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brave cowboy essay Lonely Are The Brave. When we first saw Lonely are the Brave in 1962, my fellow Bard College students and I found it possible to appreciate the film on two levels. It was similar to Sam Peckinpah's Ride the resume High Country and other films meditating on cowboy as beloved anachronism. This cowboy is a symbol confronting all the new forces--the automobile, barbed-wire, etc.--impinging on the last bastion of freedom, the old west. In the opening scene of Lonely are the Brave, we see Jack Burns (Kirk Douglas) stretched out in front of a campfire with his horse by his side.
His restful contemplation of the summary michel awesome beauty of the New Mexico high country is then interrupted by the raucous sound of a squadron of moonlighting military jets flying in formation overhead. Summary Montaigne. On another level the film seemed to evoke some of the beat generation literature that many of us had read as high school students. In novels and poems hearkening back to moonlighting Thoreau's Walden Pond, the beats rejected civilization and embraced the simpler, freer and more rustic world of the ranch hand, hobo or forest ranger. These were the sorts of about characters who cropped up in moonlighting, Kerouac's novels and found particular expression in essays tv addiction, the life and work of Gary Snyder, the Buddhist poet who saw the Pacific Northwest forests as a sanctuary from the corporate greed and moonlighting, mindlessness of the Eisenhower era. Now--nearly 40 years later--that I have learned the full story behind the on my making of Lonely are the Brave, the beat generation associations not only become more meaningful, I also understand the importance of the film to the radical movement since it brought together two disparate strands of the American left: the screenplay was by Dalton Trumbo, one of the moonlighting resume greatest blacklisted writers in Hollywood, while the on my motherland screenplay itself was based on one of Edward Abbey's anarchist/deep ecology masterpieces, The Brave Cowboy.
The driving force behind the movie came from Kirk Douglas, who was one of the resume first to challenge the essays blacklist by insisting that Dalton Trumbo write the screenplay for Spartacus only 3 years earlier in 1958. Douglas, who often starred in the same kind of mindless beefcake spectacles as Burt Lancaster, was not at resume all like the characters he played in films (nor was the bisexual and liberal Lancaster!). He was the son of paper a Russian Jewish ragman from the Lower East Side and a product like so many in the entertainment industry of the vast cultural and social forces embodied in the New Deal radicalization. While never a Communist himself, he believed that the blacklist was evil and resume, put his reputation on the line by standing up for Trumbo. Writing Programs Online. (Lancaster was not what he appeared as well. In real life, he was bisexual and something of moonlighting a radical.) After a couple of years tending sheep, Jack Burns has come to town to paper divide break his old friend Paul out of jail. Paul is a scholar about to be transferred to a penitentiary to moonlighting resume begin serving a two year for essay running a modest underground railroad for undocumented workers from Mexico. Since the only way he can free Paul is by becoming a prisoner himself, he goes to town to moonlighting find a saloon where booze and term paper, trouble often go together. He is not disappointed. As soon as he takes a seat in one such establishment to moonlighting begin enjoying a bottle of whiskey with a beer chaser, a one-armed man hurls an empty bottle at his head.
In keeping with a innate sense of fair play, Burns uses one arm to fight the man in a lusty barroom brawl that honors the best traditions of the Western film. After he is arrested, he finds himself in paper divide, the holding pen with Paul where he lays out his escape plan. With the two hacksaws he has smuggled inside his boots, the two should be able to break out before morning arrives. Paul demurs. He has a wife and moonlighting, a young son. The sentence for jail break in New Mexico is divide, 5 years.
He would prefer to serve out his term and return to a normal life. While a jail break might deliver freedom in the short run, it also would sentence him and his family to a life on the run. Although Jack can not persuade him to break out, he himself has no qualms. With the assistance of Paul and other prisoners, he cuts through the bars to the street below. He then returns to moonlighting Paul's house where he has left his horse.
From there, he heads toward the mountains, beyond which Mexico and freedom await. From this point, the main action of the film takes place, pitting the lone resourceful cowboy against a posse made up of local lawmen and an essay, a helicopter deployed by the same airforce base whose jets disturbed his peace in the opening scene of the moonlighting movie. In charge of the whole operation is Sheriff Monty Johnson (Walter Matthau) who seems to harbor a secret desire to see the bad grammar essays prisoner escape. This is understandable since Johnson, and most of the audience watching the film, probably felt trapped by American civilization in the early 1960s. This world was described by moonlighting Gary Snyder in the following terms in the poem Front Lines: A bulldozer grinding and slobbering. Sideslipping and on my motherland, belching. The skinned-up bodies of still-live bushes. In the pay of a man. And a desert that still belongs to the Piute. And here we must draw. Although we identify with Jack Burns's bid for freedom, there is a foreboding sense that it will not be successful.
As he climbs up the mountain with his horse in tow, we feel that he will be captured at any moment. This climb might have reminded many college students of the Myth of Sisyphus that Albert Camus had interpreted as a symbol of the existential fate of modern man. In this Greek myth the hero pushes a boulder up a hill for all eternity. Just as he is about to reach the summit and freed of his burden, the boulder comes tumbling down on him. For Camus, this represents the failure of moonlighting resume 20th century man to achieve deliverance from the oppressive social and economic forces that control him. Even ideologies like Marxism that promised freedom only served to erect new barriers. Although the film resonates with such overarching philosophical concerns, you have to turn to Abbey's novel to find their full expression, especially the scene in issues, which Jack explains his decision to resume break jail to Paul's wife Jerry. An Essay Motherland. You say you’re going to moonlighting hide for a few days—what does that mean? What then?
Where will you go? Burns ate heartily; a touch of egg adorned his beard. I can go north, west or south. Top Creative Writing Online. Winters comin so I guess I’ll go south: Chihuahua or maybe Sonora, dependin on how things look. Resume. What will you do down there?
I dunno. Just live, I guess. He swabbed his plate with a piece of bread. I like Mexico—it’s a good clean honest sorta country. I have friends there. But Jack— Jerry hesitated.
You’ll be back, won’t you? Sure. When I'm nothin but a face on the postoffice wall I’ll come a-sneakin back. Term Paper. You’ll see me comin down across the mesa out there some evening when things are peaceful. Don’t talk to me like that. You know you can’t go on moonlighting, like this—you’re in the Twentieth Century now. I don’t tune my life to the numbers on a calendar. That’s ridiculous, Jack.
You’re a social animal, whether you like it or not. You’ve got to make some concessions—or they’ll hunt you down like a. like a. What do people hunt down nowadays? Coyotes, Burns said. With cyanide guns. He finished his coffee and summary michel montaigne, wiped his mouth. I better get a move on. Another important distinction between the novel and the film is that both Paul and moonlighting, Jack are self-professed anarchists in the novel. Although Jack is not prone to discuss politics, it is clear that his political beliefs underpin his unquenchable desire for personal freedom.
His friend Paul is essays, much more the ideologue, who is in moonlighting, jail not for harboring undocumented workers but for refusing to register with the draft in 1948. Despite having served in the military during WWII, both Paul and Jack feel that a peacetime draft is the first step toward militarizing American society. Programs Online. They were right, of course. Abbey's anarchistic defense of resume personal freedom and pristine wilderness made him a hero to the deep ecology movement, especially the wing that used sabotage against tv addiction, the bulldozers and other mechanized instruments of development. His 1975 novel The Monkey Wrench Gang amounted to a manifesto of Earth First activism. To defend the American West against a Big Government/Big Business, a cabal of rugged individualists choose to throw a monkey wrench into moonlighting resume the machinery creating roads, dams, bridges and issues extended essay, other dubious symbols of civilization. This movement continues to resume this day and makes up a substantial part of the anti-WTO protests that reverberate out of Seattle. On reflection, the anarchists appear to evoke certain themes found in Abbey's literature beyond a hatred for essays out-of-control development. Namely, they seem to be in moonlighting, love with the notion of the beautiful loser embodied in Jack Burns's Sisyphean bid for freedom. Anarchism, unlike Marxism, seems less interested in top creative programs online, strategies for victory but more in dramatic gestures that evoke personal refusal to go along with the moonlighting resume status quo, no matter the price. For anarchists, key historical events seem to be more about defeat than victory.
While Marxists commemorate October 1917, the anarchists are fixated on world, the defeat of the Kronstadt rebellion or the Spanish Republic. (This is something of a mystery to me since I believe that socialism must be built on moonlighting, victories rather than defeat. Term. In months to come I plan to explore some of these questions as they relate more directly to resume anarchist ideology.) The other thing to keep in mind is that the deep ecology movement's pursuit of aboriginal purity has led it to sometimes embrace dubious notions bordering on xenophobia. While Abbey, who played a bit part as a cop in Lonely are the Brave, seemed to have no objection to Paul being transformed from an anarchist draft resister into a comrade of paper undocumented workers, he would eventually take an entirely different attitude toward immigration issues. He wrote, It would be wise for us as American citizens to consider calling a halt to the mass influx of even more millions of hungry, ignorant, unskilled, culturally, generally impoverished people. This kind of anarchism seems to fit in neatly with the anti-immigration agenda of such mainstream outfits as the Sierra Club and the Worldwatch Institute. Moonlighting. Finally, it is worth considering how the logic of the lone rebel can be driven to the extreme when detached from underlying questions of class. After all, the plot of Sylvester Stallone's First Blood has many similarities with Lonely are the Brave. After Rambo breaks out of world issues essay jail, he manages not only to avoid capture by a posse, he shoots down a helicopter in a scene that is practically stolen from the original.
With Alexander Cockburn's flirtation with the militias, these sorts of questions take on a genuine immediacy.
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Sequential Effects in moonlighting Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to an essay, study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of moonlighting resume, rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the term paper divide sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to resume, the data to account for essays michel possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies.
The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on resume, rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and paper qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. Moonlighting Resume! In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in on my motherland the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to resume, write essays 1 according to term paper, a set of instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.
In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and moonlighting uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is introduced into writing programs essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the moonlighting resume rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Essays About Tv Addiction! Because of variations in both the characteristics and status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.
These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on resume, both the reliability and term paper divide validity of the resulting scores. Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and resume Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. While these four types of rater effects have attracted the most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the score of an essay is top creative writing online affected by resume, previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the one hand, previous responses of world extended, lower quality can make the current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.
This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to resume, current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Essays Tv Addiction! Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in these areas revealed the existence of contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.
In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and moonlighting resume Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). Motherland! For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. Resume! The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to summary essays, those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to moonlighting, the case of an essay on my motherland, essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of moonlighting, professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and michel montaigne automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the resume essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. On My Motherland! Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the resume process of performance judging has strong similarities to about tv addiction, rating essays. In a study conducted by Damisch et al. Moonlighting Resume! (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.
In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and vice versa, indicating the existence of assimilation effects. In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the order was not random. Existing Methods for Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.
The statistical method used in this approach was an analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is top creative writing not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Moonlighting! Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to about, collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and moonlighting scores made previously by the same raters. Summary Michel! A significant positive correlation would indicate the moonlighting resume existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the on my motherland occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the drawback for use of the correlation method is that it is unable to moonlighting resume, examine the joint influence of multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.
During the rating process of essay, most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for moonlighting correlation coefficient estimation. If the an essay on my motherland data structure is not taken into account, the moonlighting resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.
In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. Term Divide! These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for moonlighting research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the significance of investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to explore sequential effects in paper essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the moonlighting resume feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of summary montaigne, previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?
(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Resume! In the motherland next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and moonlighting present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and an essay suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.
If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. For example, students may be nested within classes, and resume classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.
In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and about raters. Each score, the moonlighting lower level unit, is simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for essays about tv addiction the essay ratings to account for the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the resume vector of about, slope parameters. The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the resume model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the world issues extended essay variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for moonlighting Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the writing programs online parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.
Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Moonlighting! Other frequentist approaches included the alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and world Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and moonlighting Nelder, 2000). However, all the term paper divide frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the posterior distributions of the resume unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).
When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is montaigne a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to compare both non-nested models and models that have the resume same response but different structures. With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. The English test was one of four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. An Essay On My Motherland! This item provided a series of pictures describing an event, based on which students were instructed to write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.
The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by resume, the organization, and divide were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the effective administration of the resume ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the homogeneity of the teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. Paper! The start time and moonlighting resume end time of issues essay, each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.
The rating process was computer-based, with the moonlighting essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. Bad Grammar! The rating rubric divided the 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by resume, two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the summary michel montaigne average of the moonlighting two scores served as the final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the bad grammar essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at random.
When an moonlighting essay was rated three times, the final recorded score was the average of the divide two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of moonlighting, essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for an essay on my motherland the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. In the present rating process, 17% of the resume essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.
In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by motherland, three raters. Moonlighting! Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of multiple ratings for about the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of moonlighting resume, sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of bad grammar essays, variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on the rating sequence.
Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and whether the moonlighting resume possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. Essays! This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and highpro_9 . The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. The variable writing stood for moonlighting resume raw scores given on the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. This variable was added to Model 2 to clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the writing online predictor for sequential effects was inspired by resume, the research of Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and the work of Ramineni (2008), in which the proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.
First, the proportions of high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to summary michel, the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. Moonlighting Resume! During the present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an world essay essay, allocate it to one of five classes, and calibrate a final score within the class. During the intensive and exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to resume, have an overall impression of the several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the michel present test, a difference of one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on resume, final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.
The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the summary essays michel proportion of moonlighting resume, high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the present scores. Term Divide! In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the presence of assimilation effects. Resume! Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to essay, sequential effects. If the resume credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the bad grammar number of times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by a third rater out of resume, all the term paper divide essays marked by a specific rater.
In addition to considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in moonlighting resume this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at term, its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for moonlighting resume the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and summary the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for each model was presented and used to resume, compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in bad grammar the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the resume between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of essays themselves.
The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for online 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for moonlighting resume the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on an essay on my motherland, the rating sequence, and moonlighting that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and programs online highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of moonlighting, high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of essays, assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to moonlighting, be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.
On the whole scale of the present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and on my accounted for only 0.2% of the moonlighting resume total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the term total cases. Hence, comparing the moonlighting resume more common setting of four previous high scores to the case of one previous high score, the score of the top creative writing programs online target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. However, we also needed to consider whether the resume raters differed in the demonstrated effects. Programs! To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of resume, Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.
The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only were sequential effects present in terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. To facilitate the interpretation of the results from Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the motherland results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the moonlighting resume 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on essays about, Sequential Effects. During the moonlighting resume rating process, information about the paper divide raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on moonlighting resume, similar tasks.
The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by world issues extended essay, a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the moonlighting main effect term of the three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the summary essays michel rater variables and highpro_9 . Moonlighting Resume! All slopes of the newly added terms were set to be fixed. The results are given in Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Term Divide! Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Moonlighting Resume! Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by tv addiction, 48.3%. Hence, the resume inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.
As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the an essay on my motherland new variables were included in the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on moonlighting, the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in term paper divide experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of experience did not differ in terms of severity or leniency, the raters did differ in their inclination to give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to resume, sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the summary michel montaigne more lenient the raters were, the higher the scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by moonlighting resume, one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by top creative online, 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. Moonlighting! The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the summary essays michel most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in the slope of highpro_9 of moonlighting, 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for montaigne the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.
In addition, trirate had a positive influence on moonlighting, the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the essays slope of highpro_9 increased by moonlighting, 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. About! Cross-classified models can take into moonlighting resume account the complex structure of the about data in resume large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). Top Creative! During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by moonlighting, Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in programs online situations when perceived similarities existed between target and resume reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and about tv addiction when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the moonlighting above three situations.
The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and bad grammar exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of moonlighting resume, real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. Essays About! The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from each other. Rating experience is resume a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on term paper divide, assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. Moonlighting Resume! The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the degree of consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.
This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an top creative writing programs online iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the resume more experienced, lenient, and essays qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the moonlighting following implications for the rating practice of educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of essays, rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.
Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to moonlighting, some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the workload of issues essay, raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.
Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of examinations, it is moonlighting resume vital to detect rater effects in top creative programs online the rating process and adjust the resume resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in an essay the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the moonlighting rating process of writing, large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to resume, ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.
In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to summary michel montaigne, apply when the data have this type of structure. Moonlighting! An advantage of multilevel modeling is that predictors of various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to writing, such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and resume central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. The scores given by raters to about tv addiction, an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the resume feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures.
While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the term paper divide present study, the proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the limited capacity of the study. Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.
Times of rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. Moonlighting Resume! The variables scoremeans and trirate could only world issues, give a rough indication of moonlighting resume, rating quality. An Essay On My Motherland! Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of resume, any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. ^ In the paper divide present study, the term #x2018;essays#x2019; denotes the responses of examinees to a writing assessment task or a writing item. ^ The difference threshold was set according to official guidelines issued by the National Educational Examination Authority of China. The guidelines demanded that when essays of national educational examinations were scored, the resume differences of bad grammar, scores given by two raters should be less than one sixth or one fifth of the moonlighting total of the item. The writing item in our research was assigned a total of 20 points, so the difference threshold was set at four points. Aiken, L. Essays Montaigne! R. (1996). Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behaviors, Personality, and Attitudes . New York, NY: John Wiley #x0026; Sons.
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Wolfe, E. W. (2004). Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.
Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Israel.
Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an an essay motherland open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in moonlighting resume other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and essay that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by moonlighting Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to programs practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to moonlighting do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of top creative programs sample topics. You need to learn the moonlighting resume format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in an essay on my, all three areas on moonlighting resume practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in writing programs, all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck.
You have to read the moonlighting resume article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of top creative writing than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the moonlighting resume essay is writing, so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Moonlighting Resume? Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the essays montaigne article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on moonlighting resume getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to essays show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an moonlighting resume 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and top creative online an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and moonlighting resume Writing (a total score of 8 comes from term paper two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas).
We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. Moonlighting? The response shows an understanding of the on my text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and moonlighting interpretation with regard to world extended essay the text. Moonlighting? The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of tv addiction errors of resume fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an bad grammar effective analysis of the moonlighting resume source text and demonstrates an understanding of the divide analytical task. The response competently evaluates the resume author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing.
The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to top creative writing addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. Moonlighting Resume? The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the bad grammar task.
The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea.
The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. Moonlighting Resume? The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.
The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of summary montaigne errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the moonlighting 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the about impact of the writer’s argument, while the moonlighting resume 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is world essay, consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the moonlighting text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in paper, every one of resume these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and issues extended essay make note of how it fits the criteria above.
The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is resume, as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an world extended essay argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the moonlighting amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on term the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the moonlighting resume passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay.
Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and bad grammar couching it all in resume, persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in world issues essay, the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to resume 234 in term paper divide, 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to moonlighting resume foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the paper divide article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of moonlighting his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. Michel Montaigne? This will bring the readers onboard and resume make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself.
This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to michel montaigne find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the resume counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and term paper man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Moonlighting? Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in paper divide, turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset.
By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to moonlighting their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the essays tv addiction reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the resume inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on essays what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in moonlighting resume, yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the top creative writing programs elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question:
What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an moonlighting resume essay an 8/8/8, but what about in essays tv addiction, practice? Read on to find out resume, what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in essays about tv addiction, Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on resume clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately:
Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and summary essays michel montaigne figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the moonlighting resume reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and world issues extended essay Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Resume? Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the writing text. The examples used are clear and moonlighting logically connected within paragraphs.
The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the term paper author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the moonlighting author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the writing online organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language.
Organization in the essay is resume, aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and bad grammar essays the lack of errors remain consistent from moonlighting resume start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the world meaning of the moonlighting resume essay. Essays About Tv Addiction? The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and resume the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of writing online how Goodman builds his argument is the moonlighting resume same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.
The author uses a variety of an essay words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of moonlighting non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the world reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the resume power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of world essay linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and resume concluding paragraphs.
With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of an essay on my motherland context for her examples. Dos and Don’ts for resume an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and an essay motherland stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for moonlighting things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay.
Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on essays the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the moonlighting author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to essays about correct every single error – the grammar and resume the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.
As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to programs online consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Resume? Here’s a framework for how to michel montaigne do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and moonlighting resume analyzing articles separately from writing the essay.
Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to essay 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score.
Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and moonlighting Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on term paper the SAT and GRE and moonlighting resume loves advising students on how to excel in extended, high school. You should definitely follow us on resume social media.
You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of bad grammar our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and moonlighting we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to term Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of resume other topics!
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Again, make it relevant to the essay (if you’re writing about Thatcherite Britian, “There’s no such thing as society” would be fine, but less so if you’re writing about the Middle Ages…) When you can’t quite find a subject-specific quote that works, a famous proverb or saying (particularly one which might make your tutor smile) could work well. The best source of quotes are the textbooks you’re using, but if you’re still stumped, try: Another good way to open an essay is to world extended essay define any key terms in the question. This might seem a bit of a bland opening, but it’ll show your tutor or examiner that you know what you’re talking about – and it sets the resume, parameters of the essay, discussion.
For example, a word like “ideology” can be very loaded: if it appears in the question, you’ll want to make clear what definition you’ll be using throughout your essay. Try not to spend too long defining terms, though; whilst an indepth discussion of one word can be fruitful, doing this for moonlighting resume every single word in the question will just indicate that you’re not quite sure what your argument is… Famous example – A.D. Nuttall’s A Common Sky: If you’re feeling brave, you could open your essay with a bang by making a bold statement. (An easy way to do this is to completely disagree with the question or prompt that you’ve been given.) Make sure you can actually pull this one off by constructing a solid argument throughout the about, rest of the essay that backs up what you say in the introduction – you can use the essay and the conclusion to resume modify your starting point slightly, but you don’t want to summary michel do a complete U-turn. A slight variation on the bold statement would be to take two diametrically opposed points of resume, view (perhaps two critics in your field), find a good snappy quote from issues extended each, and moonlighting resume, start off your essay with both these quotes, one after the other. Famous example – Jean Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract. Depending on how formal an top creative writing essay you’re writing, you might be able to moonlighting resume open with an anecdote. This could be from your own life, or a brief story or parable that you’re quoting. Bad Grammar Essays. It can be an effective way to draw the reader into resume, your essay and, if you’re writing an top creative writing programs essay for a competition or for a wide audience, it can be attention-grabbing.
If you do choose to use this opener, be careful not to waffle, and resume, be particularly wary when you’re writing about yourself! Three sentences is probably the maximum you should spend on extended, any anecdote. Famous example – George Orwell’s The Lion and moonlighting resume, the Unicorn. Essay titles are often statements rather than questions, like “Politics today is dominated by pragmatic concerns, not ideological ones. Discuss.” If you have a title like this, try starting off by posing your own question. In this case, I might start with “Has politics ever been free from pragmatic concerns?” and paper, use the resume, essay to argue that ideology and pragmatical considerations have always both been part of the political landscape. Using a question as the issues essay, start of moonlighting resume, your essay can help give you focus and michel, direction, particularly if the moonlighting resume, title is broad or doesn’t automatically lead you towards a strong line of argument. Famous example – Friedrich Nietzsche’s preface to term paper Beyond Good and Evil: If you’re not quite ready to write the opening lines of your essay yet, try some of these articles… Fifty Orwell Essays from Project Gutenburg. Orwell is a fantastic, easy-to-read yet profound essayist who writes very engagingly.
Ten minute research – if you’re putting off starting your essay, get going here. Got a great way to moonlighting resume start an essay? Ever tried out what you thought was a great way only for your tutor to scribble red-pen comments in the margin? Let us know in on my, the comments… Hello to every one out moonlighting resume, here, Am here to share the unexpected miracle that happened to an essay me,My name is FIDELIA WAYNE I. can’t believe my genital herpes is really cured, oh is by this time last year I start feeling bad about moonlighting resume, my life,
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