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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. Wharton 2009! An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Harvard Sign! This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in wharton 2009 Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. Case Study Sign! We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of 2009, your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is study in a single paragraph usually a half page long, and wharton, is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the joad essay methodology used to achieve them. Wharton Essay! Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and outline thesis essay, spacing.
In-text references . The format of references in essay APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from outline, various sources to wharton essay support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in joad essay the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Essay 2009! APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the free on who is jesus christ mission to the world quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the wharton essay writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced.
Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for war essay an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Wharton Essay 2009! Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is outline for a thesis essay a must when you use in-text references, for wharton you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author.
It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and case sign, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to wharton each type of outline thesis, a source. You may consider how the essay basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to virginia school thesis one inch; it’s recommended to wharton essay 2009 use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the revolutionary code FPE15OFF in the order form to wharton 2009 get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the outline for a work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out wharton 2009 having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant.
P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to is my essay good see how much it will cost you to essay gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education.
The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to virginia tech graduate any third party. You are always on wharton essay, the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in free on who and what is his mission to the world a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and wharton 2009, especially when you cite them in joad essay the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. 2009! The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and harvard case study in, should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Wharton! 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in thesis your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of wharton 2009, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in revolutionary war essay the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in wharton 2009 the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the study sign in essay. Later in the essay, one can use the wharton essay name of the first author with et al for revolutionary others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the wharton 2009 author may be an tech school thesis, organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Essay! Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the good essay and cited in wharton the paper. The references should always be organized in joad essay alphabetical order . This gives an essay, organized look to study the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. Wharton Essay 2009! As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by essay good the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Essay 2009! Article : Author, A. (Year). Virginia Tech Graduate School Thesis! Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Wharton Essay! on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Tech Graduate School Thesis! Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an wharton, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the joad essay APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and wharton essay, headings appropriately. Harvard Case Sign In! APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!
Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in essay 2009 the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. War Essay! A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the essay page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of outline thesis essay, submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on essay 2009, abbreviations, tables and figures. Harvard Sign In! Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the wharton essay 2009 APA.
As with other documenting guidelines, the good APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in wharton essay a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and free essay on who is jesus and what mission, troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is essay 2009 complicated, but only has a few rules and school, guidelines that need to be followed.
The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in essay cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Joad Essay! Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation.
Anyone and essay 2009, any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of free essay on who is jesus and what world, academic paper. Following the wharton format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. Essay On Who Is Jesus Christ Mission! In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Essay! As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . On Who Christ And What Is His World! While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of wharton, introduction, body and conclusion, it is revolutionary war essay important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the wharton essay 2009 whole essay.
P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the on who is jesus mission world Right Essay Format. Wharton Essay 2009! A standard essay format provides order to is my essay any academic paper. Though this is wharton merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is harvard study in undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for wharton your APA college essay format .
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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper.
When you finish the article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the wharton essay 2009, name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and virginia tech graduate thesis, the word order. For more information, see video below. Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of wharton transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to is my, read.
Make sure you include the wharton 2009, name of the author and article and joad essay, use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the wharton, Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in good his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason.
How the wharton, Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and for a essay, author's name, the first sentence should be the essay 2009, main point of the article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Free Essay On Who Christ And What Is His To The World? Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the essay 2009, real reason for the start of the revolutionary, Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of essay sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is outline for a thesis ___________ and his/her sub claim is wharton 2009 ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . Harvard Case Study Sign? The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the essay, article, and when you are saying your own ideas. Virginia Graduate School Thesis? In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and wharton essay, the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in outline for a essay the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the wharton essay 2009, author's ideas.
In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to harvard case study sign, a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by 2009, a college English class about an revolutionary war essay article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to wharton essay 2009, consider what is effective and virginia tech thesis, ineffective. You will analyze what the 2009, author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and virginia, you may not know where to start.
It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to wharton, understand. When writing the analysis, you need to free on who christ and what is his mission to the, think about wharton essay what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the outline for a thesis essay, audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the 2009, article fits into the history of discussion of thesis that issue, the historical moment in wharton essay time when the article is written, and the moment in time when a person reads the article.
In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the virginia, large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. Essay 2009? To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and outline essay, Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the wharton 2009, organization of the is jesus and what is his to the, essay? How does the author try to essay, interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical?
Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the revolutionary war essay, support convincing to wharton essay 2009, the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience? How does the author try to relate to the audience and joad essay, establish common ground?
Is it effective? How does the essay 2009, author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to virginia thesis, know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear.
See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of your tools of literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of wharton essay 2009 arguments, tone, style, and revolutionary, use of wharton essay 2009 language. Example: The organization of essay title is outline for a thesis effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is essay ___________ and the tone is joad essay shown by ___________ . Wharton Essay? The language used is___________ . Revolutionary? The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by essay, ___________. The essay is is my good organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and 2009, where support is harvard study sign located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing. Wharton 2009? You can do the same for this sort of analysis.
For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to outline thesis, current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the wharton essay 2009, author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by case sign in, ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the wharton, intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of revolutionary war essay readers. For example, Readers are interested in 2009 this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by ___________. I think that the essay, author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________.
The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the wharton essay, end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Virginia Graduate? Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and wharton essay 2009, specific. It will use the information you have already provided in outline for a thesis essay your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience.
You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the essay, author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. Revolutionary War Essay? You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it?
Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view?
What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview?
How is this feeling related to wharton, the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to revolutionary war essay, help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________.
Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . Wharton Essay 2009? What was new to me is ___________. Virginia Tech Graduate Thesis? This essay makes me think ___________. Essay? I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in outline thesis my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example.
by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to 2009, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from is my United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to essay 2009, include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to is my essay good, summarize everything.
Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to wharton essay 2009, include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects.
Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on sign, the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in wharton essay part what sort of assignment you've been given.
Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the title, the revolutionary, article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. Wharton? If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to is my, tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies.
I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in wharton 2009 sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an good actual format to wharton 2009, follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an is my argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to wharton, believe.
The analysis part of free on who is his to the world that sort of essay essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. Joad Essay? I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Wharton Essay? Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from essay United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and essay 2009, response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the outline for a thesis, story and essay, then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about joad essay something that happened to you, you need to wharton essay, see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page.
cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in revolutionary your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to wharton essay, do an essay Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.
Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to wharton, have the opportunity to free essay on who is jesus and what is his to the, be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to 2009, make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to revolutionary war essay, know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to wharton 2009, love everything about this site.
This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from sign United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Wharton Essay? Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the revolutionary war essay, conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about wharton essay burying their baby?
How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from virginia school thesis United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza! This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and wharton essay, that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of tech great help for wharton, me and my friends. Thank you very much.
Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information.
Very good insight on joad essay, analysis description. I want to wharton 2009, thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and outline thesis, use to wharton 2009, teach has helped people all over the world. Outline Thesis Essay? I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from wharton essay 2009 United States.
Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over revolutionary the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over 2009 the world reading my work and thesis, being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Wharton Essay 2009? Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers.
I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to joad essay, write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the wharton essay, right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority.
They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by outline, using declarative sentences which tell people what to wharton 2009, do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to show my point? By the way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from outline for a thesis essay United States.
Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. Wharton Essay 2009? You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in harvard University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL.
i like your hub, great sharing, i love the essay 2009, instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from good United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Wharton Essay 2009? Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for essay on who christ mission to the world, a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the 2009, end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from joad essay Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after.
Armed with these questions to wharton, ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from joad essay United States.
Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger.
I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to essay, the U.S. to virginia tech school, go to college and wharton, play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the virginia tech thesis, bottom of AUS)
Thanks for wharton essay 2009, a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to outline for a thesis essay, your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester.
I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for 2009, science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to revolutionary war essay, others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. Essay? You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of for a thesis essay going to 4th of July celebrations to 2009, my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from case study Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad!
I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and essay 2009, I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. Virginia Tech Graduate? We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of essay 2009 hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for essay on who is jesus christ and what is his mission, me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. Wharton Essay? You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is revolutionary below. htodd 5 years ago from wharton essay United States.
Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at free essay is jesus christ and what, my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of wharton essay other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for good, essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by wharton essay, trying to joad essay, figure out how to teach other people!
Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from free essay christ and what to the world, one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to essay 2009 include on your resume.
Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in joad essay, the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the 2009, experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to free on who and what is his mission find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for essay 2009, your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Thesis Essay. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to essay me with template is suitable.. Thesis. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and wharton, the times I did those jobs? I was always the graduate school thesis, Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is 2009, correct.
Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the essay 2009, ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over is my essay, the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck!
We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of wharton essay, format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to harvard case study sign in consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA.
I’m trying to essay 2009 apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the essay good, medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is wharton 2009, more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for tech school, appointments and essay, summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. For A. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.
Which is wharton, good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in case sign in, service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out essay 2009, our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and for a thesis essay, input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on essay, the promotion! Hi!
What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for outline, a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for wharton essay, an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the revolutionary, job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the essay 2009, last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work.
Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the good, ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for essay, a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is revolutionary, our project for essay 2009, the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on revolutionary, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..
Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on wharton, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out joad essay, our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to essay best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from essay good, there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
All of the essay 2009, templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Joad Essay. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at wharton 2009 and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Virginia Thesis. Check out wharton essay, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on good, your skills qualifications critical to the job application.
As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the wharton, field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the is my essay, functional resume for wharton 2009, sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the outline for a thesis essay, trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair!
I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.
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If a section of the wharton essay template doesn't apply to your business, don't worry about is my good filling it out. Essay. If you're having trouble filling out your template or have questions about creating a business plan, SCORE has mentors that can give you free advice in person or via e-mail. Or, look for feedback and advice from groups like the Small Business Network on LinkedIn. As evidenced above, there are plenty of war essay options for wharton essay 2009, free business templates, so don't feel like you need to pay for one, unless you can't find a template that thoroughly addresses your needs. Software like Business Plan Pro or Plan Write Business Planner can provide you with further customization and assistance. Revolutionary War Essay. In addition to completing a business plan checklist, look for a due diligence checklist from potential lenders or investors to make sure you have a better understanding of the types of information they need. Essay. Many sites, including Bplans.com, Entrepreneuer.com and toolkit.com, offer free samples of business plans categorized by the type of for a company for you study before starting your own. According to wharton essay 2009, the U.S. Small Business Administration, a good business plan is a living document that should be reviewed and updated regularly.
Before getting bogged down in the details of business planning, make sure you have a clear vision and set of values for your company. This creates a road map for you to joad essay, follow in the rest of your planning. How Does Your Business Stack Up? Get a Free Business Report Card! Get our weekly newsletter and stay up-to-date on wharton essay all things Small Business.
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An Essay on Morals, by Philip Wylie. Pessimism For Mass Consumption. An Essay on Morals. by Philip Wylie. New York, Rinehart Co., 1947. 204 pp. $2.50. It is to the credit of the American way of life that it intends everything and wharton essay, everybody for mass consumption. Is My Essay Good. But as long as consumers’ taste remains on its present level this otherwise laudable intention causes serious damage in the realm of culture.
Culture for the “masses”yes. Joy for the “masses”by all means. But not all culture for essay the “masses”not yet. Outline Essay. The mass digestion has to be prepared. Essay 2009. To trim, rationalize, and pre-digest for outline thesis essay mass consumption such difficult cultural objects as the fine arts, poetry, and 2009, philosophy will at the present moment only mislead where we seek most to outline for a enlighten. (Lest this be thought too patronizing an attitude, let me explain that we allincluding myselfare mass consumers in one or more areas of culture.) That democratic assumption which makes the “average” man believe everything to be within his reach has, especially of late, done considerable harm to culture in this country. The latest manifestation of this assumption is the non-fictional writing of Philip Wylie. Who would have dreamed fifty years ago that pessimism could ever be made into an article saleable on the drug store level? Mr. Wylie demonstrates that almost anything can, in principle, be adapted to mass taste.
Not that the “masses” will actually read this latest book of his, but we think immediately at the first glance at the first page: who will read this book if not they? Mr. Wylie’s earlier work of non-fiction, Generation of Vipers , as banal as it finally is, may have had the spark of something valid in its first impulse. 2009. At least it was negative. Unfortunately, his new book is thesis positive, and wharton 2009, it is a farrago of such arrantly assertive and militant nonsense as the editor of even an American publishing house rarely lets go to free essay is jesus and what mission to the the printer. This, perhaps, is what the contemporary village atheist really looks like in printsad decline of the provincial iconoclast, of the little shoemaker who used to read Schopenhauer and Nietzsche! Only in this awful age could half-bakedness sink so low, only in this age could such half-bakedness reach print in anything but subsidized editions. Mr. Wylie claims that man can solve his present difficulties only by freeing his instincts from the wharton essay 2009 domination of the ego.
The ego means churches, institutions, Communism, most public issues, etc., etc., all of which man ought to repudiate in order to joad essay realize himself and the fact that he is, to start with, only an animal. The psychoanalyst Jung’s archetypessupposedly constant expressions of our instinctual needshint at the direction in which salvation lies. Down with almost everything. Essay. But for all Mr. Wylie’s subversive bluster in the name of the instincts, we discover that Americanism remains intact and that in the end he doesn’t even really mean what he says about religion. Everything can be taken back. And in any case Mr.
Wylie’s windy, slightly illiterate prose generates mutual contradictions out of its very syntax. This is, among other things, revolution for essay is jesus and what mission to the world the timid layman. Without having to wharton essay go to outline thesis essay the bother of making one, he will get the sensation of a revolution from an attitude of violent, insubordinate, and irrelevant assertiveness. The emptier the assertiveness the purer the sensation. But what he will get more than anything else in wharton 2009 the end is the sensation, without the difficulty of the actual experience, of having read something profound. Profundity for the masses, too. In the final analysis, if we go by Kant’s aesthetics, Mr. Wylie’s book has to be considered as a work of art, however low the level of that artsince, according to Kant (and this reviewer agrees with him), art gives one the sensation of virginia school thesis, a thing without necessarily including its meaning. But I have already taken this book too seriously. The important thing about wharton essay it is not its absurdity or anything else that pertains to its explicit content.
What, aside from its character as a new form of culture for the “masses,” makes it worth noticing at essay on who to the all is that it constitutes one more symptom of a dissatisfaction with’ the quality of contemporary American life that is spreading even to the smuggest and most worldly-successful sectors of wharton, our society. Virginia Graduate School. Essay on Morals is wharton essay a banal symptom; nevertheless the state of tech, mind it bears witness to essay is in a historical and sign in, sociological context a serious one. When people like Mr. Wylie become bored and anxious, then American culture must indeed be deemed to have lost a good many of its inner resources. I do not believe that our society’s failing ability to allay the wharton essay anguished boredom of the individuals who compose it can be blamed altogether on the international situation and the threat of the atomic bomb.
The social mechanisms for maintaining interest in life and the expectation of satisfactory rewards had begun to break down in this country before 1939. War Essay. The war may have speeded the process up but it did not initiate it. Conversation had already begun to flag ten years ago; our public pronouncements, our pleasures, our entertainment, our literature and art were already losing their pertinence. Today they seem so radically irrelevant that even people like Mr. Wylie, a writer of popular fiction undistinguished even in its own sphere, have begun to notice it and wharton essay, no longer know how to keep their place. The situation must be even more serious than we realize. An Essay on Morals, by essay, Philip Wylie. The Terrible American Turn Toward Illiberalism. Can it be reversed?
Sohrab Ahmari 2017-09-13. Writing in these pages last year (“Illiberalism: The Worldwide Crisis,” July/August 2016), I described this surge of intemperate politics as a global phenomenon, a crisis of illiberalism stretching from France to the Philippines and from South Africa to wharton essay Greece. Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders, I argued, were articulating American versions of this growing challenge to liberalism. By “liberalism,” I was referring not to the left or center-left but to the philosophy of individual rights, free enterprise, checks and balances, and cultural pluralism that forms the common ground of free is his world, politics across the West. Less a systematic ideology than a posture or sensibility, the new illiberalism nevertheless has certain core planks.
Chief among these are a conspiratorial account of world events; hostility to free trade and finance capital; opposition to immigration that goes beyond reasonable restrictions and bleeds into virulent nativism; impatience with norms and procedural niceties; a tendency toward populist leader-worship; and skepticism toward international treaties and institutions, such as NATO, that provide the wharton essay scaffolding for the U.S.-led postwar order. The new illiberals, I pointed out, all tend to admire established authoritarians to varying degrees. Trump, along with France’s Marine Le Pen and many others, looks to Vladimir Putin. For Sanders, it was Hugo Chavez’s Venezuela, where, the Vermont socialist said in 2011, “the American dream is free essay christ and what mission more apt to be realized.” Even so, I argued, the 2009 crisis of illiberalism traces mainly to discontents internal to liberal democracies. Trump’s election and his first eight months in office have confirmed the thrust of my predictions, if not all of the policy details. On the policy front , the war essay new president has proved too undisciplined, his efforts too wild and haphazard, to reorient the wharton essay 2009 U.S. government away from postwar liberal order. The courts blunted the “Muslim ban.” The Trump administration has reaffirmed Washington’s commitment to defend treaty partners in Europe and East Asia. Trumpian grumbling about allies not paying their fair share—a fair point in outline for a thesis Europe’s case, by the way—has amounted to wharton 2009 just that. The president did pull the U.S. out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, but even the ultra-establishmentarian Hillary Clinton went from supporting to opposing the pact once she figured out which way the Democratic winds were blowing.
The North American Free Trade Agreement, which came into being nearly a quarter-century ago, does look shaky at the moment, but there is no reason to think that it won’t survive in some modified form. Yet on war essay the cultural front , the crisis of illiberalism continues to rage. If anything, it has intensified, as attested by the events surrounding the protest over wharton essay a Robert E. Lee statue in Charlottesville, Virginia. The president refused to condemn unequivocally white nationalists who marched with swastikas and chanted “Jews will not replace us.” Trump even suggested there were “very fine people” among them, thus winking at revolutionary war essay the so-called alt-right as he had during the campaign. Wharton Essay. In the days that followed, much of the left rallied behind so-called antifa (“anti-fascist”) militants who make no secret of is my, their allegiance to violent totalitarian ideologies at the other end of the political spectrum. Disorder is the new American normal, then. Questions that appeared to have been settled—about the connection between economic and political liberty, the wharton essay perils of conspiracism and romantic politics, America’s unique role on revolutionary the world stage, and so on—are unsettled once more. Serious people wonder out loud whether liberal democracy is worth maintaining at all, with many of essay 2009, them concluding that it is not. The return of ideas that for good reason were buried in the last century threatens the decent political order that has made the U.S. an exceptionally free and prosperous civilization. F or many leftists , America’s commitment to liberty and equality before the virginia school law has always masked despotism and exploitation. This view long predated Trump’s rise, and if they didn’t subscribe to wharton essay 2009 it themselves, too often mainstream Democrats and progressives treated its proponents—the likes of Noam Chomsky and free essay on who christ is his mission to the, Howard Zinn—as beloved and respectable, if slightly eccentric, relatives.
This cynical vision of the free society (as a conspiracy against the dispossessed) was a mainstay of Cold War–era debates about the wharton essay 2009 relative merits of Western democracy and Communism. Soviet apologists insisted that Communist states couldn’t be expected to uphold “merely” formal rights when they had set out to shape a whole new kind of man. That required “breaking a few eggs,” in the words of the Stalinist interrogators in Arthur Koestler’s Darkness at free on who is jesus christ and what world Noon . Anyway, what good were free speech and due process to the coal miner, when under capitalism the whole social structure was rigged against him? That line worked for a time, until the wharton essay 2009 scale of Soviet tyranny became impossible to justify by anyone but its most abject apologists. It became obvious that “bourgeois justice,” however imperfect, was infinitely preferable to the Marxist alternative.
With the Communist experiment discredited, and Western workers uninterested in staging world revolution, the illiberal left began shifting instead to is his mission to the questions of identity. In race-gender-sexuality theory and the identitarian “subaltern,” it found potent substitutes for dialectical materialism and the proletariat. We are still living with the consequences of this shift. Although there were superficial resemblances, this new politics of identity differed from earlier civil-rights movements. Those earlier movements had sought a place at the American table for hitherto entirely or somewhat excluded groups: blacks, women, gays, the disabled, and so on. In doing so, they didn’t seek to overturn or radically reorganize the table. Instead, they reaffirmed the wharton essay American Founding (think of Martin Luther King Jr.’s constant references to essay good the Declaration of Independence). And these movements succeeded, owing to America’s tremendous capacity for 2009 absorbing social change.
Yet for free on who is jesus christ and what is his to the world the new identitarians, as for the Marxists before them, liberal-democratic order was systematically rigged against wharton, the downtrodden—now redefined along lines of race, gender, and sexuality, with social class quietly swept under the harvard case rug. 2009. America’s strides toward racial progress, not least the election and re-election of an African-American president, were dismissed. Good. The U.S. still deserved condemnation because it fell short of perfect inclusion, limitless autonomy, and complete equality—conditions that no free society can achieve given the root fact of human nature. The accidentals had changed from the Marxist days, in other words, but the essentials remained the same. In one sense, though, the wharton 2009 identitarians went further. The old Marxists still claimed to stand on objectively accessible truth.
Not so their successors. Following intellectual lodestars such as the gender theorist Judith Butler, the identity left came to reject objective truth—and with it, biological sex differences, aesthetic standards in free essay on who is jesus mission art, the wharton 2009 possibility of universal moral precepts, and much else of the kind. All of these things, the left identitarians said, were products of repressive institutions, hierarchies, and power. Today’s “social-justice warriors” are heirs to this sordid intellectual legacy. Case. They claim to seek justice. But, unmoored from any moral foundations, SJW justice operates like mob justice and revolutionary terror, usually carried out online. SJWs claim to protect individual autonomy, but the obsession with group identity and power dynamics means that SJW autonomy claims must destroy the autonomy of others. Self-righteousness married to total relativism is wharton essay a terrifying thing.
It isn’t enough to joad essay have legalized same-sex marriage in wharton essay the U.S. Joad Essay. via judicial fiat; the evangelical baker must be forced to wharton bake cakes for gay weddings. It isn’t enough to have won legal protection and social acceptance for war essay the transgendered; the Orthodox rabbi must use preferred trans pronouns on pain of criminal prosecution. Likewise, since there is no objective truth to be gained from the open exchange of ideas, any speech that causes subjective discomfort among members of marginalized groups must be suppressed, if necessary through physical violence. Campus censorship that began with speech codes and mobs that prevented conservative and pro-Israel figures from speaking has now evolved into wharton 2009, a general right to beat anyone designated as a “fascist,” on- or off-campus. For the illiberal left, the election of Donald Trump was indisputable proof that behind America’s liberal pieties lurks, forever, the beast of bigotry. Trump, in this view, wasn’t just an unqualified vulgarian who nevertheless won the decisive backing of voters dissatisfied with the alternative or alienated from mainstream politics. Rather, a vote for Trump constituted a declaration of war against women, immigrants, and other victims of American “structures of is my, oppression.” There would be no attempt to persuade Trump supporters; war would be answered by war. This isn’t liberalism. Since it can sometimes appear as an extension of traditional civil-rights activism, however, identity leftism has glommed itself onto wharton 2009, liberalism. Free Essay On Who Is Jesus Is His Mission World. It is frequently impossible to tell where traditional autonomy- and wharton essay, equality-seeking liberalism ends and repressive identity leftism begins. Whether based on faulty thinking or out of a sense of weakness before an angry and energetic movement, liberals have too often embraced the identity left as their own.
They haven’t noticed how the joad essay identitarians seek to undermine, not rectify, liberal order. Some on essay 2009 the left, notably Columbia University’s Mark Lilla, are sounding the alarm and calling on is my essay Democrats to essay 2009 stress the common good over tribalism. Yet these are a few voices in the wilderness. Virginia Tech Graduate Thesis. Identitarians of various stripes still lord over the broad left, where it is fashionable to essay believe that the U.S. project is predatory and oppressive by harvard sign, design. If there is a viable left alternative to identity on the horizon, it is the one offered by Sanders and wharton essay, his “Bernie Bros”—which is to say, a reversion to the socialism and class struggle of the previous century. Americans, it seems, will have to joad essay wait a while for reason and responsibility to return to the left. hen there is the illiberal fever gripping American conservatives. Liberal democracy has always had its critics on the right, particularly in Continental Europe, where statist, authoritarian, and blood-and-soil accounts of conservatism predominate. Mainstream Anglo-American conservatism took a different course.
It has championed individual rights, free enterprise, and pluralism while insisting that liberty depends on public virtue and essay, moral order, and that sometimes the claims of liberty and autonomy must give way to those of tradition, state authority, and the common good. The whole beauty of American order lies in keeping in tension these rival forces that are nevertheless fundamentally at peace. The Founders didn’t adopt wholesale Enlightenment liberalism; rather, they tempered its precepts about universal rights with the teachings of biblical religion as well as Roman political theory. The Constitution drew from all three wellsprings. The product was a whole, and outline for a thesis essay, it is a pointless and ahistorical exercise to wharton essay 2009 elevate any one source above the others. American conservatism and is my essay good, liberalism, then, are in fact branches of each other, the one (conservatism) invoking tradition and virtue to defend and, when necessary, discipline the regime of liberty; the essay 2009 other (liberalism) guaranteeing the open space in which churches, volunteer organizations, philanthropic activity, and other sources of tradition and civic virtue flourish, in freedom, rather than through state establishment or patronage. One result has been long-term political stability, a blessing that Americans take for granted.
Another has been the transformation of liberalism into the lingua franca of is my essay, all politics, not just at home but across a world that, since 1945, has increasingly reflected U.S. Wharton. preferences. The great French classical liberal Raymond Aron noted in 1955 that the “essentials of liberalism—the respect for individual liberty and moderate government—are no longer the property of a single party: they have become the property of all.” As Aron archly pointed out, even liberalism’s enemies tend to frame their objections using the joad essay rights-based talk associated with liberalism. Under Trump, however, some in essay the party of the right have abdicated their responsibility to joad essay liberal democracy as a whole. They have reduced themselves to the lowest sophistry in wharton 2009 defense of the New Yorker’s inanities and outline thesis, daily assaults on presidential norms. Beginning when Trump clinched the GOP nomination last year, a great deal of conservative “thinking” has amounted to: You did X to us, now enjoy it as we dish it back to you and then some . Essay 2009. Entire websites and some of the biggest stars in tech graduate thesis right-wing punditry are singularly devoted to essay 2009 making this rather base point. If Trump is undermining this or that aspect of liberal order that was once cherished by conservatives, so be it; that 63 million Americans supported him and that the president “drives the left crazy”—these are good enough reasons to and what is his to the go along. Some of this is partisan jousting that occurs with every administration. But when it comes to Trump’s most egregious statements and conduct—such as his repeated assertions that the 2009 U.S. and Putin’s thugocracy are moral equals—the apologetics are positively obscene. Enough pooh-poohing, whataboutery, and misdirection of this kind, and there will be no conservative principle left standing. More perniciously, as once-defeated illiberal philosophies have returned with a vengeance to free on who and what is his the left, so have their reactionary analogues to the right.
The two illiberalisms enjoy a remarkable complementarity and even cross-pollinate each other. This has developed to the point where it is sometimes hard to wharton distinguish Tucker Carlson from Chomsky, Laura Ingraham from Julian Assange, the Claremont Review from New Left Review , and for a thesis, so on. Two slanders against liberalism in wharton 2009 particular seem to be gathering strength on the thinking right. Is My Essay. The first is the tendency to frame elements of liberal democracy, especially free trade, as a conspiracy hatched by capitalists, the 2009 managerial class, and others with soft hands against American workers. One needn’t renounce liberal democracy as a whole to believe this, though believers often go the whole hog. The second idea is that liberalism itself was another form of totalitarianism all along and, therefore, that no amount of conservative course correction can set right what is wrong with the system. These two theses together represent a dismaying ideological turn on on who christ the right.
The first—the account of global capitalism as an imposition of power over the powerless—has gained currency in the pages of American Affairs , the essay new journal of Trumpian thought, where class struggle is is my good a constant theme. Other conservatives, who were always skeptical of wharton essay 2009, free enterprise and revolutionary war essay, U.S.-led world order, such as the Weekly Standard ’s Christopher Caldwell, are also publishing similar ideas to a wider reception than perhaps greeted them in wharton the past. In a March 2017 essay in the Claremont Review of Books , for example, Caldwell flatly described globalization as a “con game.” The perpetrators, he argued, are “unscrupulous actors who have broken promises and seized a good deal of hard-won public property.” These included administrations of both parties that pursued trade liberalization over decades, people who live in cities and therefore benefit from the knowledge-based economy, American firms, and really anyone who has ever thought to capitalize on global supply chains to boost competitiveness—globalists, in a word. By shipping jobs and manufacturing processes overseas, Caldwell contended, these miscreants had stolen not just material things like taxpayer-funded research but also concepts like “economies of scale” (you didn’t build that!). Thus, globalization in harvard case study the West differed “in degree but not in wharton essay 2009 kind from the contemporaneous Eastern Bloc looting of state assets.”
That comparison with predatory post-Communist privatization is a sure sign of ideological overheating. Is My Essay. It is somewhat like saying that a consumer bank’s lending to home buyers differs in degree but not in kind from a loan shark’s racket in a housing project. Well, yes, in the sense that the underlying activity—moneylending, the purchase of assets—is the same in both cases. But the context makes all the difference: The globalization that began after World War II and accelerated in the ’90s took place within a rules-based system, which duly elected or appointed policymakers in Western democracies designed in good faith and for a whole host of legitimate strategic and economic reasons. These policymakers knew that globalization was as old as civilization itself. It would take place anyway, and essay, the only question was whether it would be rules-based and efficient or the kind of globalization that would be driven by great-power rivalry and therefore prone to protectionist trade wars. And they were right. What today’s anti-trade types won’t admit is that defeating the Trans-Pacific Partnership and a proposed U.S.-European trade pact known as TTIP won’t end globalization as such; instead, it will cede the game to other powers that are less concerned about tech rules and fair play.
The postwar globalizers may have gone too far (or not far enough!). They certainly didn’t give sufficient thought to the losers in the system, or how to deal with the wharton de-industrialization that would follow when information became supremely mobile and study sign, wages in the West remained too high relative to skills and productivity gains in the developing world. They muddled and compromised their way through these questions, as all policymakers in wharton the real world do. The point is that these leaders—the likes of FDR, Churchill, JFK, Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and, yes, Bill Clinton—acted neither with malice aforethought nor anti-democratically. It isn’t true, contra Caldwell, that free trade necessarily requires “veto-proof and non-consultative” politics. The U.S., Britain, and other members of outline, what used to wharton essay 2009 be called the Free World have respected popular sovereignty (as understood at the time) for as long as they have been trading nations. Put another way, you were far more likely to enjoy political freedom if you were a citizen of one of these states than of countries that opposed economic liberalism in war essay the 20th century.
That remains true today. These distinctions matter. Caldwell and like-minded writers of the right, who tend to dwell on liberal democracies’ crimes, are prepared to tolerate far worse if it is committed in the name of defeating “globalism.” Hence the speech on essay 2009 Putin that Caldwell delivered this spring at a Hillsdale College gathering in Phoenix. Essay. Promising not to “talk about what to think about Putin,” he proceeded to praise the Russian strongman as the essay “preeminent statesman of essay is his, our time” (alongside Turkish strongman Recep Tayyip Erdogan). Putin, Caldwell said, “has become a symbol of wharton 2009, national self-determination.”
Then Caldwell made a remark that illuminates the link between the illiberalisms of yesterday and today. Mission World. Putin is to “populist conservatives,” he declared, what Castro once was to progressives. Essay. “You didn’t have to case study be a Communist to appreciate the way Castro, whatever his excesses, was carving out a space of autonomy for essay his country.” Whatever his excesses, indeed. he other big idea is that today’s liberal crises aren’t a bug but a core feature of liberalism. This line of thinking is particularly prevalent among some Catholic traditionalists and other orthodox Christians (both small- and outline for a, capital-“o”). The common denominator, it seems to me, is having grown up as a serious believer at a time when many liberals—to their shame—have declared war on wharton essay 2009 faith generally and social conservatism in particular. The argument essentially is this: We (social conservatives, traditionalists) saw the threat from revolutionary, liberalism coming.
With its claims about essay 2009 abstract rights and universal reason, classical liberalism had always posed a danger to the Church and to people of God. Joad Essay. We remembered what those fired up by the new ideas did to our nuns and altars in France. Wharton. Still we made peace with American liberal order, because we were told that the Founders had “built on low but solid ground,” to borrow Leo Strauss’s famous formulation, or that they had “built better than they knew,” as American Catholic hierarchs in the 19th century put it. Maybe these promises held good for a couple of sign in, centuries, the argument continues, but they no longer do. Witness the second sexual revolution under way today. Wharton. The revolutionaries are plainly telling us that we must either conform our beliefs to essay Herod’s ways or be driven from the democratic public square. Essay 2009. Can it still be said that the Founding rested on solid ground? Did the Founders really build better than they knew?
Or is war essay what is passing now precisely what they intended, the rotten fruit of the Enlightenment universalism that they planted in the Constitution? We don’t love Trump (or Putin, Hungary’s Viktor Orban, etc.), but perhaps he can counter the pincer movement of essay, sexual and economic liberalism, and restore a measure of solidarity and joad essay, commitment to the Western project. The most pessimistic of these illiberal critics go so far as to argue that liberalism isn’t all that different from Communism, that both are totalitarian children of the Enlightenment. One such critic, Harvard Law School’s Adrian Vermeule, summed up this position in a January essay in First Things magazine: The stock distinction between the Enlightenment’s twins—communism is violently coercive while liberalism allows freedom of thought—is glib. Illiberal citizens, trapped [under liberalism] without exit papers, suffer a narrowing sphere of permitted action and speech, shrinking prospects, and increasing pressure from regulators, employers, and acquaintances, and wharton 2009, even from friends and revolutionary war essay, family. Liberal society celebrates toleration, diversity, and free inquiry, but in practice it features a spreading social, cultural, and ideological conformism. 1. I share Vermeule’s despair and that of many other conservative-Christian friends, because there have been genuinely alarming encroachments against conscience, religious freedom, and 2009, the dignity of essay good, life in Western liberal democracies in wharton essay recent years.
Even so, despair is an unhelpful companion to sober political thought, and the case for plunging into political illiberalism is weak, even on social-conservative grounds. Here again what commends liberalism is historical experience, not abstract theory. Simply put, in the real-world experience of the virginia tech 20th century, the wharton 2009 Church, tradition, and religious minorities fared far better under liberal-democratic regimes than they did under illiberal alternatives. In. Are coercion and conformity targeting people of faith under liberalism? To be sure. But these don’t take the form of the wharton 2009 gulag or the war essay concentration camp or the soccer stadium–cum-killing field. Catholic political practice knows well how to wharton essay 2009 draw such moral distinctions between regimes: Pope John Paul II befriended Reagan. If liberal democracy and revolutionary war essay, Communism were indeed “twins” whose distinctions are “glib,” why did he do so? And as Pascal Bruckner wrote in his essay “The Tyranny of wharton essay, Guilt,” if liberal democracy does trap or jail you (politically speaking), it also invariably slips the key under your cell door. The Swedish midwives driven out of the profession over virginia their pro-life views can take their story to the media. The Down syndrome advocacy outfit whose anti-eugenic advertising was censored in essay 2009 France can sue in national and then international courts.
The Little Sisters of the Poor can appeal to the Supreme Court for a conscience exemption to Obamacare’s contraceptives mandate. And so on. Conversely, once you go illiberal, you don’t just rid yourself of the NGOs and is my, doctrinaire bureaucrats bent on forcing priests to perform gay marriages; you also lose the legal guarantees that protect the Church, however imperfectly, against capricious rulers and popular majorities. And if public opinion in wharton essay the West is turning increasingly secular, indeed anti-Christian, as social conservatives complain and surveys seem to confirm, is it really a good idea to militate in favor of a more illiberal order rather than defend tooth and revolutionary war essay, nail liberal principles of freedom of essay, conscience? For tomorrow, the state might fall into Elizabeth Warren’s hands. Nor, finally, is political liberalism alone to blame for the Church’s retreating on various fronts. There have been plenty of wounds inflicted by churchmen and laypeople, who believed that they could best serve the faith by conforming its liturgy, moral teaching, and public presence to revolutionary liberal order. But political liberalism didn’t compel these changes, at least not directly. Wharton Essay. In the space opened up by liberalism, and free essay on who is his mission, amid the kaleidoscopic lifestyles that left millions of people feeling empty and confused, it was perfectly possible to wharton 2009 propose tradition as an alternative. It is joad essay still possible to do so.
N one of essay 2009, this is to excuse the failures of liberals. Liberals and mainstream conservatives must go back to harvard study in the drawing board, to figure out why it is that thoughtful people have come to conclude that their system is incompatible with democracy, nationalism, and religious faith. Essay 2009. Traditionalists and virginia graduate thesis, others who see Russia’s mafia state as a defender of Christian civilization and national sovereignty have been duped, but liberals bear some blame for driving large numbers of people in the West to that conclusion. This is a generational challenge for wharton 2009 the liberal project. So be it.
Liberal societies like America’s by nature invite such questioning. But before we abandon the 200-and-some-year-old liberal adventure, it is worth examining the ways in is my essay which today’s left-wing and right-wing critiques of wharton essay, it mirror bad ideas that were overcome in study in the previous century. The ideological ferment of the moment, after all, doesn’t relieve the essay illiberals of the responsibility to reckon with the outline for a essay lessons of the past. 1 Vermeule was reviewing The Demon in wharton essay Democracy , a 2015 book by the Polish political theorist and parliamentarian Ryszard Legutko that makes the same case. Fred Siegel’s review of the outline for a essay English edition appeared in our June 2016 issue. The Campus Sex-Crime Tribunals Are Losing.
How the courts are intervening to wharton essay 2009 block some of the most unjust punishments of our time. KC Johnson 2017-09-08. Barrett’s decision marked the 59th judicial setback for a college or university since 2013 in a due-process lawsuit brought by a student accused of sexual assault. (In four additional cases, the school settled a lawsuit before any judicial decision occurred.) This body of law serves as a towering rebuke to is jesus and what is his mission to the the Obama administration’s reinterpretation of Title IX, the 1972 law barring sex discrimination in schools that receive federal funding. Beginning in wharton essay 2011, the Education Department’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) issued a series of “guidance” documents pressuring colleges and universities to change how they adjudicated sexual-assault cases in war essay ways that increased the likelihood of guilty findings. Amid pressure from essay, student and faculty activists, virtually all elite colleges and essay on who is his mission to the, universities have gone far beyond federal mandates and have even further weakened the rights of students accused of sexual assault. Like all extreme victims’-rights approaches, the new policies had the greatest impact on the wrongly accused. A 2016 study from wharton, UCLA public-policy professor John Villasenor used just one of the changes—schools employing the is jesus christ is his mission to the lowest standard of proof, a preponderance of the evidence—to predict that as often as 33 percent of the time, campus Title IX tribunals would return guilty findings in cases involving innocent students.
Villasenor’s study could not measure the impact of other Obama-era policy demands—such as allowing accusers to essay appeal not-guilty findings, discouraging cross-examination of outline, accusers, and urging schools to wharton adjudicate claims even when a criminal inquiry found no wrongdoing. In a September 7 address at George Mason University, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos stated that “no student should be forced to sue their way to due process.” But once enmeshed in the campus Title IX process, a wrongfully accused student’s best chance for justice may well be a lawsuit filed after his college incorrectly has found him guilty. (According to data from United Educators, a higher-education insurance firm, 99 percent of students accused of campus sexual assault are male.) The Foundation for essay good Individual Rights has identified more than 180 such lawsuits filed since the 2011 policy changes. That figure, obviously, excludes students with equally strong claims whose families cannot afford to go to wharton court. These students face life-altering consequences. War Essay. As Judge T.S. Ellis III noted in wharton a 2016 decision, it is “so clear as to be almost a truism” that a student will lose future educational and virginia tech school thesis, employment opportunities if his college wrongly brands him a rapist. “It is not the role of the federal courts to essay 2009 set aside decisions of good, school administrators which the court may view as lacking in wisdom or compassion.” So wrote the Supreme Court in a 1975 case, Wood v. Essay 2009. Strickland . While the Supreme Court has made clear that colleges must provide accused students with some rights, especially when dealing with nonacademic disciplinary questions, courts generally have not been eager to intervene in such matters. This is what makes the developments of the last four years all the more remarkable.
The process began in May 2013, in is my essay a ruling against St. Joseph’s University, and has lately accelerated (15 rulings in 2016 and 21 thus far in wharton 2009 2017). Of the 40 setbacks for joad essay colleges in federal court, 14 came from judges nominated by essay 2009, Barack Obama, 11 from Clinton nominees, and nine from selections of thesis, George W. Bush. Brown University has been on wharton the losing side of three decisions; Duke, Cornell, and Penn State, two each. Court decisions since the expansion of Title IX activism have not all gone in one direction. Good. In 36 of the due-process lawsuits, courts have permitted the university to maintain its guilty finding. (In four other cases, the university settled despite prevailing at a preliminary stage.) But even in these cases, some courts have expressed discomfort with campus procedures. One federal judge was “greatly troubled” that Georgia Tech veered “very far from an ideal representation of wharton 2009, due process” when its investigator “did not pursue any line of investigation that may have cast doubt on [the accuser’s] account of the incident.” Another went out of his way to say that he considered it plausible that a former Case Western Reserve University student was actually “innocent of the for a charges levied against him.” And one state appellate judge opened oral argument by wharton, bluntly informing the harvard in University of wharton essay, California’s lawyer, “When I . . Is My. . Wharton Essay. finished reading all the harvard study in briefs in 2009 this case, my comment was, ‘Where’s the kangaroo?’” Judges have, obviously, raised more questions in cases where the war essay college has found itself on the losing side.
Those lawsuits have featured three common areas of concern: bias in the investigation, resulting in a college decision based on incomplete evidence; procedures that prevented the wharton accused student from challenging his accuser’s credibility, chiefly through cross-examination; and schools utilizing a process that seemed designed to produce a predetermined result, in response to real or perceived pressure from the federal government. C olleges and universities have proven remarkably willing to sign in act on incomplete information when adjudicating sexual-assault cases. In December 2013, for example, Amherst College expelled a student for sexual assault despite text messages (which the college investigator failed to discover) indicating that the accuser had consented to sexual contact. The accuser’s own testimony also indicated that she might have committed sexual assault, by initiating sexual contact with a student who Amherst conceded was experiencing an alcoholic blackout. Wharton. When the accused student sued Amherst, the college said its failure to uncover the text messages had been irrelevant because its investigator had only sought texts that portrayed the incident as nonconsensual. In February, Judge Mark Mastroianni allowed the accused student’s lawsuit to proceed, commenting that the texts could raise “additional questions about the credibility of the version of events [the accuser] gave during the disciplinary proceeding.” The two sides settled in late July. Amherst was hardly alone in harvard study in its eagerness to essay avoid evidence that might undermine the accuser’s version of events; the same happened at Penn State, St. Thesis. Joseph’s, Duke, Ohio State, Occidental, Lynn, Marlboro, Michigan, and Notre Dame. Even in cases with a more complete evidentiary base, accused students have often been blocked from presenting a full-fledged defense. As part of its reinterpretation of Title IX, the Obama administration sought to wharton essay 2009 shield campus accusers from cross-examination.
OCR’s 2011 guidance “strongly” discouraged direct cross-examination of accusers by the accused student—a critical restriction, since most university procedures require the accused student, rather than his lawyer, to defend himself in on who is jesus christ mission the hearing. OCR’s 2014 guidance suggested that this type of cross-examination in and of itself could create a hostile environment. The Obama administration even spoke favorably about the essay 2009 growing trend among schools to revolutionary abolish hearings altogether and allow a single official to serve as investigator, prosecutor, judge, and jury in sexual-assault cases. The Supreme Court has never held that campus disciplinary hearings must permit cross-examination. Wharton Essay. Nonetheless, the recent attack on the practice has left schools struggling to explain why they would not want to utilize what the Court has described as the “greatest legal engine ever invented for the discovery of truth.” In June 2016, the University of Cincinnati found a student guilty of free on who christ is his mission to the world, sexual assault after a hearing at which neither his accuser nor the university’s Title IX investigator appeared.
In an unintentionally comical line, the essay hearing chair noted the absent witnesses before asking the revolutionary war essay accused student if he had “any questions of the Title IX report.” The student, befuddled, replied, “Well, since she’s not here, I can’t really ask anything of the report.” (The panel chair did not indicate how the “report” could have answered any questions.) Cincinnati found the student guilty anyway. 1. Limitations on full cross-examination also played a role in judicial setbacks for Middlebury, George Mason, James Madison, Ohio State, Occidental, Penn State, Brandeis, Amherst, Notre Dame, and Skidmore. Finally, since 2011, more than 300 students have filed Title IX complaints with the Office for Civil Rights, alleging mishandling of their sexual-assault allegation by their college. Essay. OCR’s leadership seemed to welcome the complaints, which allowed Obama officials not only to on who is jesus and what mission to the world inspect the 2009 individual case but all sexual-assault claims at the school in question over a three-year period. Northwestern University professor Laura Kipnis has estimated that during the Obama years, colleges spent between $60 million and $100 million on these investigations.
If OCR finds a Title IX violation, that might lead to a loss of federal funding. This has led Harvard Law professors Jeannie Suk Gersen, Janet Halley, Elizabeth Bartholet, and Nancy Gertner to observe in a white paper submitted to OCR that universities have “strong incentives to for a thesis essay ensure the school stays in OCR’s good graces.” One of the earliest lawsuits after the Obama administration’s policy shift, involving former Xavier University basketball player Dez Wells, demonstrated how an OCR investigation can affect the essay fairness of revolutionary, a university inquiry. The accuser’s complaint had been referred both to Xavier’s Title IX office and wharton 2009, the Cincinnati police. Good. The police concluded that the allegation was meritless; Hamilton County Prosecuting Attorney Joseph Deters later said he considered charging the accuser with filing a false police report. Deters asked Xavier to delay its proceedings until his office completed its investigation. School officials refused. Instead, three weeks after the essay initial allegation, the university expelled Wells. He sued and speculated that Xavier’s haste came not from a quest for justice but instead from a desire to avoid difficulties in finalizing an agreement with OCR to resolve an unrelated complaint filed by for a thesis, two female Xavier students. Essay 2009. (In recent years, OCR has entered into dozens of similar resolution agreements, which bind universities to policy changes in exchange for removing the essay good threat of losing federal funds.) In a July 2014 ruling, Judge Arthur Spiegel observed that Xavier’s disciplinary tribunal, however “well-equipped to adjudicate questions of cheating, may have been in essay over its head with relation to an alleged false accusation of sexual assault.” Soon thereafter, the two sides settled; Wells transferred to good the University of Maryland.
Ohio State, Occidental, Cornell, Middlebury, Appalachian State, USC, and Columbia have all found themselves on the losing side of court decisions arising from cases that originated during a time in which OCR was investigating or threatening to investigate the school. (In the Ohio State case, one university staffer testified that she didn’t know whether she had an obligation to wharton correct a false statement by an accuser to a disciplinary panel.) Pressure from OCR can be indirect, as well. The Obama administration interpreted federal law as requiring all universities to have at least one Title IX coordinator; larger universities now employ dozens of Title IX personnel who, as the Harvard Law professors explained, “have reason to fear for their jobs if they hold a student not responsible or if they assign a rehabilitative or restorative rather than a harshly punitive sanction.” A mid the wave of judicial setbacks for universities, two decisions in particular stand out. Thesis Essay. Easily the most powerful opinion in a campus due-process case came in March 2016 from Judge F. Dennis Saylor. While the stereotypical campus sexual-assault allegation results from an alcohol-filled, one-night encounter between a male and a female student, a case at Brandeis University involved a long-term monogamous relationship between two male students. A bad breakup led to essay the accusing student’s filing the following complaint, against which his former boyfriend was expected to provide a defense: “Starting in the month of study in, September, 2011, the Alleged violator of Policy had numerous inappropriate, nonconsensual sexual interactions with me. These interactions continued to occur until around May 2013.” To adjudicate, Brandeis hired a former OCR staffer, who interviewed the two students and a few of their friends. Since the university did not hold a hearing, the investigator decided guilt or innocence on her own. She treated each incident as if the two men were strangers to each other, which allowed her to determine that sexual “violence” had occurred in the relationship. The accused student, she found, sometimes looked at his boyfriend in wharton the nude without permission and sometimes awakened his boyfriend with kisses when the boyfriend wanted to stay asleep.
The university’s procedures prevented the student from joad essay, seeing the investigator’s report, with its absurdly broad definition of sexual misconduct, in preparing his appeal. Essay 2009. “In the context of American legal culture,” Boston Globe columnist Dante Ramos later argued, denying this type of information “is crazy.” “Standard rules of harvard sign, evidence and wharton essay, other protections for the accused keep things like false accusations or mistakes by authorities from hurting innocent people.” When the university appeal was denied, the student sued. At an October 2015 hearing to essay consider the university’s motion to dismiss, Saylor seemed flabbergasted at the unfairness of the school’s approach. “I don’t understand,” he observed, “how a university, much less one named after Louis Brandeis, could possibly think that that was a fair procedure to not allow the accused to 2009 see the accusation.” Brandeis’s lawyer cited pressure to conform to OCR guidance, but the judge deemed the university’s procedures “closer to Salem 1692 than Boston, 2015.” The following March, Saylor issued an 89-page opinion that has been cited in virtually every lawsuit subsequently filed by an accused student. Free On Who Christ Mission World. “Whether someone is a ‘victim’ is a conclusion to be reached at the end of a fair process, not an assumption to be made at the beginning,” Saylor wrote. “If a college student is to be marked for life as a sexual predator, it is wharton 2009 reasonable to require that he be provided a fair opportunity to defend himself and harvard case study, an impartial arbiter to make that decision.” Saylor concluded that Brandeis forced the accused student “to defend himself in what was essentially an inquisitorial proceeding that plausibly failed to provide him with a fair and wharton essay, reasonable opportunity to be informed of the charges and to present an adequate defense.” The student, vindicated by the ruling’s sweeping nature, then withdrew his lawsuit. He currently is pursuing a Title IX complaint against is my essay, Brandeis with OCR. Four months later, a three-judge panel of the Second Circuit Court of wharton 2009, Appeals produced an opinion that lacked Saylor’s rhetorical flourish or his understanding of the basic unfairness of the campus Title IX process. But by creating a more relaxed standard for accused students to make federal Title IX claims, the Second Circuit’s decision in Doe v. Columbia carried considerable weight.
Two Columbia students who had been drinking had a brief sexual encounter at a party. More than four months later, the accuser claimed she was too intoxicated to have consented. Her allegation came in an atmosphere of campus outrage about the case sign in university’s allegedly insufficient toughness on sexual assault. In this setting, the wharton essay accused student found Columbia’s Title IX investigator uninterested in hearing his side of the story. He cited witnesses who would corroborate his belief that the accuser wasn’t intoxicated; the investigator declined to speak with them. The student was found guilty, although for reasons differing from the initial claim; the Columbia panel ruled that he had “directed unreasonable pressure for sexual activity toward the [accuser] over harvard case a period of weeks,” leaving her unable to consent on the night in question. 2009. He received a three-semester suspension for this nebulous offense—which even his accuser deemed too harsh. Virginia Tech Thesis. He sued, and the case was assigned to Judge Jesse Furman. Furman’s opinion provided a ringing victory for Columbia and the Obama-backed policies it used.
As Title IX litigator Patricia Hamill later observed, Furman’s “almost impossible standard” required accused students to have inside information about the institution’s handling of essay 2009, other sexual-assault claims—information they could plausibly obtain only through the is my essay good legal process known as discovery, which happens at a later stage of litigation—in order to survive a university’s initial motion to dismiss. Furman suggested that, to prevail, an accused student would need to show that his school treated a female student accused of sexual assault more favorably, or at least provide details about how cases against other accused students showed a pattern of bias. But federal privacy law keeps campus disciplinary hearings private, leaving most accused students with little opportunity to uncover the information before their case is wharton essay 2009 dismissed. At the same time, the opinion excused virtually any degree of war essay, unfairness by the institution. Essay. Furman reasoned that taking “allegations of rape on campus seriously and . . . For A Essay. treat[ing] complainants with a high degree of wharton essay, sensitivity” could constitute “lawful” reasons for university unfairness toward accused students. Samantha Harris of the Foundation for tech school thesis Individual Rights in Education detected the decision’s “immediate and nationwide impact” in several rulings against accused students.
It also played the same role in university briefs that Saylor’s Brandeis opinion did in filings by accused students. The Columbia student’s lawyer, Andrew Miltenberg, appealed Furman’s ruling to wharton 2009 the Second Circuit. Revolutionary War Essay. The stakes were high, since a ruling affirming the lower court’s reasoning would have all but foreclosed Title IX lawsuits by wharton, accused students in New York, Connecticut, and Vermont. But a panel of three judges, all nominated by joad essay, Democratic presidents, overturned Furman’s decision. In the essay 2009 opinion’s crucial passage, Judge Pierre Leval held that a university “is not excused from liability for discrimination because the discriminatory motivation does not result from is my essay, a discriminatory heart, but rather from a desire to 2009 avoid practical disadvantages that might result from unbiased action. A covered university that adopts, even temporarily, a policy of bias favoring one sex over the other in a disciplinary dispute, doing so in order to avoid liability or bad publicity, has practiced sex discrimination, notwithstanding that the motive for the discrimination did not come from ingrained or permanent bias against that particular sex.” Before the Columbia decision, courts almost always had rebuffed Title IX pleadings from accused students. More recently, judges have allowed Title IX claims to proceed against Amherst, Cornell, California–Santa Barbara, Drake, and Rollins. After the Second Circuit’s decision, Columbia settled with the accused student, sparing its Title IX decision-makers from having to testify at a trial.
James Madison was one of the few universities to take a different course, with disastrous results. A lawsuit from an accused student survived a motion to war essay dismiss, but the university refused to settle, allowing the student’s lawyer to depose the essay 2009 three school employees who had decided his client’s fate. One unintentionally revealed that he had misapplied the university’s own definition of consent. Free Essay Is Jesus And What Mission World. Another cited the importance of the accuser’s slurring words on a voicemail, thus proving her extreme intoxication on the night of the alleged assault. It was left to the accused student’s lawyer, at a deposition months after the decision had been made, to wharton essay 2009 note that the voicemail in question actually was received on a different night. In December 2016, Judge Elizabeth Dillon, an Obama nominee, granted summary judgment to the accused student, concluding that “significant anomalies in on who is jesus is his to the the appeal process” violated his due-process rights under the Constitution. niversities were on the losing side of 36 due-process rulings when Obama appointee Catherine Lhamon was presiding over the Office for Civil Rights between 2013 and essay 2009, 2016; no record exists of her publicly acknowledging any of them.
In June 2017, however, Lhamon suddenly rejoiced that “yet another federal court” had found that students disciplined for sexual misconduct “were not denied due process.” That Fifth Circuit decision, involving two former students at the University of Houston, was an odd case for her to is my good celebrate. 2009. The majority cabined its findings to the “unique facts” of the case—that the joad essay accused students likely would have been found guilty even under the fairest possible process. And the dissent, from Judge Edith Jones, denounced the procedures championed by Lhamon and essay, other Obama officials as “heavily weighted in favor of finding guilt,” predicting “worse to come if appellate courts do not step in to protect students’ procedural due process right where allegations of quasi-criminal sexual misconduct arise.” At this stage, Lhamon, who now chairs the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, cannot be taken seriously when it comes to essay on who christ and what mission world questions of campus due process. But other defenders of the current Title IX regime have offered more substantive commentary about the university setbacks. Legal scholar Michelle Anderson was one of the 2009 few to even discuss the due-process decisions. “Colleges and essay good, universities do not always adjudicate allegations of sexual assault well,” she noted in a 2016 law review article defending the essay Obama-era policies. Anderson even conceded that some colleges had denied “accused students fairness in disciplinary adjudication.” But these students sued, “and campuses are responding—as they must—when accused students prevail. So campuses face powerful legal incentives on both sides to address campus sexual assault, and to do so fairly and impartially.” This may be true, but Anderson does not explain why wrongly accused students should bear the financial and emotional burden of inducing their colleges to implement fair procedures. More important, scant evidence exists that colleges have responded to is my the court victories of wrongly accused students by creating fairer procedures.
Some have even made it more difficult for wrongly accused students to sue. After losing a lawsuit in December 2014, Brown eliminated the right of students accused of sexual assault to have “every opportunity” to present evidence. Wharton Essay 2009. That same year, an accused student showed how Swarthmore had deviated from its own procedures in his case. The college quickly settled the lawsuit—and then added a clause to its procedures immunizing it from similar claims in the future. Swarthmore currently informs accused students that “rules of evidence ordinarily found in legal proceedings shall not be applied, nor shall any deviations from thesis essay, any of these prescribed procedures alone invalidate a decision.” Many lawsuits are still working their way through the judicial system; three cases are pending at federal appellate courts. Of the two that address substantive matters, oral arguments seemed to reveal skepticism of the university’s position.
On July 26, a three-judge panel of the First Circuit considered a case at Boston College, where the accused student plausibly argued that someone else had committed the wharton essay sexual assault (which occurred on a poorly lit dance floor). Judges Bruce Selya and William Kayatta seemed troubled that a Boston College dean had improperly intruded on joad essay the hearing board’s deliberations. At the Sixth Circuit a few days later, Judges Richard Griffin and essay, Amul Thapar both expressed concerns about the University of Cincinnati’s downplaying the tech importance of cross-examination in campus-sex adjudications. Judge Eric Clay was quieter, but he wondered about the tension between the university’s Title IX and essay 2009, truth-seeking obligations. In a perfect world, academic leaders themselves would have created fairer processes without judicial intervention.
But in the current campus environment, such an approach is impossible. So, at is my least for the short term, the courts remain the best, albeit imperfect, option for students wrongly accused of wharton essay 2009, sexual assault. Meanwhile, every year, young men entrust themselves and their family’s money to tech graduate institutions of higher learning that are indifferent to their rights and unconcerned with the injustices to which these students might be subjected. 1 After a district court placed that finding on wharton essay hold, the joad essay university appealed to the Sixth Circuit. Review of 'Terror in France' By Gilles Kepel. James Kirchick 2017-09-13. Kepel is particularly knowledgeable about the history and process of radicalization that takes place in his nation’s heavily Muslim banlieues (the depressed housing projects ringing Paris and other major cities), and Terror in France is informed by wharton, decades of fieldwork in these volatile locales. What we have been witnessing for more than a decade, Kepel argues, is the joad essay “third wave” of wharton essay 2009, global jihadism, which is not so much a top-down doctrinally inspired campaign (as were the 9/11 attacks, directed from revolutionary, afar by the oracular figure of essay, Osama bin Laden) but a bottom-up insurgency with an “enclave-based ethnic-racial logic of violence” to it. Kepel traces the phenomenon back to 2005, a convulsive year that saw the second-generation descendants of France’s postcolonial Muslim immigrants confront a changing socio-political landscape.
That was the school year of the greatest riots in modern French history, involving mostly young Muslim men. It was also the year that Abu Musab al-Suri, the Syrian-born Islamist then serving as al-Qaeda’s operations chief in Europe, published The Global Islamic Resistance Call . This 1,600-page manifesto combined pious imprecations against the West with do-it-yourself ingenuity, an Anarchist’s Cookbook for the Islamist set. In Kepel’s words, the manifesto preached a “jihadism of proximity,” the brand of civil war later adopted by the Islamic State. Essay. It called for revolutionary ceaseless, mass-casualty attacks in wharton 2009 Western cities—attacks which increase suspicion and regulation of Muslims and, in turn, drive those Muslims into the arms of violent extremists. The third-generation jihad has been assisted by free on who christ mission to the, two phenomena: social-networking sites that easily and widely disseminate Islamist propaganda (thus increasing the rate of self-radicalization) and the so-called Arab Spring, which led to state collapse in Syria and 2009, Libya, providing “an exceptional site for military training and and what is his world, propaganda only a few hours’ flight from Europe, and at a very low cost.” Kepel’s book is not just a study of the wharton ideology and joad essay, tactics of wharton 2009, Islamists but a sociopolitical overview of how this disturbing phenomenon fits within a country on the brink. For example, Kepel finds that jihadism is emerging in conjunction with developments such as the “end of industrial society.” A downturn in outline thesis work has led to an ominous situation in wharton essay which a “right-wing ethnic nationalism” preying on the economically anxious has risen alongside Islamism as “parallel conduits for expressing grievances.” Filling a space left by essay, the French Communist Party (which once brought the wharton essay 2009 ethnic French working class and Arab immigrants together), these two extremes leer at each other from opposite harvard study in sides of wharton 2009, a societal chasm, signaling the war essay potentially cataclysmic future that awaits France if both mass unemployment and Islamist terror continue undiminished. The French economy has also had a more direct inciting effect on jihadism.
Overregulated labor markets make it difficult for young Muslims to get jobs, thus exacerbating the conditions of social deprivation and exclusion that make individuals susceptible to radicalization. The inability to tackle chronic unemployment has led to widespread Muslim disillusionment with the left (a disillusionment aggravated by another, often glossed over, factor: widespread Muslim opposition to the Socialist Party’s championing of same-sex marriage). Essentially, one left-wing constituency (unions) has made the unemployment of another constituency (Muslim youth) the mechanism for maintaining its privileges. Kepel does not, however, cite deprivation as the sole or even main contributing factor to essay 2009 Islamist radicalization. Essay On Who Is Jesus Christ And What Mission To The World. One Parisian banlieue that has sent more than 80 residents to fight in 2009 Syria, he notes, has “attractive new apartment buildings” built by the state and features a mosque “constructed with the backing of the Socialist mayor.” It is also the birthplace of well-known French movie stars of Arab descent, and thus hardly a place where ambition goes to essay die. “The Islamophobia mantra and the victim mentality it reinforces makes it possible to rationalize a total rejection of France and a commitment to jihad by making a connection between unemployment, discrimination, and French republican values,” Kepel writes. Indeed, Kepel is wharton 2009 refreshingly derisive of the term “Islamophobia” throughout the book, excoriating Islamists and their fellow travelers for “substituting it for anti-Semitism as the West’s cardinal sin.” These are meaningful words coming from Kepel, a deeply learned scholar of Islam who harbors great respect for the faith and its adherents. Kepel also weaves the saga of jihadism into essay good, the ongoing “ kulturkampf within the French left.” Arguments about Islamist terrorism demonstrate a “divorce between a secular progressive tradition” and the children of the Muslim immigrants this tradition fought to defend.
The most ironically perverse manifestation of this divorce was ISIS’s kidnapping of wharton essay 2009, Didier Francois, co-founder of the civil-rights organization SOS Racisme . Kepel recognizes the essay origins of this divorce in the “red-green” alliance formed decades ago between Islamists and elements of the French intellectual left, such as Michel Foucault, a cheerleader of the Iranian revolution. Though he offers a rigorous history and analysis of the jihadist problem, Kepel is wharton 2009 generally at revolutionary war essay a loss for solutions. He decries a complacent French elite, with its disregard for genuine expertise (evidenced by the decline in institutional academic support for wharton essay Islamicists and Arabists) and the narrow, relatively impenetrable way in which it perpetuates itself, chiefly with a single school (the Ecole normale superieure) that practically every French politician must attend. Despite France’s admirable republican values, this has made the process of assimilation rather difficult. But other than wishing that the public education system become more effective and inclusive at instilling republican values, Kepel provides little in outline essay the way of suggestions as to how France emerges from this mess. That a scholar of such erudition and humanity can do little but throw up his hands and issue a sigh of despair cannot bode well. Wharton. The third-generation jihad owes as much to the political breakdown in free christ mission world France as it does to the meltdown in the Middle East. Defeating this two-headed beast requires a new and comprehensive playbook: the 2009 West’s answer to The Global Islamic Resistance Call. That book has yet to be written.
Matthew Continetti 2017-09-13. resident Trump, in case you haven’t noticed, has a tendency to exaggerate. Nothing is “just right” or “meh” for study sign in him. Wharton. Buildings, crowds, election results, and military campaigns are always outsized, gargantuan, larger, and revolutionary war essay, more significant than you might otherwise assume. “People want to believe that something is the biggest and the greatest and the most spectacular,” he wrote 30 years ago in The Art of the wharton essay 2009 Deal . Case Sign. “I call it truthful hyperbole. It’s an innocent form of 2009, exaggeration—and a very effective form of promotion.” So effective, in revolutionary fact, that the press has picked up the habit.
Reporters and editors agree with the president that nothing he does is ordinary. After covering Trump for more than two years, they still can’t accept him as a run-of-the-mill politician. And while there are aspects of Donald Trump and his presidency that are, to say the least, unusual, the media seem unable to distinguish between the abnormal and significant—firing the FBI director in the midst of an investigation into one’s presidential campaign, for example—and the commonplace. Consider the fiscal deal President Trump struck with Democratic leaders in wharton essay early September. On September 6, the president held an Oval Office meeting with Vice President Pence, Treasury Secretary Mnuchin, and congressional leaders of harvard sign, both parties. He had to find a way to (a) raise the debt ceiling, (b) fund the 2009 federal government, and (c) spend money on hurricane relief. The problem is that a bloc of House Republicans won’t vote for harvard case study in (a) unless the increase is accompanied by significant budget cuts, which interferes with (b) and 2009, (c). To raise the debt ceiling, then, requires Democratic votes. And the debt ceiling must be raised. “There is zero chance—no chance—we will not raise the harvard case study in debt ceiling,” Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said in August. The meeting went like this. First House Speaker Paul Ryan asked for 2009 an 18-month increase in the debt ceiling so Republicans wouldn’t have to vote again on the matter until after the midterm elections.
Democrats refused. The bargaining continued until Ryan asked for a six-month increase. The Democrats remained stubborn. Essay Is Jesus Is His To The. So Trump, always willing to kick a can down the road, interrupted Mnuchin to offer a three-month increase, a continuing resolution that will keep the government open through December, and about $8 billion in hurricane money. 2009. The Democrats said yes. That, anyway, is what happened. But the media are not satisfied to for a essay report what happened.
They want—they need —to tell you what it means. Wharton Essay 2009. And what does it mean? Well, they aren’t really sure. But it’s something big. It’s something spectacular. For example:
1. “Trump Bypasses Republicans to Strike Deal on Debt Limit and Harvey Aid” was the graduate school thesis headline of a story for wharton essay the New York Times by Peter Baker, Thomas Kaplan, and Michael D. Joad Essay. Shear. “The deal to keep the government open and essay, paying its debts until Dec. 15 represented an christ mission, extraordinary public turn for the president, who has for much of his term set himself up on the right flank of the Republican Party,” their article began. Fair enough. Wharton Essay. But look at how they import speculation and opinion into the following sentence: “But it remained unclear whether Mr. Trump’s collaboration with Democrats foreshadowed a more sustained shift in strategy by joad essay, a president who has presented himself as a master dealmaker or amounted to just a one-time instinctual reaction of wharton essay, a mercurial leader momentarily eager to poke his estranged allies.” 2. Case Sign. “The decision was one of the most fascinating and mysterious moves he’s made with Congress during eight months in wharton 2009 office,” reported Jeff Zeleny, Dana Bash, Deirdre Walsh, and joad essay, Jeremy Diamond for CNN. Thanks for sharing! 3. 2009. “Trump budget deal gives GOP full-blown Stockholm Syndrome,” read the headline of for a thesis, Tina Nguyen’s piece for Vanity Fair . “Donald Trump’s unexpected capitulation to 2009 new best buds ‘Chuck and Nancy’ has thrown the Grand Old Party into on who is jesus world, a frenzy as Republicans search for explanations—and scapegoats.” 4. “For Conservatives, Trump’s Deal with Democrats Is Nightmare Come True,” read the headline for a New York Times article by wharton essay, Jeremy W. Peters and Maggie Haberman. “It is the essay and what is his world scenario that President Trump’s most conservative followers considered their worst nightmare, and on Wednesday it seemed to come true: The deal-making political novice, whose ideology and loyalty were always fungible, cut a deal with Democrats.” 5. “Trump sides with Democrats on fiscal issues, throwing Republican plans into chaos,” read the Washington Post headline the day after the deal was announced. “The president’s surprise stance upended sensitive negotiations over essay 2009 the debt ceiling and other crucial policy issues this fall and further imperiled his already tenuous relationships with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and free essay on who, House Speaker Paul Ryan.” Yes, the negotiations were upended. Then they made a deal.
6. “Although elected as a Republican last year,” wrote Peter Baker of the Times , “Mr. Trump has shown in essay 2009 the nearly eight months in office that he is, in many ways, the first independent to war essay hold the 2009 presidency since the advent of the two-party system around the case study sign time of the Civil War.” The title of Baker’s news analysis: “Bound to wharton 2009 No Party, Trump Upends 150 Years of Two-Party Rule.” One hundred and fifty years? Why not 200? The journalistic rule of essay is jesus is his to the, thumb used to be that an article describing a political, social, or cultural trend requires at least three examples. Not while covering Trump. If Trump does something, anything, you should feel free to inflate its importance beyond all recognition. Essay 2009. And stuff your “reporting” with all sorts of dramatic adjectives and frightening nouns: fascinating , mysterious , unexpected , extraordinary , nightmare , chaos , frenzy , and scapegoats . It’s like a Vince Flynn thriller come to life. The case for the significance of the budget deal would be stronger if there were a consensus about war essay whom it helped. There isn’t one. At first the press assumed Democrats had won. Wharton Essay 2009. “Republicans left the Oval Office Wednesday stunned,” reported Rachael Bade, Burgess Everett, and Josh Dawsey of Politico . Another trio of Politico reporters wrote, “In the aftermath, Republicans seethed privately and distanced themselves publicly from the deal.” Republicans were “stunned,” reported Kristina Peterson, Siobhan Hughes, and Louise Radnofsky of the Wall Street Journal . “Meet the swamp: Donald Trump punts September agenda to December after meeting with Congress,” read the headline of outline for a, Charlie Spiering’s Breitbart story. By the following week, though, these very outlets had decided the GOP was looking pretty good. “Trump’s deal with Democrats bolsters Ryan—for now,” read the Politico headline on September 11. “McConnell: No New Debt Ceiling Vote until ‘Well into 2018,’” reported the Washington Post . “At this point…picking a fight with Republican leaders will only help him,” wrote Gerald Seib in the Wall Street Journal . “Trump has long warned that he would work with Democrats, if necessary, to fulfill his campaign promises.
And Wednesday’s deal is a sign that he intends to follow through on that threat,” wrote Breitbart’s Joel Pollak. The sensationalism, the conflicting interpretations, the visceral language is wharton dizzying. Virginia Tech School. We have so many reporters chasing the same story that each feels compelled to gussy up a quotidian budget negotiation until it resembles the Ribbentrop–Molotov pact, and none feel it necessary to apply to essay their own reporting the scrutiny and incredulity they apply to Trump. Joad Essay. The truth is that no one knows what this agreement portends. Nor is it the essay 2009 job of a reporter to divine the meaning of current events like an revolutionary war essay, augur of wharton 2009, Rome. Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar. And a deal is essay just a deal. Remembering something wonderful.
Terry Teachout 2017-09-13. Not surprisingly, many well-established performers were left in the lurch by the rise of the new media. Moreover, some vaudevillians who, like Fred Allen, had successfully reinvented themselves for 2009 radio were unable to make the transition to revolutionary TV. But a handful of exceptionally talented performers managed to wharton move from vaudeville to radio to harvard study TV, and wharton 2009, none did it with more success than Jack Benny, whose feigned stinginess, scratchy violin playing, slightly effeminate demeanor, and preternaturally exact comic timing made him one of the world’s most beloved performers. After establishing himself in vaudeville, he became the star of a comedy series, The Jack Benny Program , that aired continuously, first on radio and then TV, from 1932 until 1965. Save for Bob Hope, no other comedian of his time was so popular. With the demise of nighttime network radio as an revolutionary, entertainment medium, the 931 weekly episodes of The Jack Benny Program became the province of comedy obsessives—and because Benny’s TV series was filmed in wharton essay black-and-white, it is no longer shown in syndication with any regularity.
And while he also made Hollywood films, some of which were box-office hits, only one, Ernst Lubitsch’s To Be or Not to Be (1942), is is my good today seen on TV other than sporadically. Nevertheless, connoisseurs of comedy still regard Benny, who died in 1974, as a giant, and essay, numerous books, memoirs, and articles have been published about his life and art. Most recently, Kathryn H. Fuller-Seeley, a professor at the University of sign, Texas at Austin, has brought out Jack Benny and the Golden Age of Radio Comedy , the first book-length primary-source academic study of The Jack Benny Program and its star. 1 Fuller-Seeley’s genuine appreciation for Benny’s work redeems her anachronistic insistence on viewing it through the essay fashionable prism of gender- and race-based theory, and her book, though sober-sided to the point of occasional starchiness, is often quite illuminating. Most important of all, off-the-air recordings of 749 episodes of the radio version of The Jack Benny Program survive in whole or part and can easily be downloaded from the Web. As a result, it is possible for people not yet born when Benny was alive to hear for themselves why he is still remembered with admiration and affection—and why one specific aspect of his performing persona continues to revolutionary fascinate close observers of the American scene. B orn Benjamin Kubelsky in Chicago in 2009 1894, Benny was the son of Eastern European emigres (his father was from Poland, his mother from Lithuania). He started studying violin at six and had enough talent to pursue a career in music, but his interests lay elsewhere, and by outline for a essay, the time he was a teenager, he was working in vaudeville as a comedian who played the 2009 violin as part of his act.
Over time he developed into a “monologist,” the period term for what we now call a stand-up comedian, and he began appearing in films in 1929 and on virginia thesis network radio three years after that. Radio comedy, like silent film, is now an obsolete art form, but the program formats that it fostered in wharton essay 2009 the ’20s and ’30s all survived into the era of TV, and some of them flourish to this day. One, episodic situation comedy, was developed in harvard case in large part by Jack Benny and his collaborators. Benny and Harry Conn, his first full-time writer, turned his weekly series, which started out 2009 as a variety show, into a weekly half-hour playlet featuring a regular cast of study sign in, characters augmented by guest stars. Such playlets, relying as they did on wharton a setting that was repeated from week to week, were easier to write than the free-standing sketches favored by Allen, Hope, and other ex-vaudevillians, and by the late ’30s, the sitcom had become a staple of radio comedy. The process, as documented by Fuller-Seeley, was a gradual one. Is My. The Jack Benny Program never broke entirely with the variety format, continuing to feature both guest stars (some of whom, like Ronald Colman, ultimately became semi-regular members of the show’s rotating ensemble of players) and songs sung by Dennis Day, a tenor who joined the 2009 cast in 1939.
Nor was it the good first radio situation comedy: Amos Andy , launched in 1928, was a soap-opera-style daily serial that also featured regular characters. Nevertheless, it was Benny who perfected the form, and wharton 2009, his own character would become the prototype for countless later sitcom stars. The show’s pivotal innovation was to harvard study sign in turn Benny and the other cast members into fictionalized versions of themselves—they were the stars of a radio show called “The Jack Benny Program.” Sadye Marks, Benny’s wife, played Mary Livingstone, his sharp-tongued secretary, with three other characters added as the wharton 2009 self-reflexive concept took shape. Don Wilson, the stout, genial announcer, came on board in 1934. He was followed in 1936 by Phil Harris, Benny’s roguish bandleader, and, in 1939, by outline for a essay, Day, Harris’s simple-minded vocalist. To this team was added a completely fictional character, Rochester Van Jones, Benny’s raspy-voiced, outrageously impertinent black valet, played by Eddie Anderson, who joined the cast in 1938. As these five talented performers coalesced into wharton essay, a tight-knit ensemble, the jokey, vaudeville-style sketch comedy of the joad essay early episodes metamorphosed into sitcom-style scripts that portrayed their offstage lives, as well as the making of the show itself. Scarcely any conventional jokes were told, nor did Benny’s writers employ the topical and political references in essay which Allen and Hope specialized.
Instead, the harvard study sign in show’s humor arose almost entirely from the close interplay of character and situation. Benny was not solely responsible for the creation of this format, which was forged by Conn and perfected by 2009, his successors. Instead, he doubled as the star and producer—or, to thesis essay use the modern term, show runner—closely supervising the writing of the wharton scripts and essay good, directing the performances of the other cast members. 2009. In addition, he and Conn turned the character of Jack Benny from a sophisticated vaudeville monologist into the hapless butt of the show’s humor, a vain, sexually inept skinflint whose character flaws were ceaselessly twitted by his colleagues, who in revolutionary turn were given most of the essay 2009 biggest laugh lines. This latter innovation was a direct reflection of Benny’s real-life personality. Legendary for his voluble appreciation of other comedians, he was content to respond to the wisecracking of his fellow cast members with exquisitely well-timed interjections like “Well!” and “Now, cut that out,” knowing that the comic spotlight would remain focused on virginia tech the man of whom they were making fun and secure in wharton essay 2009 the knowledge that his own comic personality was strong enough to let them shine without eclipsing him in the process. And with each passing season, the is my essay good fictional personalities of Benny and his colleagues became ever more firmly implanted in the minds of their listeners, thus allowing the writers to get laughs merely by alluding to 2009 their now-familiar traits. War Essay. At the same time, Benny and wharton essay 2009, his writers never stooped to coasting on their familiarity. Even the funniest of the “cheap jokes” that were their stock-in-trade were invariably embedded in carefully honed dramatic situations that heightened their effectiveness. A celebrated case in point is the best-remembered laugh line in the history of The Jack Benny Program , heard in a 1948 episode in which a burglar holds Benny up on the street. “Your money or your life,” the burglar says—to which Jack replies, after a very long pause, “I’m thinking it over!” What makes this line so funny is, of course, our awareness of war essay, Benny’s stinginess, reinforced by a decade and a half of constant yet subtly varied repetition. Wharton. What is not so well remembered is that the line is heard toward the end of an episode that aired shortly after Ronald Colman won an Oscar for his performance in A Double Life . Joad Essay. Inspired by this real-life event, the writers concocted an elaborately plotted script in which Benny talks Colman (who played his next-door neighbor on the show) into letting him borrow the Oscar to show to essay 2009 Rochester.
It is on his way home from for a thesis essay, this errand that Benny is held up, and the burglar not only robs him of wharton, his money but also steals the joad essay statuette, a situation that was resolved to equally explosive comic effect in the course of two subsequent episodes. No mere joke-teller could have performed such dramatically complex scripts week after week with anything like Benny’s effectiveness. The secret of The Jack Benny Program was that its star, fully aware that he was not “being himself” but playing a part, did so with an actor’s skill. This was what led Ernst Lubitsch to 2009 cast him in To Be or Not to Be , in which he plays a mediocre Shakespearean tragedian, a character broadly related to but still quite different from the one who appeared on his own radio show. As Lubitsch explained to Benny, who was skeptical about his ability to harvard case study sign carry off the part: A clown—he is a performer what is doing funny things. A comedian—he is a performer what is saying funny things. But you, Jack, you are an actor, you are an actor playing the wharton part of is my essay good, a comedian and this you are doing very well. To Be or Not to wharton Be also stands out from the rest of Benny’s work because he plays an identifiably Jewish character.
The Jack Benny character that he played on radio and TV, by contrast, was never referred to or explicitly portrayed as Jewish. To be sure, most listeners were in no doubt of his Jewishness, and not merely because Benny made no attempt in real life to conceal his ethnicity, of which he was by all accounts proud. The Jack Benny Program was written by on who christ mission, Jews, and the ego-puncturing insults with which their scripts were packed, as well as the essay schlemiel-like aspect of Benny’s “fall guy” character, were quintessentially Jewish in style. As Benny explained in a 1948 interview cited by on who is jesus and what, Fuller-Seeley: The humor of my program is this: I’m a big shot, see?
I’m fast-talking. I’m a smart guy. I’m boasting about how marvelous I am. I’m a marvelous lover. I’m a marvelous fiddle player. Then, five minutes after I start shooting off my mouth, my cast makes a shmo out of me. Even so, his avoidance of specific Jewish identification on the air is noteworthy precisely because his character was a miser. At a time when overt anti-Semitism was still common in America, it is wharton 2009 remarkable that Benny’s comic persona was based in large part on an anti-Semitic stereotype—yet one that seems not to have inspired any anti-Semitic attacks on Benny himself. When, in 1945, his writers came up with the free christ is his mission idea of an “I Can’t Stand Jack Benny Because . . . Wharton. ” write-in campaign, they received 270,000 entries.
Only three made mention of his Jewishness. As for the winning entry, submitted by a California lawyer, it says much about what insulated Benny from such attacks: “He fills the air with boasts and brags / And obsolete, obnoxious gags / The way he plays his violin / Is music’s most obnoxious sin / His cowardice alone, indeed, / Is matched by his obnoxious greed / And all the things that he portrays / Show up MY OWN obnoxious ways.” It is clear that Benny’s foibles were seen by joad essay, his listeners not as particular but universal, just as there was no harshness in the razzing of his fellow cast members, who very clearly loved the Benny character in spite of his myriad flaws. So, too, did the essay 2009 American people. Several years after his TV series was cancelled, a corporation that was considering using him as a spokesman commissioned a national poll to find out how popular he was. Free Essay Christ And What To The. It learned that only 3 percent of the respondents disliked him. Therein lay Benny’s triumph: He won total acceptance from the American public and wharton 2009, did so by embodying a Jewish stereotype from for a thesis essay, which the essay sting of prejudice had been leached. Far from being a self-hating whipping boy for anti-Semites, he turned himself into WASP America’s Jewish uncle, preposterous yet lovable. W hen the bottom fell out of outline thesis, network radio, Benny negotiated the essay move to TV without a hitch, debuting on the small screen in sign in 1950 and bringing the radio version of The Jack Benny Program to a close five years later, making it one of the very last radio comedy series to shut up shop. Even after his weekly TV series was finally canceled by CBS in 1965, he continued to star in well-received one-shot specials on NBC.
But Benny’s TV appearances, for all their charm, were never quite equal in quality to his radio work, which is why he clung to the radio version of wharton 2009, The Jack Benny Program until network radio itself went under: Better than anyone else, he knew how good the is my essay good show had been. For the essay 2009 rest of essay, his life, he lived off the accumulated comic capital built up by 21 years of weekly radio broadcasts. Now, at long last, he belongs to wharton the ages, and The Jack Benny Program is a museum piece. Is My Essay. Yet it remains hugely influential, albeit at wharton 2009 one or more removes from the original. From The Dick Van Dyke Show and The Danny Thomas Show to Seinfeld , Everybody Loves Raymond , and The Larry Sanders Show , every ensemble-cast sitcom whose central character is a fictionalized version of its star is based on Benny’s example. Outline Thesis Essay. And now that the ubiquity of the Web has made the radio version of wharton essay, his series readily accessible for joad essay the first time, anyone willing to wharton essay 2009 make the modest effort necessary to seek it out is in free on who christ mission a position to essay 2009 discover that The Jack Benny Program , six decades after it left the air, is still as wonderfully, benignly funny as it ever was, a monument to the talent of the man who, more than anyone else, made it so.
Review of 'The Transferred Life of George Eliot' By Philip Davis. Thomas L. Jeffers 2017-09-13. The Transferred Life of George Eliot. Not that there’s any danger these theoretically protesting students would have read George Eliot’s works—not even the short one, Silas Marner (1861), which in an earlier day was assigned to high schoolers. I must admit I didn’t find my high-school reading of Silas Marner a pleasant experience—sports novels for boys like John R. Tunis’s The Kid from Tomkinsville were inadequate preparation. I must confess, too, that when I was in graduate school, determined to study 17th-century English verse, my reaction to the suggestion that I should also read Middlemarch (1871–72) was “ What?! An 800-page novel by the guy who wrote Silas Marner ?” A friend patiently explained that “the guy” was actually Mary Ann Evans, born in 1819, died in 1880. Partly because she was living in sin with the literary jack-of-all-trades George Henry Lewes (legally and irrevocably bound to his estranged wife), she adopted “George Eliot” as a protective pseudonym when, in her 1857 debut, she published Scenes from outline essay, Clerical Life . I did, many times over wharton essay 2009 and with awe and virginia school thesis, delight, go on to read Middlemarch and the seven other novels, often in order to teach them to college students. Students have become less and wharton essay 2009, less receptive over the years. Forget modern-day objections to George Eliot’s complex political or religious views. Adam Bede (1859) and The Mill on war essay the Floss (1860) were too hefty, and the triple-decked Middlemarch and Deronda , even if I set aside three weeks for them, rarely got finished.
The middle 20th century was perhaps a more a propitious time for appreciating George Eliot, Henry James, and other 19th-century English and American novelists. Influential teachers like F.R. Wharton. Leavis at good Cambridge and Lionel Trilling at Columbia were then working hard to wharton essay 2009 persuade students that the study of literature, not just poetry and drama but also fiction, matters both to their personal lives—the development of their sensibility or character—and to virginia tech graduate thesis their wider society. The “moral imagination” that created Middlemarch enriches our minds by dramatizing the complications—the frequent blurring of good and evil—in our lives. Great novels help us cope with ambiguities and make us more tolerant of one another. Many of Leavis’s and Trilling’s students became teachers themselves, and for several decades the essay 2009 feeling of joad essay, cultural urgency was sustained. In the 1970s, though, between the wharton leftist emphasis on literature as “politics by other means” and the deconstructionist denial of the possibility of any knowledge, literary or otherwise, independent of political power, the free essay on who christ is his mission to the high seriousness of wharton 2009, Leavis and Trilling began to fade. The study of George Eliot and for a essay, her life has gone through many stages. Directly after her death came the sanitized, hagiographic “life and letters” by J.W. Cross, the much younger man she married after Lewes’s death.
Gladstone called it “a Reticence in three volumes.” The three volumes helped spark, if they didn’t cause, the long reaction against the Victorian sages generally that culminated in the dismissively satirical work of the Bloomsbury biographer and essay, critic Lytton Strachey in his immensely influential Eminent Victorians (1916). Strachey’s mistreatment of war essay, his forbears was, with regard to George Eliot at essay 2009 least, tempered almost immediately by Virginia Woolf. Free On Who Is Jesus Christ And What Is His Mission World. It was Woolf who in 1919 provocatively said that Middlemarch had been “the first English novel for adults.” Eventually, the critical tide against essay, George Eliot was decisively reversed in the ’40s by Joan Bennett and Leavis, who made the inarguable case for her genuine and lasting achievement. That period of correction culminated in joad essay the 1960s with Gordon S. Essay 2009. Haight’s biography and with interpretive studies by Barbara Hardy and W.J. Harvey. Books on George Eliot over the last four decades have largely been written by specialists for specialists—on her manuscripts or working notes, and on her affiliations with the scientists, social historians, and competing novelists of her day. The same is true, only more so, of the books written, with George Eliot as the ostensible subject, to promote deconstructionist or feminist agendas.
Biographies have done a better job appealing to the common reader, not least because the woman’s own story is tech thesis inherently compelling. The question right now is whether a book combining biographical and interpretive insight—one “pitched,” as publishers like to say, not just at experts but at the common reader—is past praying for. Philip Davis, a Victorian scholar and an editor at Oxford University Press, hopes not. Essay. His The Transferred Life of George Eliot —transferred, that is, from her own experience into her letters, journals, essays, and novels, and essay good, beyond them into us—deserves serious attention. Davis is essay conscious that George Eliot called biographies of writers “a disease of English literature,” both overeager to discover scandals and too inclined to substitute day-to-day travels, relationships, dealings with publishers and so on, for revolutionary critical attention to the books those writers wrote.
Davis therefore devotes himself to George Eliot’s writing. Alas, he presumes rather too much knowledge on the reader’s part of the wharton essay day-to-day as charted in Haight’s marvelous life. (A year-by-year chronology at the front of the book would have helped even his fellow Victorianists.) As for George Eliot’s writing, Davis is determined to refute “what has been more or less said . Joad Essay. . . in the schools of theory for wharton the last 40 years—that 19th-century realism is conservatively bland and unimaginative, bourgeois and parochial, not truly art at all.” His argument for school thesis the richness, breadth, and art of George Eliot’s realism—her factual and essay 2009, sympathetic depiction of is my good, poor and wharton essay 2009, middling people, without omitting a candid representation of the rich—is most convincing. What looms largest, though, is the realist, the woman herself—the Mary Ann Evans who, from the letters to the novels, became first Marian Evans the translator and essayist and then later “her own greatest character”: George Eliot the novelist. Davis insists that “the meaning of case study sign in, that person”—not merely the essay 2009 voice of her omniscient narrators but the omnipresent imagination that created the whole show—“has not yet exhausted its influence nor the larger future life she should have had, and may still have, in the world.” The transference of George Eliot’s experience into outline thesis, her fiction is wharton essay unquestionable: In The Mill on the Floss , for example, Mary Ann is Maggie, and her brother Isaac is Tom Tulliver. Davis knows that a better word might be transmutation, as George Eliot had, in Henry James’s words, “a mind possessed,” for “the creations which brought her renown were of the incalculable kind, shaped themselves in mystery, in some intellectual back-shop or secret crucible, and were as little as possible implied in the aspect of her life.” No data-accumulating biographer, even the most exhaustive, can account for joad essay that “incalculable . . . mystery.” Which is why Davis, like a good teacher, gives us exercises in “close reading.” He pauses to consider how a George Eliot sentence balances or turns on an easy-to-skip-over word or phrase—the balance or turn often representing a moment when the wharton novelist looks at what’s on joad essay the underside of the wharton essay 2009 cards. George Eliot’s style is subtle because her theme is joad essay subtle. Take D.H. Lawrence’s favorite heroine, the adolescent Maggie Tulliver.
The external event in The Mill on the Floss may be the girl’s impulsive cutting off her unruly hair to spite her nagging aunts, or the wharton essay 2009 young woman’s drifting down the river with a superficially attractive but truly impossible boyfriend. But the real “action” is virginia school Maggie’s internal self-blame and self-assertion. Wharton Essay 2009. No Victorian novelist was better than George Eliot at tracing the psychological development of, say, a husband and wife who realize they married each other for free is jesus is his to the world shallow reasons, are unhappy, and now must deal with the wharton ordinary necessities of is my, balancing the essay 2009 domestic budget—Lydgate and Rosamund in Middlemarch —or, in the same novel, the religiously inclined Dorothea’s mistaken marriage to the old scholar Casaubon. That mistake precipitates not merely disenchantment and an unconscious longing for love with someone else, but (very finely) a quest for war essay a religious explanation of and guide through her quandary. It’s the religio-philosophical side of George Eliot about which Davis is strongest—and weakest. Her central theological idea, if one may simplify, was that the God of the Bible didn’t exist “out there” but was a projection of the wharton essay 2009 imagination of the people who wrote it. Jesus wasn’t, in Davis’s characterization of her view, “the impervious divine, but [a man who] shed tears and suffered,” and died feeling forsaken. “This deep acceptance of so-called weakness was what most moved Marian Evans in her Christian inheritance. It was what God was for.” That is, the character of Jesus, and the dramatic play between him and his Father, expressed the human emotions we and George Eliot are all too familiar with. Harvard Study Sign In. The story helps reconcile us to wharton essay what is, finally, inescapable suffering.
George Eliot came to this demythologized understanding not only of Judaism and joad essay, Christianity but of all religions through her contact first with a group of intellectuals who lived near Coventry, then with two Germans she translated: David Friedrich Strauss, whose 1,500-page Life of Jesus Critically Examined (1835–36) was for her a slog, and Ludwig Feuerbach, whose Essence of Christianity (1841) was for her a joy. Also, in the search for the universal morality that Strauss and Feuerbach believed Judaism and essay 2009, Christianity expressed mythically, there was Spinoza’s utterly non-mythical Ethics (1677). It was seminal for her—offering, as Davis says, “the intellectual origin for freethinking criticism of the Bible and for the replacement of religious superstition and dogmatic theology by pure philosophic reason.” She translated it into joad essay, English, though her version did not appear until 1981. I wish Davis had left it there, but he takes it too far. He devotes more than 40 pages—a tenth of the whole book—to her three translations, taking them as a mother lode of ideational gold whose tailings glitter throughout her fiction. These 40 pages are followed by 21 devoted to Herbert Spencer, the wharton essay Victorian hawker of theories-of-everything (his 10-volume System of Synthetic Philosophy addresses biology, psychology, sociology, and ethics).
She threw herself at the feet of this intellectual huckster, and though he rebuffed her painfully amorous entreaties, she never ceased revering him. Alas, Spencer was a stick—the kind of philosopher who was incapable of emotion. And she was his intellectual superior in every way. The chapter is largely unnecessary. The book comes back to life when Davis turns to George Henry Lewes, the man who gave Mary Ann Evans the confidence to virginia thesis become George Eliot—perhaps the 2009 greatest act of harvard case study, loving mentorship in all of literature. Like many prominent Victorians, Lewes dabbled in all the arts and sciences, publishing highly readable accounts of them for a general audience. His range was as wide as Spencer’s, but his personality and wharton, writing had an joad essay, irrepressible verve that Spencer could only 2009, have envied. Lewes was a sort Stephen Jay Gould yoked to Daniel Boorstin, popularizing other people’s findings and concepts, and coming up with a few of joad essay, his own. He regarded his Sea-Side Studies (1860) as “the book . . . which was to me the most unalloyed delight,” not least because Marian, whom he called Polly, had helped gather the data. She told a friend “There is so much happiness condensed in it! Such scrambles over rocks, and peeping into clear pool [sic], and strolls along the pure sands, and fresh air mingling with fresh thoughts.” In his remarkably intelligent 1864 biography of Goethe, Lewes remarks that the poet “knew little of the wharton 2009 companionship of two souls striving in emulous spirit of joad essay, loving rivalry to become better, to wharton essay 2009 become wiser, teaching each other to soar.” Such a companionship Lewes and George Eliot had in spades, and some of outline thesis essay, Davis’s best passages describe it.
Regrettably, Davis also offers many passages well below the standard of his best—needlessly repeating an essay 2009, already established point or obfuscating the obvious. Still, The Transferred Lives is the most formidably instructive, and in, certainly complete, life-and-works treatment of George Eliot we have. Win two free tickets to Commentary’s roast of Jonah Goldberg! Click Here.