronchiolitis and pneumonia significantly impact the pediatric population. Determining likely etiologies of pneumonia and understanding effective treatment modalities will improve patient outcomes. Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Edward Fong, MD, Leslie Barton, MD and John Mark, MD for essay in irony, their critical review of the chapter. 1. Which of the following is the most common cause of pneumonia outside of the neonatal period? 2. S. pneumonia resistance to penicillins is due to: . . . . . Apa Style For Essay! a. Production of beta-lactamase.
. . . . . b. Alteration of penicillin binding proteins. . Pride! . . . . c. Corps! Increased efflux pumps. . Essay In Irony Pride! . . . . d. Essayons Corps Of Engineers! Low tissue bioavailability. 3. True/False: Nasopharyngeal and essay pride throat cultures are useful in determining etiology of bacterial pneumonia. 4. True/False: Lobar consolidation on chest x-ray provides conclusive evidence for bacterial pneumonia. 5. Which factor does not appear to affect the etiology of pneumonia?
. The Alchemist Theme Essays! . . . Essay In Irony Pride! . b. Vaccination status. . . . . . c. Current antibiotic use. 6. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is: . Papers Consumer Behaviour! . . . . a. Respiratory syncytial virus. . . . . Pride! . b. Human Metapneumovirus. 7. True/False: Bronchiolitis may initially present with apnea and minimal respiratory symptoms. 8. Treatment of apa style for essay bronchiolitis should include all of the following except: a. Supplemental oxygen for infants with hypoxia. b. Intravenous fluids and close monitoring of nutritional status. c. Good handwashing. d. Essay In Irony Prejudice! Antibiotics. 9. True/False: Corticosteroids and bronchodilators are highly efficacious therapies for RSV bronchiolitis. Pneumonia case presenting with abdominal pain: Yamamoto LG. Of Engineers! Abdominal Pain with a Negative Abdominal Examination. Essay In Irony Prejudice! In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds).
Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1994, volume 1, case 3. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v1c03.html. Staph pneumonia case: Yamamoto LG, Young LL. Tachypnea and Abdominal Pain. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Of Writing Ideas On Paper Is Called! Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 2, case 5. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v2c05.html. Series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Pride! Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. Musical Ideas Is Called! In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1995, volume 3, case 20. Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v3c20.html.
Another series of pediatric chest radiographs: Yamamoto LG. Essay In Irony Prejudice Pride! Test Your Skill In Reading Pediatric Chest Radiographs. In: Yamamoto LG, Inaba AS, DiMauro R (eds). Rat Kiley Analysis! Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 1996, volume 4, case 5. Essay In Irony Pride! Available online at: www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/v4c05.html. 1. Graham NMH. Musical Ideas! The Epidemiology of essay prejudice Acute Respiratory Infection in Children and Adults: A Global Perspective.
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6. Bradley JS. Management of Community-Acquired Pediatric Pneumonia in an Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugate Vaccines. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21(6):592-598. 7. Nohynek H, Valkeila E, Leinonen M, Eskola J. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count and Serum C-reactive Protein in essay prejudice pride, Assessing Etiologic Diagnosis of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1995;14(6): 484-490.
8. Nelson J. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: Guidelines for Treatment. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(3):251-253. 9. Heiskanen-Kosma T, Korppi MN, Jokinen C, et al. Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia: Serologic Results of a Prospective, Population-Based Study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;17(11):986-991. 10. McIntosh K. On My! Community-Acquired Pneumonia in in irony prejudice, Children. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6);429-437. 11. Corps Of Engineers! Ruuskanen O, Mertsolon J. Childhood Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
Sem Resp Infect 1999;14(2):163-172. 12. McCraken, GH Jr. Etiology and Treatment of prejudice pride Pneumonia. The Alchemist! Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19(4):373-377. 13. In Irony Pride! Korppi M, Kiekara O, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Soimakallio S. Comparison of Radiological Findings and Microbial Aetiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Acta Paediatr 1993;82: 360-363. 14.
Overturf GD, Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Apa Style! Technical Report: Prevention of Pneumococcal Infections, Including the Use of essay Pneumococcal Conjugate and Polysaccharide Vaccines and Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Pediatrics 2000;106(2):367-376. 15. Brook I, Finegold SM. Bacteriology of Aspiration Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics 1980;65(6):1115-1120. 16.
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The Role of the Alveolar Macrophage in the Clearance of Bacteria from the Lung. J Exp Med 1964;119:167-175. 18. Tuomanen EI, Austrian R, Masure HR. Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Infection. N Engl J Med 1995(19);332:1280-1284. 19. Wildin SR, Chonmaitree T, Swischuk LE.
Roentgenographic Features of Common Pediatric Viral Respiratory Tract Infections. Am J Dis Child 1988;142:43-46. 20. Hart CA, Duerden BI. Respiratory Infections. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:903-914. 21. Whitney CG, Farley MM, Hadler J, et al.
Increasing Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the United States. N Engl J Med 2000;343(26):1917-1924. 22. Grossman LK, Wald ER, Nair P, Papiez J. Roentgenographic Follow-Up of an essay motherland Acute Pneumonia in Children. Pediatrics 1979(1);63:30-31. 23. In Irony Pride! Hall CB.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus and the alchemist essays Parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med 2001;344(25):1917-1928. 24. Greenough A. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: Clinical Features, Management, and Prophylaxis. Curr Opin in Pulm Med 2002;8:214-217. 25. Jartti T, van den Hoogen B, Garofalo RP, et al.
Metapneumovirus and Acute Wheezing in Children. Lancet 2002;360:1393-1394. 26. Patel H, Platt RW, Pekeles GS, Ducharme FM. In Irony! A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Nebulized Therapy with Epinephrine Compared with Albuterol and Saline in Infants Hospitalized for Acute Viral Bronchiolitis. J Pediatr 2002(6);141:818-824.
27. Hollman G, Shen G, Zeng L, et al. Helium-Oxygen Improves Clinical Asthma Scores in the alchemist essays, Children with Acute Bronchiolitis. Crit Care Med 1998;26(10):1731-1736. 28. Martinon-Torres F, Rodriguez-Nunez A, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Heliox Therapy in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2002(1);109:68-73.
29. Beasley JM, Jones SEF. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Bronchiolitis. British Medical Journal 1981;283:1506-1508. 30.
Soong W, Hwang B, Tang R. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure by Nasal Prongs in Bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993;16:163-166. 31. Bisgaard H for the Study Group on Montelukast and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A Randomized Trial of Montelukast in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383. 32. Halsey NA, Abramson JS, Chesney PJ, et al.
American Academy of in irony prejudice Pediatrics: Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Indications for the Use of Palivizumab and Update on the Use of RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 1998;102(5):1211-1216. 33. Bruhn FW, Mokrohisky ST, McIntosh K. Apnea Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Young Infants. Rat Kiley Essay! J Pediatr 1977;90:382-386.
34. In Irony Prejudice Pride! Sigurs N, Bjarnason R, Sigurbergsson F, Kjellman B. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Infancy is an Important Risk Factor for Asthma and Allergy at for essay Age 7. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:1501-1507. Answers to questions. 1.c. Overall, viruses cause the majority of essay in irony pride pneumonias in children; however, the incidence of on my viral pneumonia decreases with age, becoming less common in older children and adolescents.
4.False. Lobar pneumonias are more likely to be of bacterial etiology, but this is not definitive since some lobar pneumonias will still be viral.