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bibliographic source The Free and Open Productivity Suite. The OpenOffice Bibliographic project (OOoBib) will make it easier for people to store and manage their reference data, to format their documents, and to samples, collaborate with other users. For Writing Paper! It will be simple to use for the casual user, but will meet all the requirements of the professional and academic writer. The features we will build include - A greatly improved Graphic User Interface for entering, editing and searching for bibliographic records. An improved bibliographic database (and internal data model) compatible with the emerging the industry standards, such as the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS), and mba thesis samples the Resource Description Framework (RDF), a framework for for writing describing and interchanging metadata. These standards will support new collection types in different media, not just limited to books and journals but also supporting video, audio, maps, pictures etc. Mba Thesis Samples! Improved metadata support in OpenOffice. Co-project leader Bruce D'Arcus has worked with OpenDocument - Metadata subcommittee to improve metadata support on OpenOffice. The OASIS OpenDocument Technical Committee has approved these proposals, metadata support [pdf], for inclusion in ODF 1.2. What do we mean by enhanced metadata support? We mean that you can: describe your document the way you want to describe it; no longer are you limited to a pre-selected list of properties describe different parts within your document: images, tables, paragraphs, and so forth tag pieces of essays, document content as metadata; you can say this heading is a title, this fragment is the name of mba thesis, some person, and so forth create dynamic content fields based on this flexible metadata system For the first time, the english essay structure opportunity for the creation and distribution of opensource bibliographic style definitions that are not specific to a particular word-processor or bibliographic package.
We propose to implement Bibliographic table and citation formatting using a process called CiteProc. See BiblioX for mba thesis technical discussion of this approach. This methodology is trust used in Zotero, the mba thesis samples Firefox bibliographic plugin. The ability to support all the essay structure a level common styles and conventions for citations and reference tables. This will include support for footnote / endnote citation styles and for differing first and subsequent citation formats. Also enhancements to Openoffice Writer Footnote/ Endnote location selection and headings. The ability to change a document from mba thesis samples, one style to another with no or minimal further editing. Import and export filters for educational trust the common formats for bibliographic data, such as BibTeX, RIS, EndNote, MARC. The ability to mba thesis, connect to, and to exchange data with bibliographic databases, using RDF and Z39.50 and SRU/W.
The ability to query internet reference sources (e.g. reference databases and library catalogues) directly and to add the responses received to the bibliographic database. A note taking facility, with the ability to link notes to references, notes to can we planet earth, other notes, notes to keywords; and a notes search ability. When the project's objectives are achieved, it will be possible to convert a scientific, technical or academic paper from mba thesis, one bibliographic style to an other bibliographic style, such as one required by a journal, simply by selecting the required style convention and automaticity reformat the document to the new style. So far as we know, the only WYSIWYG word processor that provides these features is Nota Bene, it is a good example of the type of Bibliographic and word processing integration we would like to achieve with OpenOffice. 1st Stage, Bibliographic Facility Redevelopment. As our first step, we will implement the english literature a level internal metadata and API enhancements to mba thesis samples, enable Bibliographic extensions to OpenOffice such as Zotero, to better interact with OpenOffice. Currently when you insert citation into Writer with Zotero, only the text of the formatted citation is research stored in the Writer Document, all the mba thesis citation metadata resides in the database. If you wish to share your document with the full bibliographic data you would need to essay effects of alcohol, package it with a copy of the Zotero database. The aim is to store both formatted citation its metadata in the Writer document. Zotero would be able to retrieve the bibliographic data from the document and when necessary reformat the citations and mba thesis references tables from the original metadata.
To achieve this we will implement the most simple changes to the OOo Writer core code (the API basic code, and english a level UNO mappings, but not yet the user interface code) necessary. When these basic functions are built into OOo Writer and are made assessable via UNO, we can then use rapid prototyping development methods to design and mba thesis build prototype GUI interfaces and bibliographic formatting engines using the Extension Development Toolkit and Smart Tags. We will be able to english literature essay a level, use any of the programming languages which have OpenOffice bindings and are supported by the toolkit: C++, Java, Python and, of course, OpenOffice Basic. We believe that we will find more developers who can work in these languages than by insisting on C++ code from the start. Also it is much easier to build prototypes using Java, Python and OpenOffice Basic than in C++. Samples! We urgently need volunteers to do these tasks . For Writing Paper! For further details on development tasks go to the Developer Pages.
When will this wonderful facility be available ? We have planned to get meta data support for mba thesis samples text objects in Writer in OOo version 3.1 (due April 2009). See feature timeline. Also see a blog on plans for Writer. But what can I do now ? In the meantime, if you are not happy with OOo's basic bibliographic support, you may like to essay, use some of the third-party bibliographic applications that can work with OpenOffice. See the bibliographic software page for more details. We recommend you use Zotero, which has a OOo plugin to samples, assist with citation management.
Other applications are: Jabref, which can inset citations and bibliographies into guidelines for writing research an Writer document , B3 which can write bibliographic records to samples, a Openoffice Bibliographic text database or Bibus which has good integration with OpenOffice. The terminology used by bibliographic applications can be confusing, so we have fixed upon the following three definitions: citation a short description that points to a fuller description of an information source, or reference item elsewhere, either in a note or a reference list. reference item a fuller description of an information source; also called a bibliographic entry or item. reference list a collection of can we essay, references; also called a bibliography. Mba Thesis Samples! Bibliographic applications help people manage their reference items and to create formatted citations and reference lists. Publishers, academic and other institutions generally specify detailed requirements of guidelines research paper, how their documents are to mba thesis, look, including the reference lists and the citations. English Structure! Citation and reference list formatting is an often tedious and error-prone task, particularly if one has to later change styles. An ideal bibliographic application, then, allows a user to forget about mba thesis samples these arcane details and focus on writing. The collection of bibliographic data (which includes author and essay publication details) for works cited in a document can also be a tedious and time consuming task and often involves the manual entry of these details into a database. An ideal bibliographic application would simplify or automate this process. Microsoft has only recently added bibliographic support to Word (version 2007) and the users of this product have had to make use of third-party, and usually commercial bibliographic applications, such as Endnotes and Reference Manager. Workers in mba thesis, many academic and scientific fields have used Latex, and its variants for technical word processing, and educational trust papers this software has its own bibliographic component called 'Bibtext'.
OpenOffice does provide basic bibliographic functions, these include; a simple bibliographic database, a process to insert in-text or endnote citations into a document and a bibliographic table generator to produce a reference table of samples, citations formatted as specified by the user. However, considerable improvement is needed for save planet earth OpenOffice to approach or improve on the facilities provided by the commercial bibliographic products. Then, scan the samples archive of the lists you have joined to english essay structure a level, catch up with what has been discussed so far. Samples! Also check our 'Documents and Files' page. Then you might consider introducing yourself. You could let us know how you found out about the project, what your interests are, and anything else you care to share with us. The originator of this project is David Wilson. Bruce D'Arcus of the Geography Department of Miami University is the co-project leader.
He has a blog. We would be please to effects of alcohol, hear from mba thesis, you, also please feel free to essay effects, tell the community about what interests you and what you would like to mba thesis, find in this project.
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Mindfulness and Positive Thinking. Optimism is a trait that should become more common, judging by Winston Churchill's famous quote that a pessimist sees the difficulty in samples every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in essay a level every difficulty. Samples. Optimism has been proven to improve the immune system, prevent chronic disease, and help people cope with unfortunate news. Gratitude is can we save planet earth essay associated with optimism and samples, has been determined that grateful people are happier, receive more social support, are less stressed, and are less depressed. Recent research indicates that optimists and pessimists approach problems differently, and their ability to cope successfully with adversity differs as a result. Martin Seligman defines optimism as reacting to problems with a sense of confidence and high personal ability.
Specifically, optimistic people believe that negative events are temporary, limited in scope (instead of pervading every aspect of a person’s life), and manageable. Of course, optimism, like other psychological states and characteristics, exists on a continuum. People can also change their levels of optimism depending on the situations they are in. Blank Outline. For simplicity’s sake, the mba thesis samples, studies discussed herein will talk about people at guidelines paper the higher end of the spectrum as optimists and people on the lower end as pessimists. Mba Thesis. This section will review what is known about the benefits of optimism and effects of alcohol, evidence suggesting optimism is a learnable skill.
Optimistic Explanatory Style: Making Sense of Bad Events. Imagine two students who receive the same poor grade on an exam. The first student thinks, “I’m such a failure! I always do poorly in this subject. I can’t do anything right!” The second student thinks, “This test was difficult! Oh well, it’s just one test in one class. I tend to do well in other subjects.” These students are exhibiting two types of what psychologists call “explanatory styles”. Explanatory styles reflect three attributions that a person forms about a recent event. Did it happen because of mba thesis samples, me (internal) or something or someone else (external)? Will this always happen to me (stable) or can I change what caused it (unstable)?
Is this something that affects all aspects of paper, my life (pervasive) or was it a solitary occurrence (limited)? Pessimistic people tend to view problems as internal, unchangeable, and pervasive, whereas optimistic people are the opposite. Pessimism has been linked with depression, stress, and anxiety (Kamen Seligman, 1987), whereas optimism has been shown to serve as a protective factor against depression, as well as a number of mba thesis, serious medical problems, including coronary heart disease (Tindle et al., 2009). Optimistic mothers even deliver healthier, heavier babies (Lobel, DeVincent, Kaminer, Meyer, 2000)! Optimism seems to have a tremendous number of benefits; consider several detailed below. Few outcomes are more important than staying alive, and optimism is can we save planet earth linked to mba thesis life longevity. Maruta, Colligan, Malinchoc, and Offord (2000) examined whether explanatory styles served as risk factors for early death. With a large longitudinal sample collected in the mid-1960s, the researchers categorized medical patients as optimistic, mixed, or pessimistic. Optimism was operationalized using parts of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The researchers found that for every 10 point increase in a person’s score on their optimism scale, the risk of early death decreased by 19%. Considering that, for a middle-aged person of average health, the difference between sudden death risk factors for essay smokers and non-smokers is 5-10%, the protective effect of samples, optimism found in this study is massive.
Optimism also plays a role in the recovery from illness and disease. Multiple studies have investigated the role of optimism in people undergoing treatment for essay effects cancer (e.g., Carver et al., 1993; Schou, Ekeberg, Ruland, 2005). These studies have found that optimistic people experience less distress when faced with potentially life-threatening cancer diagnoses. For example, Schou and colleagues (2005) found that a superior “fighting spirit” found in optimists predicted substantially better quality of mba thesis samples, life one year after breast cancer surgery. Optimism also predicted less disruption of normal life, distress, and english literature essay structure, fatigue in mba thesis samples one study of women who were undergoing painful treatment for breast cancer (Carver, Lehman, Antoni, 2003). Can We Save Essay. In this case, optimism appeared to samples protect against an urge to withdraw from essay social activities, which may be important for mba thesis samples healing. Guidelines Research Paper. People who tend to be more optimistic and more mindful had an increase in sleep quality (Howell et al. 2008). Mba Thesis. There is also evidence that optimism can protect against the development of chronic diseases. Guidelines Research. A sample of middle-aged women was tested for precursors to atherosclerosis at a baseline and three years later.
The women who endorsed greater levels of pessimism at the baseline assessment were significantly more likely to experience thickening arteries, while optimistic women experienced no such increase in thickness (Matthews, Raikkonen, Sutton-Tyrell, Kuller, 2004). Optimism can have an effect on a person’s immune system, as well. In one study, elderly adults were immunized for influenza (Kohut, Cooper, Nickolaus, Russell, Cunnick, 2002). Two weeks later, their immune response to the vaccination was measured. Mba Thesis. Greater optimism predicted greater antibody production and better immune outcomes. Essays. Five studies have also investigated optimism and mba thesis, disease progression in people infected with HIV. English Essay Structure A Level. Ironson and colleagues (2005) found, in a large sample, that optimism and mba thesis samples, positive HIV immune response were linearly related: people highest in optimism had the best suppression of viral load and a greater number of helper T cells, both important parts of the progression of effects of alcohol, HIV. Furthermore, another study found that optimistic men who were HIV-positive had lower mortality over a longitudinal study (Blomkvist et al., 1994).
Another study that examined the link between optimism and immune system functioning was conducted by Segerstrom and Sephton (2010). This study examined a sample of entering law students over five time points in their first year of law school. Dispositional optimism (the tendency to be generally optimistic about your life) and optimism about law school, in particular, were assessed, along with measures of positive and negative affect (to determine whether any relationships between optimism and samples, immune system functioning could be better explained through positive or negative affect). This study found that optimism predicted superior cell-mediated immunity, an important part of the essay effects, immune system’s response to samples infectious agents. Furthermore, an individual’s changes in optimism levels from time point to paper research time point were associated with changes in immune functioning: as optimism increased from mba thesis one time point to another, immune function increased, as well. Furthermore, negative affect did not predict changes in immune function. What this means is that optimism appears to have a unique value among the can we earth, factors that compose a person’s immune system. Taylor and colleagues (1992) found that optimism predicted better psychological coping post-HIV-diagnosis, as well as more perceived control over personal health and well-being. Thus, it appears that an optimistic outlook appears not only to samples be strongly positively related to a healthy immune system but also to better outcomes for people with compromised immune systems.
Optimism has also been investigated in english structure a level health-related behaviors. In examining the risk of mba thesis samples, developing alcohol dependence, one study found that optimism protected against drinking problems in people with a family history of alcoholism (Ohannessian, Hesselbrock, Tennen, Affleck, 1993). As family history is one of the guidelines, greatest risk factors for developing substance dependence, optimism’s protective effects against its influence may be very important for public health efforts. Beyond helping to mba thesis samples prevent substance use problems from developing, optimism may predict better outcomes from efforts to pbs newshour essays quit using. In a study by mba thesis Strack, Carver, and Blaney (1987), optimism predicted greater success in treatment for alcohol abuse, with optimistic people more likely to remain in educational trust research treatment and abstinent than pessimists. Mba Thesis Samples. Pregnant women who are higher in can we essay optimism have been shown to be less likely to samples abuse substances while pregnant (Park, Moore, Turner, Adler, 1997).
Optimism appears to be an important factor in risky health behaviors: both whether people choose to engage in them and whether they choose to quit. The studies described above share a common theme: optimism can have profound effects on a person’s physical health. The mere act of expecting positive outcomes and being hopeful can boost a person’s immune system, protect against pbs newshour essays, harmful behaviors, prevent chronic disease, and help people cope following troubling news. Samples. Optimism can even predict a longer life. Among psychological constructs, optimism may be one of the most important predictors of physical health.
Optimism and Psychological Health. Evidence suggests that optimism is important in coping with difficult life events. Optimism has been linked to essays better responses to various difficulties, from the mba thesis samples, more mundane (e.g., transition to college [Brissette, Scheier, Carver, 2002]) to essay of alcohol the more extreme (e.g., coping with missile attacks [Zeidner Hammer, 1992]). Mba Thesis. Optimism appears to play a protective role, assisting people in coping with extraordinarily trying incidents. Furthermore, optimism has been found to correlate positively with life satisfaction and save planet earth essay, self-esteem (Lucas, Diener, Suh, 1996). Segerstrom and Sephton (2010) also examined whether optimism predicted positive affect.
Their hypothesis that changes in optimism would predict changes in positive affect was borne out, as increases in optimism were associated with increased positive affect, and vice versa. Interestingly, changes in mba thesis samples optimism were not related to essay of alcohol changes in negative affect. Thus, it appears that optimism is uniquely related to positive affect. This means that optimists are generally happier with their lives than pessimists. Optimists are also able to recover from samples disappointments more quickly by of alcohol attending to positive outcomes to a greater extent than negative ones. Litt and mba thesis, colleagues (1992) examined optimism and pessimism in couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) attempts. In this study, 41 women and their husbands were interviewed two weeks prior to the IVF attempt and two weeks after a subsequent pregnancy test. Among the women who received a negative pregnancy test, optimists were better able than pessimists to blank cope with failed fertilization attempts by endorsing thoughts like “this experience has made our relationship stronger”. Pessimists were more likely to develop depressive symptoms and to feel personally responsible for the failure of the IVF attempt. This study suggests that optimists are better able to mba thesis samples cope with disappointment by attending to positive aspects of the setback. Optimists are also more likely to engage in problem solving when faced with difficulties, which is itself associated with increased psychological well-being (e.g., Taylor et al., 1992).
HIV-positive patients who were more optimistic were more likely to plan their recoveries, seek further information, and avoid self-blame and escapism (both of which are associated with worse psychological functioning). Optimists also tend to accept the reality of blank paper, difficult situations while also framing them in the best possible light (Carver et al., 1993). While pessimists tend to samples cope through denial and abandoning impeded goals, optimists rely on acceptance and the use of humor. Optimism may even play a role in the well-being of can we save essay, caregivers for people with chronic illnesses. Caring for a loved one with a severe, terminal illness can have serious negative effects on psychological well-being.
However, optimism appears to protect against the worst of these effects, as optimism has been associated with less depression and greater well-being in studies of people caring for others with cancer (Given et al., 1993), Alzheimer’s (Hooker et al., 1992), and mba thesis samples, mental disorders (Singh et al., 2004). The association between optimism and coping with other, less extreme difficulties has been investigated, as well. For example, in one study of college freshman, measures of optimism, hope, and well-being were administered immediately upon beginning college (Aspinwall Taylor, 1992). Pbs Newshour Essays. At the end of the semester, measures of well-being were again administered. Optimism at the beginning of college predicted a smoother, psychologically healthier transition to college life, as well as larger groups of new friends. With all of the mba thesis samples, research presented above, it is blank research clear that optimism is samples a powerful tool in our repertoire to keep us healthy, happy, and alive. This news is great for people who are “natural” optimists, but what about pbs newshour, others who don’t generally “look on mba thesis, the bright side”? Can “natural” pessimists learn to become more optimistic?
Can a Pessimist Become an Optimist? Martin Seligman, father of guidelines research paper, positive psychology, began his career studying depression, stress, and anxiety. Samples. From his work in these areas, he discovered that the optimistic explanatory style described above acted as a protective factor against the development of depression when faced with difficult circumstances. For a psychologist, understanding what makes some people more immune to suffering is beneficial, but it’s also somewhat unsatisfying if those benefits cannot be extended to other people. Thus, Seligman set out to understand whether or not optimism could be learned. Various studies on changing explanatory styles were conducted, and the general theme of their findings was that optimism could, indeed, be learned (Gillham, Reivich, Jaycox, Seligman, 1995). Following this line of research, a curriculum was developed for literature structure a level school children to attempt to inculcate in them an optimistic explanatory style. Children were selected as the population of interest as their personalities are more malleable than adults, as they are still forming and have not “solidified”. Thus, they represent a perfect population for mba thesis samples testing the idea that psychological interventions can modify a person’s personality. The program, called the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), operates under the idea that instilling optimism in young people might serve to trust papers protect them from developing depressive symptoms in the future as sort of a “psychological immunization”.
It relies on teachers and school counselors to mba thesis samples administer 12 sessions of intervention, in which students are taught, among other things, how to change the types of thoughts that are consistent with the pessimistic explanatory style. Multiple studies have used strict randomized controlled trial criteria to save planet earth essay evaluate the efficacy of this program. One study (Gillham et al., 2007) examined the use of the PRP in nearly 700 middle school students across three schools. Children were assigned to the PRP, to a program (Penn Enhancement Program [PEP]) that focused on stressors common in adolescent life, including self-esteem, peer pressure, and family conflict, or to a control condition in which students received no intervention. Students were assessed on measures of depressive symptoms and well-being two weeks after the final session and then every six months for samples the subsequent three years. In two of the three schools, 20% fewer students in the PRP condition reported elevated depressive symptoms three years post-intervention when compared to the control group, and nearly 10% fewer when compared to the PEP.
This evidence seems to support the idea that optimism can be developed and nurtured in young people, though similar programs have not been developed for adults. Pbs Newshour Essays. More research is necessary, but it appears that optimism can be trained or learned. Thus, there is a promising argument to be made that anyone can learn to derive the numerous benefits of samples, optimism. Conclusions: Where do we go from here? Countless studies have been conducted on optimism, and the vast majority of pbs newshour, them support the same conclusions: optimism is healthy! Optimists live longer, have better functioning immune systems, cope better with difficult circumstances, and samples, even have healthier babies. Are there downsides? There are a few.
For instance, there is some evidence that under certain circumstances, optimism can actually suppress immune functioning. For a certain subset of the law student sample profiled in literature a level Segerstrom and Sephton (2010), more difficult stressors coupled with higher levels of samples, optimism actually predicted worse immune functioning (Segerstrom, 2006). The reasons for this are unclear, but one explanation might be that optimism was mostly linked to negative outcomes in english structure law students who stayed close to home for law school. Mba Thesis Samples. For these students, there might be greater competing pressures between social goals (spending time with friends and blank outline paper research, loved ones) and mba thesis, performing optimally in blank outline graduate school. Mba Thesis Samples. With a finite amount of time and energy, coupled with the blank paper, tendency of optimists to persevere in the face of difficulty, these students might simply be exhausting their body’s resources. Optimism has also been linked to health behaviors that can have negative consequences. Mba Thesis. For example, one study found that optimistic teenage girls were less likely than less optimistic peers to seek information about holocaust trust, HIV testing. Furthermore, they were less likely to actually get tested (Goodman, Chesney, Tipton, 1995). These examples indicate that optimism may have its downsides, but the good outcomes related to it far outweigh the negatives. It’s apparent from the PRP studies that optimism can be nurtured in children, but what about adults?
Studies that have investigated this question have relied on mba thesis, one-on-one cognitive behavioral therapy to improve levels of optimism, but no large-scale intervention has yet been developed. Further research is essay structure necessary to determine whether non-clinical interventions can be used to foster optimism. It stands to reason that changing automatic negative thoughts should be possible in PRP-style interventions for adults, but this is a question that will need to be answered with solid data. Ultimately, there is a large, scientifically valid body of research that indicates that optimistic people are generally better off in life than pessimists. This is a growing area of research, and the future of positive thinking research is promising. The great Roman orator Cicero wrote, “Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all the others.” Indeed, all of us can think of times in our lives when we’ve expressed heartfelt thanks to others for gifts of time and samples, effort.
Being grateful feels good. Gratitude, the state or feeling of being thankful, is an blank outline paper research, almost universal concept among world cultures. Samples. In fact, nearly all of the world’s spiritual traditions emphasize the importance of giving thanks to benefactors, supernatural or otherwise (Emmons Crumpler, 2000 † ). Robert Emmons, a leader in the field of gratitude research, defines gratitude as the literature essay, feeling that occurs when a person attributes a benefit they have received to another (Emmons, 2004). Mba Thesis Samples. Feeling grateful has a number of benefits. Holocaust Educational Research. Feelings of gratitude are associated with less frequent negative emotions and samples, more frequent positive emotions such as feeling energized, alert, and of alcohol, enthusiastic (McCullough, Emmons, Tsang, 2002). Beyond emotions, there is evidence that gratitude is associated with pleasant physical sensations, as well. Algoe and Haidt (2009) found that people experienced pleasant muscle relaxation when recalling situations in samples which they’d felt grateful. It is apparent that the mere act of giving thanks can have remarkable impact on a person’s well-being. Taking time to essay effects appreciate your mother for all the care she provided growing up; reconnecting with an old friend to express your gratitude for always being there for you; seeking out and thanking a favorite teacher who helped you grow - specific acts of samples, gratitude can have a variety of positive consequences, but what about people who are more grateful by nature than others? Given the centrality of thanksgiving in religious traditions, grateful people tend to educational trust papers be more spiritual than their less-grateful counterparts.
People who are generally grateful report being more agreeable and less narcissistic compared with less grateful people. People who are more grateful also report being happier (Watkins, Woodward, Stone, Kolts, 2003). Characteristics of grateful people. What separates more grateful people from less grateful people? Recent evidence shows that a lot of the differences may be in how grateful people approach situations in samples which they’ve received some form of aid. When presented with the same short stories in which participants are told they’ve received help from another people, more grateful people tend to see their benefactors as more selfless and having exerted more effort to help, as well as placing higher value on the help they received (Wood, Maltby, Stewart, Linley, Joseph, 2008). To further support this hypothesis, these authors sought to replicate their findings in people’s daily lives. Students kept diaries of moments in their everyday environment when they were helped by another person and holocaust, then asked to rate how selfless and sincere was the benefactor, how much effort did the benefactor expend, how grateful did they feel toward their benefactor, and samples, how valuable was the help received Findings from these random moments in outline paper everyday life supported the hypothesis that more grateful people rate all of these factors higher than less grateful people. These findings suggest that grateful people interpret events in mba thesis a unique way, and this interpretation style might account for the benefits extracted from gift giving experiences. Extrapolating from the interpretations that differentiate more and essay effects, less grateful people, Wood and colleagues (2008) used a longitudinal design to investigate how gratitude related to social support, stress, and depression.
Longitudinal studies follow the same group of samples, people over pbs newshour time, which allows researchers to examine temporal relationships between different variables. This has the samples, benefit of strengthening hypotheses about causal relationships between variables. In this study, the researchers asked people to rate the overall gratitude, social support, depression, and essays, stress in their life. Everyone was contacted again to complete the same questionnaires three months later. Mba Thesis. How grateful people initially felt predicted greater feelings of social support and less stress and can we save planet, depression three months later.
Thus, it appears that grateful people find themselves feeling a sense of belonging and a relative absence of stress and depression. Mba Thesis. Psychologists have repeatedly shown that perceptions are more important than objective reality and grateful people possess benign interpretations of themselves, other people, and blank outline paper research, the world. There are interpersonal benefits associated with gratitude, as well. Feelings of gratitude are associated with increased feelings of closeness and a desire to build or strengthen relationships with a benefactor (Algoe Haidt, 2009). Mba Thesis Samples. Acts of gratitude require us to admire good characteristics of other people. Doing so encourages us to become closer to them. It has the added benefit of improving mood: reflecting upon outline research, the good another had done for them elevated the moods of participants in Algoe and Haidt’s (2009) study, who were asked to recall a time in which another person had assisted them in an exemplary way.
In addition, the act of contemplating times in which another person had helped these participants resulted in participants expressing a desire for mba thesis samples moral growth and to help others, themselves. Thus, it appears that being grateful can actually encourage people to do something good for another person. Gratitude, therefore, might have important benefits to society as a whole. It has become clear that there are a number of advantages associated with being grateful. Among other things, grateful people are happier, have stronger feelings of social support, and blank, feel less stressed and samples, depressed. English Essay Structure A Level. As being grateful has so many positive attributes, it seems that intervening to increase people’s levels of gratitude may be a good way to mba thesis increase their feelings of well-being. In the next section, we discuss the essays, research that has attempted to mba thesis do just that. Becoming more grateful: Does it work?
While it’s clear that gratitude and guidelines research paper, well-being are connected, the mba thesis, research presented above is correlational in nature. Can We Planet Essay. What this means is mba thesis that, while those studies tell us there is a connection between being grateful and being happy, it is impossible to say which one leads to the other. Based on that evidence, it could simply be that people who are already happier are more grateful. To better identify a causal relationship, carefully controlled experiments are required. Fortunately, there has been an pbs newshour, abundance of such research in the last decade. Emmons and McCullough (2003) conducted some of the first experimental studies of the mba thesis, effects of blank paper, gratitude on well-being. In one study, college students were randomly placed into one of three conditions, (gratitude, hassles, or events), each of which lasted for nine weeks. Participants were given weekly packets in which they were to write down different things depending on their condition.
In the gratitude condition, students were asked to write down several experiences for samples which they were grateful. In the hassles condition, students wrote down annoyances they experienced in the previous week. Finally, in save earth the events condition, students wrote down a number of events that affected them in the past week. No instruction was given about what types of mba thesis, events to include, and responses ranged from “learned CPR” to research “cleaned out mba thesis, my shoe closet”. The events condition acted as a neutral control condition to which the other two were compared. Students also completed a series of measures assessing physical symptoms and overall well-being. Students in the grateful condition reported significantly greater life satisfaction, greater optimism for the upcoming week, fewer physical symptoms, and, perhaps most surprisingly, exercised significantly more than students in educational research either the mba thesis samples, events condition or the hassles condition. However, the of alcohol, gratitude intervention did not have a significant impact on positive or negative emotions. Samples. Thus, while being grateful caused students to assess their lives as more satisfying and made them more optimistic about their futures, it didn’t change the overall emotional tone of their daily lives. A subsequent study replaced the weekly exercises from the previous study with daily diaries that were used for two weeks. This study kept the gratitude and hassles conditions, but replaced the events condition with instructions to write about ways in which the students were better off than other people.
This study found a significant difference in levels of literature structure, positive affect between people in the gratitude condition and people in the hassles condition, which is a bit like comparing healthiness between people who have eaten fruits and vegetables for a week with people who have eaten only cheeseburgers and fries. Based on these two studies, the causal link between gratitude and samples, well-being is clearly present. However, it is thus far difficult to effects of alcohol make the mba thesis samples, claim that being grateful makes a person happier. While the research by Emmons and blank outline paper, McCullough (2003) suggests that being more grateful doesn’t necessarily increase positive emotions more than not doing anything at all, that study was conducted with a sample of undergraduates. Perhaps children, whose brains and personalities are more malleable than those of college students, would derive greater benefit from grateful acts.
To investigate this, Froh and colleagues (2008) examined the effects of counting blessings in mba thesis samples a sample of sixth and holocaust, seventh graders. Classes were assigned to the same conditions as in mba thesis Emmons and McCullough (2003). Findings were similar to that study, as well, with the guidelines for writing, gratitude intervention resulting in samples happier students when compared to the students who wrote about their hassles, but not when compared to the neutral control students. However, these researchers examined other outcomes, as well. Froh and colleagues found that students who were told to be grateful were more excited about and satisfied with school than the guidelines research paper, students in the other conditions. Given the importance of school satisfaction in mba thesis academic performance, this is a promising area of research for researchers and educators alike.
The studies covered thus far have shown a number of benefits associated with increasing gratitude in people of for writing research paper, different ages. What they have not yet shown, however, is that making people more grateful makes them happier. To further investigate this area, Froh and colleagues (2009) hypothesized that gratitude interventions weren’t increasing levels of positive affect because many of the people who composed the samples in previous research were already happy. Perhaps people who are happier reach a “ceiling” point, beyond which it is samples very difficult to become even happier. This theory is consistent with research by social psychologist Sonja Lyubomirsky, who found that people adapt quickly to effects of alcohol positive changes in their lives and thus derive diminishing happiness returns from them. Perhaps, for mba thesis people who are less happy to begin with, feelings of gratitude are more novel, and thus less happy people experience a greater benefit from gratitude exercises. Froh and colleagues (2009) examined the effects of expressed gratitude in students ranging from third to twelfth grade.
Their findings indicated that the students with the lowest levels of positive affect received substantial benefits from expressing gratitude when compared to a neutral control condition. In other words, the students who had the most to outline paper gain in terms of mba thesis samples, positive emotion gained the most positive emotion, a surprising and exciting result. Furthermore, it’s possible that people with greater positive emotions to begin with are more open and blank, receptive to changing their life orientation and enhancing their existing relationships. Mba Thesis Samples. This includes being in a state of mind to be better attuned to positive events and more open to research savoring them, integrating these experiences into their visions of mba thesis, how their overall lives appear. Taken in this context, it appears that, while nearly everyone derives benefits from giving thanks, different people experience different rewards. Altogether, the studies profiled here have shown that gratitude can be increased through targeted interventions and that those increases have important implications for people’s well-being. But the question remains: can encouraging people to be more grateful really make them happier?
Sheldon and Lyubomirsky (2006) set out to answer this question with a four-week experimental study. In this study, students were asked to either count their blessings everyday or write about details of their lives. Essay Of Alcohol. At two-week and four-week intervals, the participants completed “check-ups”, in which they rated their levels of well-being, positive emotions, and negative emotions. The most exciting result from this study is that people in the gratitude condition increased in positive affect when compared to the control condition. This is samples a novel result, as prior research had shown only guidelines research paper that gratitude interventions were effective in mba thesis samples increasing positive affect compared to exercises that asked people to write about essay of alcohol, bad things that had happened to them. However, a caveat applies: in these analyses, the mba thesis, gratitude condition was paired with another experimental condition, in which students were asked to envision their “best possible selves” in planet earth essay their ideal future lives. Both of these interventions resulted in higher levels of positive affect, but there was no difference between them.
Furthermore, all conditions experienced a decrease in samples negative affect across the four weeks of the study, with no significant differences between them. While these results are exciting, it would be advantageous to attempt to replicate them in other samples to more fully establish an effect. There is a possibility that the way in educational research papers which the gratitude intervention is mba thesis samples delivered matters. Lyubomirsky and colleagues (2005) conducted a study in essays which they asked participants in the experimental condition to contemplate “things for which they are grateful” over the course of six weeks. Participants in the control condition completed only assessments of their happiness levels. In addition to mba thesis the experimental and control condition, participants were asked either to complete the tasks once a week or three times a week. Results indicated that participants who completed the holocaust trust research papers, tasks only once a week showed increases in levels of samples, well-being compared to essay effects of alcohol the control group, but participants who completed the tasks three times a week showed no difference in happiness.
A possible explanation for this could be that people who “counted their blessings” multiple times per week became bored with the intervention, and it thus lost its ability to increase happiness. Each of the above studies has used multiple gratitude exercises to attempt to mba thesis effect change. However, one study has examined the effects of a single gratitude-enhancing event: the letter of gratitude. Seligman and colleagues (2005) asked visitors to their website to write a letter to a person that they felt they had never properly thanked for a past kindness. These people were then asked to deliver this letter in pbs newshour person to their benefactor. Mba Thesis. These people experienced a substantial increase in happiness compared to people who wrote about their early memories. Furthermore, the research, increase was significant through one month post-intervention. These findings are perhaps the samples, most excited yet profiled. However, that excitement must be tempered by the fact that the sample used in this study was visitors to a website about happiness. Trust Papers. These people might be especially motivated to mba thesis complete the english essay structure a level, exercise, or there may be important differences in people who seek out such tasks. While these results are promising, it will be important to attempt to replicate these findings in more typical samples.
Fortunately, one can take away a positive spin from this study, as well: this experiment found substantial increases in happiness from a single intense gratitude-enhancing activity. Mba Thesis. While the guidelines research paper, increase in happiness was relatively short-lived, it suggests that there might be ways to use gratitude to improve happiness long term. The take-home message from these studies is this: gratitude interventions have a number of positive effects, ranging from improving people’s feelings of thankfulness to increasing levels of school satisfaction. Each of these outcomes is valuable in its own right. Mba Thesis. However, the answer to the question, “Do gratitude interventions make people happier?” remains an (optimistic) “Maybe, but we don’t know for sure.” Conclusions: Where do we go from here?
Of all the areas studied in holocaust educational trust the relatively young field of positive psychology, gratitude has perhaps the widest body of research. Grateful people have been shown to have greater levels of positive affect, a greater sense of belonging, and lower levels of depression and stress. Furthermore, efforts to make people more grateful have their own benefits. Gratitude is clearly an important part of a “good life”, and it therefore demands further careful research. Each of the studies profiled here has strong scientific merit, and mba thesis samples, their results should give us a sense of cautious optimism as we move forward in save planet the study of thanksgiving.
Interested in learning more about mba thesis samples, research on blank paper research, mindfulness and positive thinking? The following pages can help: -Comprehensive Reviews of Key Studies. Key studies concerning mindfulness and optimism/positive thinking were selected according to methodological rigor, type of investigation, and approach taken in understanding the relationship between mindfulness, positivity, and psychological well-being. Fredrickson’s study from 2002 was identified as a key study because it examine both positive and negative affect and determined that positive emotions make people feel good in the moment but also increase the chance of feeling good in the future. Hollis’ study from 2011 was identified as key study because it examined the mba thesis samples, relation between mindfulness, psychological well-being, self-compassion, and paper, five factor model. Mba Thesis. It was determined that high on mindfulness scored high with self –compassion and psychological well-being. Huppert’s study from holocaust trust research papers 2010 was identified as a key study because it examined the benefits of mindfulness in adolescents. Witek-Janusek’s study from 2008 was identified as a key study due to the evidence showing that revealed the psychological importance for mindfulness based stress reduction in cancer patients for their quality of life. Burpee’s study from 2005 was identified as a key study because it examined the relationship between marital satisfaction and mindfulness and proved that more mindful couples tend to have more satisfying relationships. Singh’s study from 2004 was identified as a key study because it showed the importance of mba thesis samples, caretakers, of mentally ill patients, practicing mindfulness.
It was discovered that the more mindful the caregiver the happier the patient. Holocaust Educational Papers. Carmody’s study from samples 2007 was identified as a key study since it observed how different forms of holocaust educational trust research, mindfulness will affect different aspects of well-being and positivity. Howell’s study from 2008 was identified as a key study because it examined the relationship between sleep and mindfulness. Samples. It was found that mindfulness had a direct association with well-being and sleep quality. Majumar’s study from trust research 2002 was identified as a key study because it examined the relation between chronic physical and psychological pain to mba thesis mindfulness. It was discovered that participants were less symptomatic when practicing mindful meditation.
Caprara’s study from 2006 was identified as a key study because it observed the relationship between self-efficacy, optimism, and essays, happiness. It was discovered that they were all positively correlated to mba thesis one antother.
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stated that its versions of the A380-800 will offer fuel economy of 3.1 litres per 100 passenger km. The company uses a program called . Flextracks. The technology is used to plan and optimize routes efficiency and mba thesis samples, load factorEmirates has invested in a program called tailored arrivals. This. It first determines the speed and flight profile from the guidelines for writing, air onto the runway, this allows the crew to accept and fly a continuous descent profile, saving fuel and mba thesis, emissions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emirates_(airline) . Aircraft , Dnata , Dubai 822 Words | 3 Pages. Wildlife Conservation in My Country In Malaysia, just like elsewhere the modern world, many species of wildlife are disappearing fast, and . conservation measures are needed to pbs newshour prevent animals and plants from vanishing for good. Habitat destruction is a main part of the samples, problem but many animals are being killed and taken by english literature essay structure a level hunters and mba thesis samples, poachers too. Outline Paper. Many rare animals are hunted for food and even for sport.
Some are caught alive and then sold on mba thesis samples, to collectors. One of the saddest and sickest reasons. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Endangered species 2105 Words | 6 Pages. CONSERVATION OF forest is certainly a necessity that requires to be addressed as a priority. For the survival of effects of alcohol human beings, a holistic . approach is required to be adopted as regards protection of the plant kingdom as well as the mba thesis, wildlife with regard to the peaceful and mutually beneficial co-existence of all. To prevent any kind of ecological imbalance a very pragmatic action plan has to be formulated.
Towards achieving this many legislation have been enacted in India and elsewhere. At the. Conservation , Forest , Human 1572 Words | 4 Pages. Essay: Role of english literature structure a level Youth in samples Promoting Oil Conservation. Essay : Role of youth in promoting oil conservation Youths are the people who are most flexible and able to learn. Young people . can learn habits that are less dependent on fuel than the habits we older people have. Young people, then, can grow up with better habits and make conservation of oil something that is just normal for everyone. This is why youth has a major role in promoting oil conservation . The first rule of fuel conservation would be to travel judiciously and curtail wasteful driving.
Alternative fuel , Automobile , Carpool 698 Words | 2 Pages. Energy Conservation Amanda Foshee SCI/275 March 24, 2013 Jocelyn Hunt CET, MPA Energy Conservation . Energy conservation should be one of the most research and save planet earth, implemented things we have in mba thesis our homes today. When we think about energy conservation we think about solar, wind, and water to provide energy. Of Alcohol. These three renewable energy sources are answers to a lot of questions and mba thesis samples, help with cutting down on using the nonrenewable sources like coal, natural gas, and oil. Guidelines Research. With energy.
Alternative energy , Energy , Energy conservation 1966 Words | 6 Pages. due to human activities and the reason for conservation of biodiversity will be discussed in details with respect to mba thesis its aesthetic value, . medicinal importance and its ecological value. The concept of biodiversity is important in building awareness, knowledge, information, ethics, and pbs newshour, other complex mixture of agriculture, protected areas, etc. Mba Thesis. Figure 1 shows how these fit into the society together to achieve a common objective which is the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biological. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Deforestation 1396 Words | 4 Pages. Conservation of Natural Resources. Soils Conservation : Easier - Soil is the loose top layer of save planet essay our planet's crust. Mba Thesis. It is dirt or earth in which plant life can grow. Essays. Harder - . Soil covers a major portion of the mba thesis samples, earth's land surface. It is an holocaust research, important natural resource that either directly or indirectly supports most of the planet's life. Life here depends upon mba thesis samples, soil for food.
Plants are rooted in soil and educational research, obtain needed nutrients there. Animals get their nutrients from mba thesis samples plants or from other animals that eat plants. Many animals make. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Conservation reliant species 2304 Words | 7 Pages. Conservation of Energy In explaining the laws of effects conservation of mba thesis energy, energy cannot be destroyed or made. Although, energy . can be transformed or transferred from one form to another, for effects of alcohol example: The total amount of energy in any system never changes but stays constant over samples time. Second example: Coal is burned, and then used as thermal energy for heat, next the steam is used for mechanical energy. Energy is never destroyed but changed to forms like thermal energy, gravitational energy, electromagnetic.
Energy development , Fossil fuel , Nuclear power 1070 Words | 3 Pages. PCRA The Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) was set up in essay effects of alcohol 1976 as part of the Government’s response to the oil crisis of . early seventies. It undertakes studies for identifying the mba thesis samples, potential and to papers make recommendations for achieving conservation of petroleum products in various sectors of the economy. The PCRA was also entrusted with the mba thesis, task of sponsoring RD activities for the development of fuel -efficient devices and running a multimedia campaign for outline creating mass awareness. Automobile , Internal combustion engine , Petroleum 514 Words | 2 Pages. The Conservation of Races W.E.B. Du Bois The United States of America, since its commencement, has been a “melting pot” of different . nationalities. Mba Thesis. While the term melting pot sounds forthcoming, this is guidelines for writing research, not the case in samples reality.
Many times cultures collide due their differences in literature essay a level ideology, culture, and mba thesis, geographical proximity. Such culture clashes have marked the pbs newshour essays, history of the United States. Race is usually thought of in the physical sense with difference in skin color, hair, facial features, and. African American , Black people , Booker T. Washington 1087 Words | 3 Pages. undisturbed habitat, it is mainly sand and mba thesis samples, rocks, but with small areas of permanent vegetation. In this desert ecosystem habitats may be altered by english literature essay human . activity, previously existing tree cover has often been removed for fuel and mba thesis, fodder by nomadic pastoralists and traders. From a conservations perspective the Sahara desert is not well protected, this could be due to the low population and impracticality of defining borders over this large area. There are fewer than 2 million inhabitants throughout the entire.
Amazon Rainforest , Biodiversity , Conservation 2008 Words | 7 Pages. and crop bi product for the biomass fermentations. Some of the challenges with using and managing this alternative energy are the initial costs of get the . equipment installed and the cost to educational trust maintain the mba thesis, renewable energy equipment. Hydrogen and bio fuel are another renewable energy resources that we could be developing these resource more than we are currently doing. Pbs Newshour Essays. These renewable energy resources will be a major part of our future and the cost of samples them will be less than the cost of the non-renewable. Alternative energy , Efficient energy use , Energy 1957 Words | 5 Pages. Making Oil Conservation a Way of Life. State Level Coordinator of Oil Industry Petroleum Conservation Research Association invite participation of Students in National Level . Essay Competition OGCF' 2010 Eligibility Age Limit Topic of Essay Last date of receipt of entry Words limit Language Students of Class X and english literature essay, above including Under Graduate Postgraduate from school/colleges recognized by Board/University Not more than 27 years as on 31.12.2009 Making Oil Conservation a way of Life 31.10.2009 Maximum 1000 words Language (A). Delhi , Essay , Essays 868 Words | 4 Pages.
BIO FUELS – CASE STUDY There is several risk identification to be asked in this projects, those are as follows: 1. Environmental risk * . This is particularly in connection with natural resources, there is a risk that the natural resources, raw materials, or other factors of productions necessary for mba thesis successful operation may become depleted or unavailable during the life of project * Does the company engage the pbs newshour essays, independent consultant to do the assessment and research of conservation of the. Biofuel , Biogas , Ethanol fuel 846 Words | 3 Pages. Fossil fuels - political implication. ?Fossil Fuels are the most important energy sources in our world today. Due to the importance of fossil fuels , it made a huge . impact on political issues.
In this essay , I argue that political pressures surrounding fossil fuels can often lead to mba thesis unrest and for writing paper, even war. These situations can lead to extreme social hardships. Even if a country is cash rich, the delivery system and dangerous situations involving social unrest may mean that many people never see many of the benefits of fossil fuel money. The. Coal , Energy crisis , Energy development 797 Words | 3 Pages. Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation In Hotels Research Evaluation By John E. Robinson 27 November 2009 A Room with a . Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation In Hotels The authors of this article identified the efforts towards building the research conducted while attempting to theorize a study involving environmental conservation among hotel patrons and the reuse of towels.
The purpose of this essay is to articulate whether the study provided. Hotel , Hotel chains , Hotels 2472 Words | 7 Pages. The Meaning of Conservation Proper use of resources and strict compliance with the rules on conservation are the keys to . protecting and conserving our limited resources. Conservation is the act of using and protecting resources properly. Catching animals, throwing garbage, and using and harnessing the different resources should all adhere to the proper way of conservation . Importance to Living Things.
Conservation is very important to all living things. The environment where. Air pollution , Ecology , Environmentalism 496 Words | 2 Pages. Alternative Fuels – Data By: Denise Claire Tan Yet Nee Structure and physical properties of Molecules Nowadays, there are a lot of . alternative fuels which have discovered by human beings in mba thesis order to essay replace the depleting non-renewable fossil fuels supply. In fact, organic chemistry has successfully proved that organic compounds can be served substitution of fossil fuel supply. The structure and physical properties of organic molecules are characteristics that aid them to become useful fuels for.
Carbon dioxide , Coal , Gasoline 1507 Words | 4 Pages. Role of Youth in Oil Conservation. would pass it on samples, to coming generations. Blank Paper. Our next generation is the one which will have to deal with either the loss of oil as a resource (assuming oil . does not self-replenish) or of a world where use of samples fossil fuels is blank, becoming more and more harmful. Samples. We must educate about alternative fuels ; not just solar and wind -- those are too inefficient to be more than a feel-good solution at the moment -- but safe nuclear fusion utilizing Thorium. Breakthroughs in engine design and efficient motors can reduce. Energy development , Fossil fuel , Hydrocarbon 995 Words | 3 Pages. existing plants; 4. Note the results of the World Ocean Conference and Coral Triangle Initiative in Manado, Indonesia and encourage the effects of alcohol, parliaments and . governments of the Asian countries to develop environmentally sound strategy for mba thesis long-term conservation , management and sustainable use of english literature a level marine living resources and coastal habitats based on reliable scientific assessments and internationally agreed goals, particularly for the most vulnerable communities that fully depend on marine resources for. Climate change , Developing country , Global warming 1212 Words | 6 Pages. Importance of Forest Conservation.
and many others are in danger of mba thesis extinction. India has a forest policy since 1894. It was revised in 1952 and again in 1988. The policy aims at protection, . conservation and development of essay effects forests. Its main objectives are— (i) Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance; (ii) Conservation of natural heritage (iii) Check on mba thesis, soil erosion and essay effects of alcohol, denudation in mba thesis samples catchments areas of rivers, lakes and research, reservoirs; (iv) Check on extension of sand dunes in. Deforestation , Ecosystem , Erosion 1284 Words | 4 Pages. School Chemistry essay The Fossil Fuels in Our Life Class INTRODUCTION Fossil fuels are . fuels that are formed by natural processes.
The process responsible for the formation is mostly anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. Fossil fuels have a high percent of carbon atoms. It takes millions of years for mba thesis the dead animals to decompose to pbs newshour fossil fuels .  FORMATION OF FOSSIL FUELS Coal is formed form dead plant material. Crude oil and natural gas are formed form dead marine. Coal , Energy development , Fossil fuel 2343 Words | 6 Pages. Fuel Systems PT- 264 By: Bobbie Day . 3/28/2005 In this report I will explain the fuel systems in an automobile. I will cover different parts and mba thesis samples, how they work. First thing to do is explain how the for writing, fuel system works. The purpose of the fuel system is to store and supply fuel to the cylinder chamber where it can be mixed. Atmospheric pressure , Carburetor , Diesel engine 968 Words | 4 Pages.
?Water conservation refers to reducing the usage of water and recycling of samples waste water for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, . and agricultural irrigation. Water conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments. Save Planet. Common strategies include public outreach campaigns, tiered water rates (charging progressively higher prices as water use increases), or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering. Climate , Conservation movement , Irrigation 820 Words | 3 Pages. Conservation of water Water conservation refers to reducing the mba thesis samples, usage of water and recycling of waste water for different . purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and agricultural irrigation.
INTRODUCTION Water conservation can be defined as: 1. Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use or waste as well as the preservation of water quality. 2. A reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures; or, Improved water management practices. Irrigation , Wastewater , Water 832 Words | 3 Pages. ?Wildlife Conservation Wildlife is paper research, a vital part of our ecosystem. Wildlife includes all animals and other organisms. Many animals are in the . danger of extinction and mba thesis, strongly need to be saved. Animals add to paper the natural beauty of the mba thesis samples, earth.
Humans’ activities become a big threat to the animals. Hunting and fishing is a sport or recreation for some people. Animals get killed indiscriminately. Some people kill animals for making profits by selling their skins, meat etc. Poaching is paper, done in samples some of. Biodiversity , Conservation , Conservation biology 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Energy Conservation 1 Mitigation Strategies and Solutions: Energy Conservation Katie Shuker Axia College of University of english literature structure a level . Samples. Phoenix Energy Conservation 2 Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the essay of alcohol, quantity of energy used while achieving a similar outcome of samples end use. This practice may result in increase human comfort, personal security, national security, environmental value, and financial capital.
Energy conservation is a reduction or elimination of unnecessary energy use. Conservation , Conservation of energy , Efficient energy use 1552 Words | 5 Pages.
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essay outline setup Possible model for a clearly structured essay. Many beginning writers have difficulty imposing a clear structure on an essay. They aren't sure how to begin, what to do next, or how to end. While there is no single way to write an essay, setting up a clear introduction, body, and conclusion is mba thesis, often a good idea.
What follows, then, is some practical, simple advice for writing a clearly structured essay dealing with a work of literature. Parts of a very brief sample essay are then provided, with explanations of each part. GENERAL ADVICE ON WRITING. AN INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH. Begin by stating some basic information (author, title, genre [e.g., short story]) and indicate the identities, relationships, and roles of the characters.
Announce your theme (or thesis). Your theme is the basic idea you are trying to communicate, the fundamental argument you are trying to make. It is the controlling idea for your entire essay; everything in the essay should relate back to it. One crude (but effective) way to generate a theme about a short story, for instance, is to ask yourself: what is the point of this story? What is the essential meaning of this story? Does this story illustrate or relate to any important idea? Or you might choose some aspect of the story itself as your theme -- for instance, the use of setting in the story.
Remember that your theme will usually be an assertion or an argument and should be stated as such. Break the theme down into some specific topics . At this stage, ask yourself: how will I develop my theme? how will I support my argument? What kinds of holocaust evidence can I mention in order to convince the reader of the basic point I want to make? Clearly indicate these topics to the reader in samples the opening paragraph, and make sure that you link the topics clearly and logically to your theme. Indicate, either explicitly or implicitly, the method you will be using to develop your essay. For instance, if you plan to compare or contrast certain elements of a story, don't force your reader to holocaust trust, guess this or to discover it haphazardly. Samples. Indicate that method clearly in pbs newshour the opening paragraph. Give some brief plot summary so that even a reader who has not read the story you are writing about will be able to follow your basic argument. Do not get bogged down in plot summary ; do not let the plot of the story impose its structure on mba thesis samples, your essay. Your obligation is to impose a structure of essay of alcohol your own, which is why emphasizing your theme, topics, and method in the first paragraph is so important. Remember to mba thesis, stress your theme , so that there will be no question about the point you are trying to make.
State the english a level, theme clearly at samples, the beginning of the paragraph, emphasize it throughout, and return to it one last time at the end of the paragraph, where you may want to develop its larger implications. At this stage, it is better to over-emphasize your theme than to leave it vaguely implied. BASIC ADVICE: THINK OF THE OPENING PARAGRAPH AS A KIND OF BLUE-PRINT FOR THE REST OF THE PAPER. Guidelines. THINK OF IT AS A KIND OF ROAD-MAP THAT TELLS THE READER WHERE HE IS GOING AND HOW HE WILL GET THERE. SAMPLE THEME: The setting of mba thesis Ernest Hemingway's story Hills Like White Elephant tells us something about the characters, their conflict, and the choice they face, and thus contributes to the story's meaning. SHORT SAMPLE ESSAY. SAMPLE OPENING PARAGRAPH: (1) In his short story Hills Like White Elephants, Ernest Hemingway uses setting subtly but effectively to emphasize the effects, tension-filled, life-or-death decision facing a couple who disagree about whether the woman should have an abortion. (2) The story's two main characters, a girl named Jig and her older American lover, sit at a train station in a Spanish valley, sipping drinks and discussing uneasily -- sometimes angrily -- whether they should proceed by rail to Barcelona in order to mba thesis, abort their unborn baby. (3) Jig opposes the plan, although she refuses to essays, say so openly. (4) The American, on the other hand, sees it as a solution to mba thesis samples, their problems, and effects, tries to mba thesis samples, convince Jig that it is the right thing to do. (5) Hemingway stresses three elements of the papers, story's setting -- the mba thesis samples, line of research rails, the oppressive heat, and the contrasting sides of the valley -- to indicate the nature of the couple's conflict and mba thesis samples, the difficulties of resolving it. This sentence mentions the author, the title, and the kind of work (short story). It also gives a very brief summary of the story's plot. Most significantly, however, it introduces the theme of the whole essay: the argument that Hemingway uses setting for emphasis.
This sentence offers more plot summary by explaining who the essay, identities and mba thesis, relationship of the couple mentioned in the first sentence. Notice that while the first sentence describes in very general terms, the second sentence becomes more specific. This movement from general to specific is often a good way to arrange the order of planet earth your sentences. This sentence provides a bit more plot summary and becomes even more specific in samples its focus. The focus of the first two sentences had been on the couple. The focus of sentence 3 is on the woman. This sentence also provides more plot summary while also completing the pattern begun with sentence 3. Like that sentence, this one is more specific in its focus than the pbs newshour essays, first two sentences.
This sentence reemphasizes the main argument (that Hemingway uses the story's setting to enhance the mba thesis, story's meaning) while also breaking that main argument down into three sub-arguments (or topics). This sentence also implies (through the word conflict) that you will be using contrast as your basic method. Now the reader knows exactly what this essay will try to prove and how you will try to prove it. Notice, by the way, that this paragraph resembles a capital. in structure. In other words, first it is general (the top of the I), then it becomes specific (the middle of the I), then it becomes general again (the bottom of the I). If you keep this structure in essays the back of your mind as you write each paragraph, you're likely to be much less nervous about what comes next. ADVICE ON WRITING SUPPORTING PARAGRAPHS. The purpose of these middle paragraphs is to develop your theme (or main argument ) by dealing with the topics (or supporting arguments ) indicated in your opening. Each of these topics should be clearly related or linked to your theme , and the connection should probably be made clear immediately, in samples the very first sentence.
Make sure that the link is not only logically clear but that the phrasing of it is trust research, also clear. State each topic in general terms at mba thesis, the beginning of essay effects of alcohol each paragraph, then break the general topic down into specific examples and deal with each of mba thesis samples them in turn (just as you earlier broke the general theme of the whole essay down into the particular topics of each paragraph). Make sure that the blank outline, structure of each paragraph is clear and easy to mba thesis samples, follow. End the paragraph by returning to the more general topic and by linking that topic once more to the theme of the whole essay. The middle paragraphs as a group should probably be arranged in climactic order -- i.e., moving towards a climax, from important, to more important, to most important. SAMPLE SUPPORTING PARAGRAPH: (1) Even more effective than the emphasis on the rail line and on guidelines, the oppressive heat, however, is the way Hemingway draws attention to the two contrasting sides of the valley. (2) Once again, an aspect of the story's setting helps reinforce the central conflict between its characters and samples, the painful choice they must make. (3) On one side the valley is lush with vegetation and vitality: a river flows serenely, trees stretch into the sky, and grain blows gently in the breezes. (4) This side obviously symbolizes life; it seems associated with Jig, and structure, Hemingway seems to link it with her desires to have the baby and settle down in mba thesis samples a permanent, loving relationship. (5) The other side of the valley, however, is just the opposite. (6) Bleak, barren, and sterile, it is a desert landscape, lacking life or any hint of animation. (7) This side seems to represent the deadly consequences of the abortion, and perhaps it also symbolizes the essays, empty, meaningless nature of the couple's previous relationship. (8) It is as if Hemingway places these two characters right in the middle of mba thesis samples a landscape that exemplifies not only the decision they face but also the stark differences that separate them as people. English Literature Essay Structure A Level. (9) Subtly yet deftly, Hemingway uses one more aspect of the samples, story's setting to indicate something significant about its meaning. This sentence indicates how this paragraph fits into educational trust research the structure of the whole essay.
Clearly this is the mba thesis samples, third supporting paragraph (the fourth paragraph [because of the introduction] of the essays, essay as a whole). The transitional word however indicates the logical relationship between this paragraph and the two paragraphs that precede it: the word however implies that this paragraph will offer new and different evidence to support the main argument of the whole essay. This sentence also looks back to sentence 5 of the opening paragraph, thereby reminding the reader that you are now about to fulfill the last of the three promises you made in that sentence. This sentence restates the main argument of the entire essay, once again reminding the reader of the basic point you are trying to prove. This sentence follows the pattern (already mentioned above) of moving from general to specific: here you are offering specific evidence to support the general argument of this paragraph. (In other words, you are moving from the top of the capital I to the middle.) Notice that this sentence itself moves from mba thesis general to specific: before the colon you make a general claim; after the blank, colon you offer specific evidence to support that claim. This sentence sums up the specific argument you are making about the first side of the valley.
This sentence also helps support your main argument that Hemingway is mba thesis, using setting to essay effects, imply meaning. This sentence shifts the mba thesis, focus of the paragraph from one side of the holocaust educational research papers, valley to the other. Mba Thesis Samples. The transitional word however indicates this shift, and the shift in outline general reinforces the method of the whole essay -- a method involving contrast . Notice that this sentence is short, partly because the preceding sentence was so long. Variety in the length of sentences is samples, one way to blank outline, avoid monotony. This sentence elaborates on sentence 5; it offers specific support for samples the general assertion made in outline research sentence 5. In other words, sentences 5 and 6 together do for the second half of the paragraph what sentence 3 alone had done for the first half. Notice, by samples, the way, the essay of alcohol, unusual structure of this sentence: because the adjectives come first, they get more emphasis. This sentence summarizes your argument about the meaning implied by the second side of the valley. It helps do for the second half of the mba thesis samples, paragraph what sentence 4 had done for the first half. This sentence elaborates on the argument introduced in sentence 7. Research. It also helps re-state and mba thesis, support the outline research, general argument of the whole essay. This sentence sums up the argument of the entire essay. ADVICE ON WRITING CONCLUDING PARAGRAPHS.
The concluding paragraph gives you a chance briefly to mba thesis, review the argument you have been making, perhaps by mentioning the particular topics again and by linking them again to your theme. More importantly, it gives you the chance to develop your theme in guidelines broader, more general terms , to explore its fuller implications or significance. It gives you a chance to explore aspects of the theme that could not easily be dealt with earlier, and to make the relevance of the mba thesis, theme to structure, your reader even clearer. You have a chance here to step back from your focus on one story and mba thesis, instead offer a more comprehensive view. SAMPLE CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH: (1) Although Hemingway does not over-emphasize the setting of his story, his references to it are nearly always significant. (2) At first his style seems simple, straightforward, even somewhat detached. (3) He does not openly intervene in the narrative or plainly tell us how to interpret it. Pbs Newshour. (4) As we think about his descriptions of the setting, however, and ask ourselves why he chose to describe it as he did, the deeper meaning of samples his writing becomes clearer. (5) The heat that contributes to literature structure a level, the couple's tension and that suggests their anger; the thin line of rails that represents the decision the, must make; the starkly contrasting sides of the valley -- all these details are rich in symbolism; all contribute powerfully to the story's impact and effectiveness. (6) Hemingway is famous for his crisp, bare-bones style, for his refusal simply to tell the mba thesis, reader how to react to his stories' characters and events. (7) Nevertheless, as his use of setting in Hills Like White Elephants indicates, he was fully capable of exploiting the symbolic dimensions of guidelines for writing research paper language to make his stories richer and to point to mba thesis samples, their deeper meanings. Pbs Newshour. (8) Examining his use of setting helps us appreciate one more aspect of his artistry. This sentence restates the main argument of the whole paper. (Notice, however, that it also qualifies the argument, thus implying that this is not the only argument that could be made about this story. This sentence elaborates on the first half of the first sentence. This sentence further develops the point made in mba thesis sentence 2. This sentence returns us to the main argument of the whole paper.
It develops the point made in the second half of the first sentence. Notice how this sentence (and the one before it) tries to pbs newshour, take for granted the agreement of the reader by referring to mba thesis, we This sentence moves from the general argument of sentence 4 to very specific evidence supporting that argument. Paper. Notice that this sentence also reminds the mba thesis, reader of the structure of the whole paper by reviewing the earth essay, topics treated in mba thesis paragraphs 2, 3, and guidelines research paper, 4. Mba Thesis Samples. The unusual structure of the sentence (with the details coming before the explanation) helps emphasize both halves of the sentence. Blank Outline Research. The second half of the sentence reemphasizes the main argument of the whole essay. This sentence makes a concession; it admits that Hemingway does not always write in a highly symbolic way. Note that this sentence also begins to samples, move the essay towards a general conclusion (a conclusion not just about this story but about Hemingway's over-all craft as a writer).
This sentence pulls back from the concession made in sentence 6 and restates (while broadening) the argument of the whole essay. This sentence sums up the argument of the holocaust educational research, entire essay while also suggesting its larger significance for a general understanding of Hemingway as a writer. (c) 1998 by R.C. Evans. Please feel free to duplicate for mba thesis samples private study or classroom use.