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Essay on some Popular Indian Superstitions. ''Superstitions are based on eradication of corruption in india, ignorance and there is no place for superstitions but in the darkness. The best way to remove superstitions is to educate the essay written style people and given them light of reason. A true knowledge of Nature and God will take the place of blind beliefs and false traditions and this only can should the death-knell of superstitions. —Samuel Smiles. Superstitions are unreasoned and irrational beliefs of the people living in the past or in eradication essay the present age. When certain happenings cannot be rationally explained, people assign mysterious and inexplicable reasons for article essay their operation. This faith of the people in irrational things takes the form of superstitions. Superstitions are, therefore, unreasoned beliefs which have a chronic kind of intensity in their evil. In old primitive times, superstitions governed the majority of people. Those days were such that it favored the growth of superstitions. Superstitions enjoyed their hey-day of glory when the civilization and science had not lighted the of corruption darkness of the ignorance of the primitive people.
Lack of scientific advancement is another cause of the growth of superstitions. They find a rich soil for essay germination at a time and in eradication essay a country where science and philosophy have not had their hold on the masses. Unenlightened people always tend to be superstitions. Undue reverence for mla format article essay traditions and customs prevailing in a particular society also make people superstitions in their ideas. This belief in the sacredness of time and old traditions of ancestors, keep people in the pale of of corruption essay, superstitious thought. The tricks of the priests also exercise their unhealthy effect and people with a religious orthodoxy are prove to an essay on my motherland fall an easy prey to these superstitious agencies. Superstitions have continued to exercise their sway on all classes of people all over the world. There are certain common superstitions which are shared by all the eradication of corruption essay people in the world. Belief in spirits, ghosts, and witches is a common superstition among all the people of the world. Even today belief in witches is present in India, Scotland, England, France and many other countries. People, especially in India and other countries of the East, still believe in ghosts.
The cries of certain birds like owl and ravenes and mewing of cats are regarded with superstitions all over the globe. There is a very common belief that when comets are seen, they portend the death of kings or great men. Essay In Harvard? When beggars die there are no comets seen. The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes. In India, every activity of of corruption essay, life is studies essay associated with some sort of superstition. Of Corruption In India? It is grading supposed to be bad if somebody sneezes behind or calls back a man who is leaving his home for a journey. He must stop for a while to let the ill-luck pass.
It is eradication of corruption again ominous if he sees an empty vessel or a broom right in front of the house. The story of Ram Chandra, coming across a snake on the left hand side and a jackal on the right hand side while he was coming back to his hut in the jungle is widely known. Rubric? He at once guessed that some misfortune had befallen Sita. The sight of a dead body or a cow feeding her calf or a full pitcher is considered as auspicious while one is on a journey. Stories of ghosts and evil spirits are very common in all the countries of the world and especially in of corruption essay India. After death, a person changes into a ghost. Motherland? Sometimes, a ghost molests the other members of the family generally, a 'pipal' tree is supposed to be the haunt of ghosts.
The fear of ghosts is so great that some people worship them in their homes without giving them any shape and form. The ghosts are offered sweets, cakes, clothes and many such Other articles to please them and bribe them against doing any kind of harm to the people. Generally, the illiterate and ignorant people believe in eradication of corruption in india superstitions. In villages, the people believe that small-pox, cholera and some fevers all are caused by the displeasure of he-ghosts and she-ghosts. The small pox, whenever it spreads in in harvard style the form of epidemic, is eradication of corruption essay supposed to be the result of the wrath of the Goddess Shitaladevi. Numerous beliefs of this type are prevalent in villages.
Sometimes, such miracles take place in the cure of such diseases that one is ap english essay surprised at and compelled to believe in these superstitions. Indians have a blind belief in, Sadhus though the cases of cheating by the Sadhus are generally heard. The ashes given by the Sadhus to their devotees are considered as something extraordinarily holy. The tradition of observing 'Terahvi' in Indian families is another superstition. In India Essay? Hindus believe that souls of the dead persons exist in some form or the other for about eleven days in the family. The family becomes free form the impurity of death on the twelfth day. On this day Brahmins are fed and given charities to essay rubric give peace to in india essay departed soul. These acts of giving charities to the Brahmins and feeding them or repeated every year in the month of 'Kwar'. This observance is called 'Shradha'.
People have a great faith in palmistry, astrology and horoscope. Creative Writing? There may be some experts in them here and there but generally, we come across, cheats, who exploit innocent persons and befool them. Superstitions differ from place to place and caste to caste. Eradication In India Essay? In South India, the legal sight of of corruption essay, a black cat, crossing the way in front of one is considered to be very inauspicious. In Punjab, the sight of a Brahmin right in the morning is supposed to bring one misfortune for the whole day.
But a Brahmin is not looked upon as inauspicious elsewhere. The sight of a cobbler, oilmen or washer man bring ill-lack to one in U.P. but not in Punjab, It should not be surprising that some of English superstitions are very similar to certain superstitions prevalent in India. But in England and India the following of a dog at night without any apparent cause is supposed to indicate the presence of a spirit nearby. As in Indian villages, people believe in hamlet creative witches, so do the people of England and Wales who live in remote villages. The only panacea for all the social evils like superstitions is education. Of Corruption In India? To make the backward and superstition minded Indians enlightened, education should be spread widely. Studies Essay? Education cultivates reasoning and thinking in a human being and as soon as a person comes under the shelter of reason and scientific outlook, he or she, becomes free from blind beliefs. Indians by nature are fatalists and they do not apply their energy to work for the betterment of their lot. This is the greatest superstition which has undermined and is still undermining the real prosperity of India. People should be properly educated and should be inspired to be hard working and eradication in india essay honest.
Then, we should judge everything by the strong light of reason, having firm faith in God. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Hamlet Creative? Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in the history of of corruption The Practical Art World. Written. Some of the most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in the form of eradication of corruption essay exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. An Essay On My. If you haven’t already read How to essay, Create an Artist’s CV in hamlet creative writing, 10 Steps, start there.
Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the essay, points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an ap english essay grading, artist. Refer to point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and eradication of corruption essay experiences to add to the rest of the CV, this is a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about ap english essay grading rubric, experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist. Email me! email@example.com
Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for eradication of corruption in india, some reason the education section of written in harvard a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way. DON’T list any education on your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund.
Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to your CV is to eradication essay, list any which are forthcoming. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to hamlet creative writing, include it on of corruption essay, your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. An Essay Motherland. In other words, someone made art and of corruption in india essay put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of a traditional exhibition. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property.
It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to an essay, get it back), and certainly an of corruption in india, artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to mla format article, point 5 from the original article. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. Luckily, it’s fair game to of corruption in india, list anyone who owns your work, including people to essay written, whom you have gifted your artwork.
Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by of corruption in india essay, their location. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on ap english essay grading rubric, the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of eradication in india a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE.
You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and proof fence striking. In India. Include an artist statement and ap english essay grading rubric CV on of corruption in india essay, one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to studies, make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to eradication in india essay, read this again for an essay on my, sure.
Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out in india, post. Hello, I’m an emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an assistant for two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in essay, the larger art world.
I would like to include this work experience in my CV somewhere. Eradication Of Corruption In India Essay. The local artist is mla format essay, a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on eradication in india essay, these positions in order to written in harvard style, gain experience in of corruption essay, the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on legal studies, my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. In India. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under.
I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the in harvard style, lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and eradication of corruption in india emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to studies, add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to in india essay, your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to on my, their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of a women who is of corruption in india essay, currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting. I implore anyone and ap english essay grading rubric everyone to of corruption in india essay, click the following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”?
My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the rabbit proof fence, title of the of corruption essay, show if there is one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you!
How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to an essay, them? Also, what to in india essay, do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. Creative. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary).
and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the eradication in india, ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on creative, where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in my about eradication of corruption in india essay, me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. I’d like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. Legal Studies Essay. I have had work for eradication of corruption, sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is legal, meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading.
I have had my work in eradication, a few short term shows (not in galleries), and essay about I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to eradication, what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to be in mla format, a “gallery” or does a bunch of in india essay artists getting together to put on a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is mla format, it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in of corruption in india essay, a gallery for five years count, and if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition?
Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an studies, exhibition. Eradication In India. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for written in harvard, your CV. If you have work on in india, exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to ap english rubric, everyone.Thank you.
Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the of corruption, residency. I feel proud to legal essay, be invited, should I add this to eradication of corruption, my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is hamlet writing, worded in of corruption, such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is in harvard style, super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. Eradication Of Corruption In India. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and many juried shows.
Should I include some of that in essay rabbit fence, my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience. You don’t have to differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. Likewise with press. I’m kind of wondering the same thing as the business person in of corruption in india, a reply a few posts up.
I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. Rabbit Proof. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. Eradication. What I’ve learned about art is from (lots of) reading and doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to article, say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is essay, slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to creative, submit works for an upcoming arts festival. I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections,
A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of eradication of corruption essay artists and writers, such that being around paint and essay other materials is eradication of corruption in india essay, second nature to me. I also plan on studies essay, enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Eradication Of Corruption Essay. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for this great article. I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to writing, put on CV — should I put them all??– or only the of corruption essay, award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the ap english essay, largest or the ones with the most exposure. Eradication Of Corruption In India Essay. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to about rabbit, your current practice.
You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful. Thank you. Echoing the long line of thank yous for this and in india essay a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in hamlet, a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to eradication of corruption in india, include and what to talk about. This is very helpful! I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons. hi there all again….
Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on an essay motherland, display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on of corruption in india essay, my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and grading rubric include the info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there!
This blog is wonderful and of corruption in india essay this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for use in a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Writing. Thanks for your help and time in replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the eradication of corruption essay, owner of the work. Side note: since the piece was in writing, a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to eradication essay, whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of creative my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV? It’s remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge.
Thanks so much for this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to in india essay, have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in an essay on my, the pictures of the eradication, works you had done for an artist in your portfolio.
I have been working for written in harvard, an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at of corruption in india an art market and wanted to include this on my CV. Where would this fit under?
Also, just to studies, clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the eradication in india essay, same state(or county in England). Article. Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to in india essay, a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into mla format article essay, my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery?
Should I? and what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: I’m entering the eradication of corruption, Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to hamlet writing, submit an eradication in india, artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. Mla Format Article Essay. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to eradication of corruption, all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the rabbit, ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an eradication in india, interesting situation. Essay. I started out as a fine artist in of corruption, the 80’s. Then I veered off and became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an essay style, actor. I came back to illustration at the turn of century and had lots of success.
About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to in india, fine art. Creative. I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an agent in eradication, Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries. I’m given speaking engagements and legal studies essay workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for of corruption essay, a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over essay the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do?
You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and in india had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Ap English Essay. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to of corruption in india, only add one very large piece I did in my CV. As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this.
Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;
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Fabulous Adventures In Coding Fabulous Adventures In Coding. Eric Lippert#039;s Erstwhile Blog. The standard way to teach beginner OO programmers about eradication in india classes is to make a metaphor to the real world. And indeed, I do this all the time in this blog, usually to the animal kingdom. A class in real life codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects: mammals, for example, have many things in common; they have backbones, can grow hair, can make their own heat, and so on. Writing. A class in a programming language does the same thing: codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects via the eradication, mechanism of legal studies essay inheritance. Inheritance ensures commonalities because, as we've already discussed, inheritance by definition means all (*) the members of the base type are also members of the derived type.
Inheritance relationships amongst classes (**) are usually designed to eradication of corruption in india essay model is a special kind of relationships. Legal Studies. A giraffe is a special kind of mammal, so the class Giraffe inherits from the class Mammal , which in turn inherits from Animal , which inherits from Object . Eradication Of Corruption In India. And that's great; this clearly represents is a special kind of essay rabbit proof fence relationships. I have always, however, had a problem with the in india, fundamental metaphor of inheritance. Why inheritance? You inherit genetic information, property, and if you're a titular lord, your peerage, from your parents. And if you make a diagram of a class hierarchy, it looks a bit like a family tree in which the derived class is the child of the base parent class. And indeed, people often speak of the base class as the parent class of mla format article essay a child derived class, particularly when speaking to beginners. But the parent-to-child inheritance metaphor is awful . A giraffe is not a child of mammal; a giraffe is a child of Mr. and eradication Mrs. Legal Studies. Giraffe.
A child is not a special kind of parent. In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from each parent, and you can inherit real property from eradication, any relation, or for essay about proof that matter, from any non-relation. In programming languages you only inherit from eradication of corruption in india essay, related types, and you inherit all their members (*). In reality, everyone has two parents (***), but in programming languages some languages allow inheritance from an essay on my, arbitrarily many parents, some allow exactly one. In reality, a single, specific person inherits specific property from eradication in india essay, a single, specific parent, and two different children can have entirely different inheritances from their parent; in programming languages, the inheritance relationship does not apply to individual objects, and every child inherits exactly the article essay, same thing from the parents. And in reality you only inherit real property when the decedent is dead ! But wait, it gets worse. Eradication Essay. The parent-child metaphor is ambiguous in any language that supports both lexical nesting and nominal subtyping of classes: Quick, what type is the parent of type Bstring.Dint ? Is it BT or Bstring or Bint ? That type is lexically inside BT , logically inside of Bstring , and essay rubric derived from Bint ; which of those three is its parent ? If you drew a graph showing either lexical or logical containment relationships, it would form a graph that looks every bit as much like a family tree as the graph showing inheritance relationships. Eradication Of Corruption In India. And lexical containment allows access to essay about fence all the properties of the container from the contained type, even including not-inherited and normally inaccesible members like private constructors! It is eradication of corruption in india essay not at all clear that one kind of rubric parentage is actually more parent-like than any other.
As we've seen before, having multiple different parent relationships for a given type can make for some extremely confusing code. We have to be extraordinarily careful when writing the in india, specification and the compiler to ensure that we unambiguously describe precisely the relationship we wish to describe. Essay About Rabbit Fence. I therefore try hard to avoid parent-child metaphors entirely; it is much more clear when writing an example to describe the type relationship as base type and derived type, rather than parent type and child type. (*) Excepting constructors and destructors. (**) I'm going to of corruption stick to essay in harvard style talking about class-based inheritance here; my criticisms apply equally well to of corruption in india interface-based inheritance but I don't want to open the an essay on my motherland, can of eradication of corruption in india worms that is all the subtle differences between class and interface inheritance. And I've never much liked the inheritance metaphor on ap english essay interfaces anyways; a contractual obligation metaphor is better. (***) Assuming that we're talking about members of a sexually reproducing species. all (*) the members of the base type are also members of the derived type A giraffe (derived) is a mammal (base), but a mammel is not (necessarily) a giraffe. Re: you ** comment on in india essay inheritance from interfaces, this is a pet hate of mine, a class implements the interface, it does not inherit from it. Essay In Harvard. The number of times I've had to explain this difference to senior devs is quite disturbing.
I think programming would be easier if the terms were all made up words – but still sounded like proper words. Having learned programming very early before I knew most of the more advanced English words, to eradication me it seems inheritance is the perfect word for base/derived class relationships, but no so fitting for real life usage for exactly these reasons. Words like class or property to me are first and foremost programming terms. Perhaps we should start designing CPL, the Common Programmer's Language, which defines technical terms unambiguously (e.g. Essay. doesn't have the word 'dynamic'), and eradication in india has a term for every single concept used by any programmer ever, so that we would be able to actually speak a language without confusing metaphors or ambiguities? Nah… Nobody would use it.
Actually the term 'inheritance' makes good sense, only it applies to article types and eradication of corruption in india essay not to objects! The derived itype/i B inherits all members (*) from its base type(s) Asubi/sub just as children inherit their properties from mla format essay, their parents, and each inherited member is inherited from of corruption, exactly one parent (except weird cases like virtual inheritance, where the mla format essay, member is inherited from eradication of corruption in india essay, one grandparent through one or more parents). Thus IMO the ultimate cause of problems in grading rubric this particular case is confusion about the eradication essay, type-object distinction. @Kyle members meaning methods, properties, etc. You are confusing with *instances* of the types. @Carl Sixsmith but interfaces inherit from other interfaces (that's the term used in the C# specification). While this is somewhat orthogonal to your discussion, I've always loved this essay by Kragen, which shows exactly how terrible Giraffe extends Animal can be. Quick, what type is the parent of motherland type Bstring.Dint I don't know. Isn't that a good reason not to use this kind of design?
Even with really good names for B and D, I think it would be difficult for me to grasp what this relationship defines. Sort of like your Smart Pointers Are Too Smart example. Usage of in india mammals in the example may the legal essay, problem here. Maybe an asexually reproducing critter would suffice for eradication your examples. @phoog: Yes, that makes more sense then. @Jasper And then, Circle extends Ellipse has a completely different problem. (Less so for mla format article immutable types, but still a problem) Perhaps parent and child don't refer directly to family relationships, but are themselves computer science jargon for nodes in a tree structure. Of Corruption In India. So the parent class is adjacent to the child class in the class heirarchy (tree) but it is the one closer to the root of the tree. I think that once people are familiar with trees, they don't really find this confusing. While I have no problem with using less loaded/ambiguous terms than parent-child, be wary of trying too hard to be correct when explaining a new concept: it's far easier to essay correct misunderstandings about specific behavior than to correct confusion/disgust over a far too complicated feature.
When first introducing OO (really class-based, but lets not go *there*!), the essential detail that you *need* to get across, ignoring everything about eradication of corruption in india members, behavior, etc…, is the is-a relation. Using real-world examples that the student is essay immediately going to map to such relations, despite the fact that they don't actual match Liskov or would be data-driven in of corruption essay a real implementation, is far more helpful than dryly describing the properties of is-a. When the smart student then says later A-ha! But penguins can't fly!, the correct response is the real world is complicated, or So it's probably a bad idea to actually have a 'Bird' base class, not to try to re-explain OO from scratch again! @Carl: Agreed. I've seen even teachers don't understand interface is hamlet creative just a contract declaring what services you need to eradication essay implement and nothing else. What's more? I've seen teacher who told their students to always plan things through base classes and forget the interface too. And people wonder why others think OOP is hamlet creative difficult!
Of course that's 10+ years ago and let's hope things would be better now. But this mammal and giraffe metaphor is worst than most for essay another reason. Because it emphasizes the Giraffe IS a Mammal relationship instead of essay written in harvard Giraffe BEHAVES AS a Mammal relationship. This is important when you reach the classical corner cases. While in essay classic taxonomy it makes sense for whales being mammals, in an OOP world there is no advantage in having whales are mammals instead of fishes (besides, mammal is hamlet creative writing a completely meaningless category in OOP – unless you consider Sweat() a method you can call :)). Also, classifying objects for Behaviour has the advantage of making structural patterns (adapter, composite and above all decorator) much easier to introduce. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. … In reality, you only eradication essay, inherit half your genetic makeup from each parent, … Not if you are a bacteria.
Perhaps we should downgrade the metaphor. Actually I think using animals at all is a much worse sin than whether you talk about child/parent etc.. Newb programmers have most likely learnt (and understood) some basics about what programs do such as paint on screens, read from files. Then trainers and about rabbit fence OO intro tutorials start telling tham about animals and shapes.. and their confidence is destroyed becuase they haven't a clue what on in india earth the point of an mla format essay, animal class is in the context of of corruption essay code!! Worse still the same trainers use large unhelpful headings such as Polymorhism, Encapsulation and yes I agree Eric even the term inheritence isn't intuitive enough, at least though it's a term they have heard of before and ap english it's that scary! Time and time again new programmers at in india essay my company who have done a computer science degree just don't really get OO becuase everything they were taught was so abstract. i use a file importer program to demo OO and it makes sense to them.
it has a concrete real life feel to it. Article. It's a complex enough problem to justify OO but not to complex that it blows their mind. Thought provoking article as always, Eric. Great comments, also. I agree with Mike G. Eradication Of Corruption Essay. – I don't think the animal metaphor is very good for beginners: I know it confused me in the beginning because it just did not seem to article relate to of corruption in india essay programming.
I don't mind the parent/child terminology, because to me it reflects the tree heirarchy well and the direction of the heirarchy. Mla Format Article. For some reason, the terms less derived and more derived' are just not intuitive to me and eradication in india I end up translating them to is a parent and about proof fence is a child in my mind. I don't agree with the rant about interfaces being implemented instead of inherited. In India. I like the word inherited for both the base class and the interfaces. The child class is inheriting the method signatures for both base classes and interfaces and inherits the type of both the base classes and interfaces. The implementation to me is separate concept.
If the base is completely abastract and on my virtual the the child class must implement all the methods. If a class already has all the methods in eradication of corruption essay an interface then it does not have to implement anything. I think it is not the case, that you can't map mammal as parent of giraffe. Real problem is that newbs can't map abstract things which are present in programming environment to such relations as in animal kingdom. Ok, mammal is quite abstract, but we have some intuition about mla format article those animal things. For those programming things we do not have any intuition at the beginning because there are much more abstract things to grasp, so we should learn by those totally abstract concepts which are present in real software. Your latest blog posts (and possibly earlier too, haven't read enough) could easily make a beautiful book on of corruption in india essay software. Essay Written Style. Have you considered making them a book? Did you see INCEPTION before explaining inheritence…. you shouldn't.
Take an orange juice and write this article again. What I like about the animal metaphor is that it is a hierarchy that everybody can instantly understand. If one is trying to come up with an example to eradication of corruption essay relate to a situation, it is trivial to come up with more examples (two classes derived from the rubric, same base — giraffe and zebra are both mammals; two classes derived from the same base but with different intermediate derivations — cat and of corruption in india shark are both animals, but cat is a mammal and shark is a fish). If animals aren't a good metaphor, I'd like to know what to use instead. @Gabe: I think the point is not to use an abstract metaphor at all but to use actual real world code examples instead. A few commentors gave examples: file importing and graphical example. @DRBlaise: What if you're trying to teach OOP to (junior) high school pupils, who only recently learnt about *procedural* programming?
I am the only guy in my class who knows something about programming, about it works, etc. How would you try to explain OOP to them, if they can't even do simple tasks like basic IO operations or drawing stuff to a form? This will never happen though, we're learning VBA and there's nothing about classes (or modules) in our book, sigh… At least part of the reason that the studies essay, animal metaphor has problems is that the eradication of corruption essay, bilogical taxonomy is essentially in a state of being refactored from being based on behaviour and physical characteristics to genetics. Genetically it seems there is no such thing as a fish http://www.telegraph.co.uk/…/QI-quite-interesting-facts-about-fish.html.
@Les – two examples of OOP I would use to on my motherland teach students, would be games and GUI. Designing or theorizing about an OOP game would be something students could really get into and there are all sorts of heirarchies and eradication essay is a and essay proof fence has a relationships: characters, weapons, inventory, etc. There could even be an animals in the game and eradication essay you could talk about a heirarchy of animal behaviors in essay rabbit proof the game versus how real animals are categorized. GUI design is eradication essay something they can see right in from of them and you could talk about objects on the screen: forms, menus, borders, scroll bars, text boxes, drop downs, etc. I love your footnotes. Assuming that we're talking about members of a sexually reproducing species. @JK The article says Or put another way, if we go back to hamlet writing most recent common ancestor of in india everything we now call fish (including the incredibly primitive lungfish and hagfish), we find that they also were the ancestor of all four-legged land vertebrates, which obviously aren’t fish at all. This is news? Hasn't this been true of reptiles and birds for essay about rabbit ages?
Normal people don't reject paraphyletic groups. While I am a technologist by eradication of corruption in india trade, my biggest takeaway from this article is that I spent 11 minutes learning all about the Right Honorable Sir Nigel Tufnel. IMHO, implementation inheritance should almost never be used by the programmer to create a complex set of related classes – and implementation/is-a inheritance is all we get in C# and most other languages, as they lack any convenient constructs for delegation, mixins, etc. Grading. Inheritance should (and is) mainly used as a way to make a complex API more approachable by segmenting it, and enables such nicities as Intellisense – so basically it's what people use to eradication of corruption in india essay leverage *frameworks* that are large and creative (hopefully) well-thought-out designs that the eradication of corruption essay, user accesses though the OO paradigm. Hamlet Creative Writing. Designing OOP (other than flat classes which organize an API or extend a framework class to gain behavior) should not be an everyday task for eradication of corruption in india the programmer.
As OOP is just a shim (v-tables, etc.) over essay in harvard style procedural/control-flow languages, it's the basics that are much more important. I've always felt that OO was a solution in search of a problem. I can see that it *might* be a sensible approach for simulation and in india essay window systems (OO's roots), but I just don't see OO adding anything other than obfuscation for legal most programs. Most of the worst messes I've seen have stemmed from in india, people trying to apply OO design where it's simply inappropriate. And don't get me started on patterns… Declarative languages get by just fine (let's be honest here, they get by better) with just algebraic data types and type classes (interfaces done properly). A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanations. — Anon. 14 Feb 2012 1:29 AM. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. Interesting paper. Thanks for pointing at it.
Well *that* didn't work as expected. As mentioned, understanding the parent-child relationship works once you understand trees, but everyone has two biological parents, not just one. Essay Style. The employee-manager relationship might be better, but then… all analogies are flawed. As my Dad says, Don't tell me what something is LIKE, tell me what it IS. My saying is of corruption in india essay Analogies are like feathers on a snake. (Useless, unhelpful…) It's an an essay motherland, anti-analogy analogy. Although I realize that analogies and metaphors are useful teaching tools, but they only eradication of corruption in india, go so far. And even is a special kind of doesn't always work. I think everyone who tried to declare class Square : Rectangle sooner or later discovered rather grave problems with such an approach.
In fact, I saw in one editions of Stroustroupe's C++ Language his statement that You should neither derive Square from Rectangle nor Rectangle from essay about rabbit proof, Square though the eradication, latter has some benefits. There is a conception of Specialization by Constraint which allows easily express Square as a descendant of Rectangle, and in essay fact can even be made compatible with Liskov's Substitution Principle — but only if you stop using pointers/references, and work with value types only. Which is, of course, not very great, after all, pointers/references is one of the greatest inventions in eradication in india essay CS.