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Belbin's theory and linking it to my group. Motherland! Extracts from this document. Belbin's team roles and linking it to my group. Belbin is well known for his team roles concept. The team roles identified by Belbin are based on certain patterns of behaviour that people exhibit within teams. These patterns of behaviour can potentially have an impact on the performance of the team. The basic premise of the Belbin team roles theory is quite simple.
When individuals become aware of their own strengths and mason eyre, abilities, and understand the an essay role that he or she is capable of playing within a team, it helps them to deal better with the coursework juliet demands of the team environment. Belbin's team roles are based on an essay on my motherland a study that examined personality traits, intellectual styles and behaviours within teams. The team roles evolved from the clusters or patterns of creative writing summer these that emerged during the study. An Essay On My Motherland! Initially defined as 8 roles, the Belbin model now sports 9 roles, the rochester new one being the 'Specialist'. Motherland! The 9 team roles are usually further classified into Action oriented, People oriented and Cerebral roles. Given below are the gender role essay outline 9 roles outlined in the Belbin team roles model and the descriptions that explain the an essay on my scope of each role. Fisrt of all I will be identifying Belbin's team roles and then later on eyre I will be applying Belbin's team roles to my own group. An Essay! . read more. but when it came to making them happen, the practical bit, not a lot of them were willing to do it which was a bit annoying. ? Teamworker - I would place subject 8 in this category, she has shown great listening skills in the group and essay, is also very easy going. In my opinion she was the best listener in an essay on my motherland our whole group as she listened to nearly every word which was discussed in the meeting.
She was easy going because we could all ask her if we had missed anything and she was more than happy to tell us. How far she was hardworking or practically good can not be said. However, she was defiantly a good listener and on auschwitz concentration, a very easy going member of our team. ? Resource Investigator - I believe that subject 3 was a bit like this because they were extrovert and could communicate well in an essay a team but they felt like giving up sometimes after seeing all the laziness and de-motivation coming from some of the other members of the team. Although at couple of times they tried to raise their point and be more extrovert but they were interrupted couple of times and coursework romeo, were told not to share ideas which was a bit annoying to on my, see and this de-motivated subject 3 a bit during this project. . read more. They were creative in a way but in my opinion every one can give ideas but how many people actually do what they say is what matters and counts which a lot of the members did not do in our group and left it either to me or others to do it.
However, one good thing about Belbin's theory is that he identifies several qualities and puts the member in each special role. For instance, I was a good Specialists and role essay outline, a good Completer/Finisher but not a very good team worker. This means that I am meeting all the deadlines on time and an essay motherland, can manage with practical tasks but I am not a very good listener and these roles help me see this clearly. This also helps me understand the rochester role that I am capable of playing within a team. It helps me deal better with the demands of the team environment. Another problem with our group was that, we all choose to work in a team and on my, we did not have choice either ,simply because we were studying the same course so there was nothing we could do. Some of the members were very unmotivated and we had to cope with them, we could not choose people with special skills to work in our team. Where as if it was in real business, we could actually choose people with special skills and essays concentration, qualities and an essay on my, who could promote their expertise in the team. . read more. This student written piece of creative camps work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level People Operations Management section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from an essay just £6.99 per austin, month. Related AS and A Level People Operations Management essays. Roles and Responsibilities of Staff Members at McDonalds. The applicant is also given a one hour trial out on the floor, this is so that the manager and assistant manager gets to see how well they interact with the customers but also with the other employees, this. On My! The main aim of this research is to evaluate the information on the human . increasing the physical, mental and emotional capabilities of individuals for productive work. Human resource development means to bring out the talent and the individual growth. Human resource development is essay outline, a process to help the on my individual to gain the knowledge, improve the essays camp skills and capabilities, to an essay motherland, performance well in the organization and increase the productivity. Teamwork.
There are several reasons why a business may organise their staff into essay teams. . * Communication needs to be Co-ordinated- Members of the team will all have different schedules, and especially in a large team, it can make it difficult to contact and arrange meetings which everyone can attend to. Also, quieter members in the team need the chance to speak, and without the. It is essential that all organiser's and people involved with the planning of an event communicate with each other on a regular basis. This is called internal communication. External communication must also take place.
This is when an organiser must communicate with people and organisations outside the planning team such as the an essay on my local community, the media and other businesses. Job Roles at Sainsburys Supermarkets. * Product management, including ordering, receiving, price changes, handling damaged products, and essays on auschwitz, returns. * Team Development, facilitating staff learning and development. * Problem solving, handling unusual circumstances. Another thing that a store manager is an essay on my motherland, responsible for at Sainsbury is to rochester mba essay, make sure that all the staff is working effectively and that the organization is an essay motherland, operating efficiently and safely. Unit 2: Recruitment in coursework juliet romeo the Workplace. It shows what skills are compulsory or essential and what skills are optional or desirable and on my motherland, can help candidates when it comes to shortlisting as they are more likely to be chosen than a different person who has fewer additional skills. Recruitment Agency- you can also advertise it through these agencies with a small charge.
They will advertise the job, maybe create the job description according to the company needs and asses the applicants to ensure they meet the minimum requirements. Coursework Romeo! Motivation within a workplace - examples from Asda. the an essay on my motherland supermarket a happy and an enjoyable place for the staff to bertha mason, work together in harmony To ensure complete customer satisfaction and on my motherland, minimise any complaints about their products or prices. To make shopping at romeo, ASDA a completely new, unique experience which provides customers and their children with a convenient, warm, welcoming, happy and safe shopping environment. of on my motherland student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and essays concentration camp, Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
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Peter Singer Essays and Research Papers. Peter Singer , an an essay on my, Australian philosopher and juliet professor at Princeton University asks his students the simple question of on my motherland, whether . Essays! they would save a drowning child from a pond, while wearing they’re bran new pair of expensive shoes. The response was aggressive and passive “How could anyone consider a pair of an essay motherland, shoes, or missing an hour or two at work, a good reason for not saving a child’s life?” ? Singer continued to argue that “ according to UNICEF, nearly 10 million children under five years old die. Developed country , Ethics , Good and evil 1227 Words | 3 Pages. My Outlook on Peter Singer’s Article: “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” Amanda Ponshock PHI 208 Ethics and Moral Reasoning Instructor: . Rachel Howell August 05, 2013 In his Peter Singer’s article, “Famine, Affluence and coursework juliet romeo Morality”, he speaks of how he looks at ways one might think about charity and famine relief. Motherland! Not everyone has accepted his general idea of how a person should act in these situations. I myself only essays camp, agree with his views at a certain level. I believe that everyone should help.
Argument , Ethics , Famine, Affluence, and Morality 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Famine, Affluence, and Morality by Peter Singer. Famine, Affluence, and Morality by Peter Singer The Elements of an essay on my motherland, Reason #8 1. Use two or . three sentences to state the main purpose or argument in mba essay this article. Motherland! In other words, what is the essay essay argument the an essay on my author is making? (This should be a specific argument. We all know that the authors are writing about morality and ethics.) The main purpose or argument in this article is that Peter Singer believes that richer nations should give assistance to other nations. Consequentialism , Ethics , Human 1107 Words | 4 Pages. Peter Singer: Sentience vs Self-Conciousness. your answer.” More than three decades ago Peter Singer heralded the need for a new kind of liberation movement, one calling . for mason, a radical expansion of the human moral canvas and more importantly, a rejection of the horrors human beings have inflicted for millennia upon other sentient beings, treatment historically considered as being both natural and unalterable.
Often regarded as being the father of the modern animal liberation movement, Singer contends that the campaign for animal liberation. Animal rights , Ethics , Human 1819 Words | 5 Pages. Singer Solution to World Problems. coffee or that pair of shoes because they are on an essay, sale? Would you be able to give up something insignificant in order to give someone the most precious gift . of jane, all, life? Peter Singer argues, we all have a moral obligation to help those who are less fortunate than ourselves. In Peter Singer’s New York Times article entitled, “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” he challenges citizens of first world countries to donate any money that is not used for on my motherland, day to day necessities to go towards charities that. Average Joe , Debt , Household income in the United States 1105 Words | 3 Pages. The Singer Solution to World Poverty. In the New York Times Article “ the Singer Solution to essay essay, World Poverty” the author Peter Singer argues that there is . no reason why Americans don’t donate money to the needy when they can afford countless of luxury that are not essential to the preservation of motherland, their lives and health.
Singer pursue the audience with two different situations trying to motivate the essays camp reader to donate money instantly. The fist situation comes from a Brazilian film, Central Station in which a woman called Dora, a retired. An American Family , Audience , Donation 1062 Words | 3 Pages. people who advocate this movement is Peter Singer . An Essay! Singer uses many logical arguments that are reasoned and well . thought out but are flawed and it will be very useful to show how the animal liberation movement is creative writing, misguided and unrealistic. Peter Singer makes his first point in arguing how humans are animals just as much as cats and motherland rabbits are. He states how the using the term of juliet, ‘animal’ refers to non-human animals which include cats, dogs, and on my motherland even insects. Summer Austin! Singer says that there is a slight distinction. Animal Liberation , Animal liberation movement , Animal rights 2564 Words | 6 Pages. things we take for granted and would hardly notice if they were not there.
Is that so wrong? ( Singer , 12). There are countless debates on this . predicament. In this essay I will explain some of them. An Essay Motherland! I will first describe the creative writing summer camps austin utilitarianism view by Singer , and the deontology view by on my, Kant, after that I will apply what both of mba essay, them have to say to the drowning child situation, and conclude on my view. Peter Singer is on my, a utilitarian. Utilitarianism in rochester mba essay philosophy is a doctrine that the morally correct course. Aesthetics , Consequentialism , Ethics 1132 Words | 3 Pages. Famine Is Not A Charity Case John Lim PHI208 Instructor McCart 6-2-2013 Famine Is Not A Charity Case Peter . Singer wrote this paper in Philosophy amp; Public Affairs to bring up two issues of the on my motherland refugees in East Bengal.
The first is concentration camp, about how the refugees are being deprived of food, shelter and medical care. Singer’s moral values come from the on my motherland lack of humanity shown from India and the lack of aid funds from other countries such as Britain and Australia. The second, he believes. Bangladesh , Ethics , Famine 1658 Words | 5 Pages. Thinkers: Peter Singer and Bill Gates A thinker is an individual who reasons intellectually; this individual generally shares . his views and theories with other thinkers and with society. The contributions made to humanity can be valuable and frequently encourage others to ponder the same issues. Mason Jane Essay! Other thinkers may become supporters or challengers to another. There have been many famous thinkers that have influenced society; I will be examining two men who have contributed to our culture, Peter Singer. Bill Melinda Gates Foundation , Bill Gates , Creativity 1567 Words | 5 Pages. thought I could really do it, but since we had the class about this topic, I have been vegetarian for two months and an essay motherland cannot see myself stopping anytime soon. . I sincerely find myself identifying with the essays concentration two decenters Singer and Regan, of whom I will now talk about in detail. Peter Singer wrote a book called Animal Liberation in 1975, arguing that animals must be considered in the equation of life.
He came up with speciesm, how slaves were less than and on my motherland women were less than, saying animals are less. Animal rights , Ethics , Jeremy Bentham 1538 Words | 4 Pages. are humans’ friends. The other people might do not think so. Because people have different values of rochester mba essay, animals, the arguments are commenced. Since 1977, all of an essay on my motherland, . three philosophers, Peter Singer , Tom Regan and Carl Cohen have respectively written their work to declare the mba essay status of animals. On the one hand, according to Peter Singer’s “All Animals Are Equal(1977) ,” and Tom Regan’s “The Case for on my, Animal Rights(1989),” they claim that people should give equal rights to juliet romeo, animals as the way do for human beings. Animal rights , Human , Intrinsic value 894 Words | 3 Pages.
PHI200 Dr. Maul 11/26/12 Moral Responsibility Around the world, in many third world countries, human suffering is caused by many causes like ethnic . cleansing, starvation, war, poor living conditions, natural disasters, and more. According to Peter Singer (1972) in his article “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” people and governments have not properly done enough to help others in emergency situations, like the situation in East Bengal during the 1970’s where nine million refugees were starving due. Argument map , Counterargument , Duty 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Explain the difference between rule, act and an essay motherland preference utilitarianism. actions are based on the maximisation of pleasure for a particular society where the rules are used. Contrasting to Act and Rule Utilitarianism there is . Preference Utilitarianism; this is the most recent form of creative austin, Utilitarianism. An Essay On My! R.M. Hare, Peter Singer and essays camp Richard Brandt all have different views though they are all Preference Utilitarianists. Preference Utilitarian’s judge moral actions according to whether they fit in on my motherland with the preferences of the individuals involved.
R.M Hare’s approach. Ethics , Jeremy Bentham , John Stuart Mill 961 Words | 3 Pages. Famine, Affluence, and essays on auschwitz Morality PHI 208 Famine, Affluence, and Morality In the article, Peter Singer’s purpose is to draw . attention and bring apprehension to motherland, the fashion the world’s people are being tormented directly to natural disasters and poverty. He also analyzes the amount of people struggling to survive in account to living under the poverty line, a few on bertha essay, a single dollar a day. Singer constructs the point that we need to be doing a greater job at helping those not in the status of. Duty , Ethics , Human 771 Words | 3 Pages. Response to Peter Singer’s Speech Peter Singer’s speech on on my, a solution to world poverty made a lot of essay narrative essay, good points concerning how . to help those in need. He states that most people can afford to help starving children and that people are turning their backs on the needy. Motherland! Where he fails though, is in actually providing a solution that will hold up over time.
His focus on creative writing summer, guilting those more fortunate into action and then guiding them to give $200 is no solution, but a call to give to those less fortunate. Africa , Form of the motherland Good , Peter Singer 1073 Words | 3 Pages. 1980). Animals are sentient beings, this enables them to be able to sense, suffer, understand or experience subjectively ( Singer 1975). Animal . liberation views that all sentient beings are warranted to the control over their own lives and their most basic fundamental interests ( Singer 1975). Jane! The two main approaches in the animal liberation view of thinking are based around Peter Singer’s utilitarian view and Tom Regan’s absolutist or deontological view (Jamieson 1998). On My Motherland! The utilitarian view incorporates. Animal liberation movement , Ethics , Peter Singer 1331 Words | 6 Pages. explaining, comparing, and critiquing the mason ideas presented in two diametrically opposite articles: the late biologist and environmentalist Garret Hardin's . On My! article Lifeboat Ethics: The Case Against Helping the creative writing austin Poor and controversial ethicist Peter Singer's essay The Singer Solution to World Poverty . In each article, the author uses an on my motherland, analogy to make his point, and in evaluating both articles, I devoted my attention almost entirely to the analogies.
Within my essay I mentioned how Hardin's article is. Ethics , Garrett Hardin , Lifeboat ethics 1131 Words | 3 Pages. Intro to Ethics Outline over “Utilitarianism and Vegetarianism” I. Tom Regan argues Peter Singer’s utilitarianism obligation to essays concentration camp, be . vegetarian. A. Singer touches on methodology in ethics first to help explain point of view to Regan’s argument. An Essay On My! B. Singer then turns to the substantive issue of “what are the implications of utilitarianism for narrative, our treatment of animals?” II. In regards to methodology, Singer claims Regan recommends abandoning utilitarianism in motherland favor of mba essay, a rights-based theory without. Agriculture , Animal liberation movement , Animal rights 779 Words | 3 Pages.
Are We Morally Obligated to Help Others? in a bag of motherland, chips remorseful enough to reach for their wallet with their free hand. Peter Singer’s Utilitarian theory highlights this . phenomenon and argues that people living in abundance while others are starving is expository narrative essay, “morally indefensible”. His reasoning is that if you are already living a comfortable life, purchasing anything to pursue more comfort is morally reprehensible and lacks virtue. To his credit, Singer supports his theory through practice, as it is reported that he donates 25% of his salary. Ethics , John Stuart Mill , Morality 1804 Words | 5 Pages.
their willingness to educate others about a cause. I choose two different famous thinkers that have made an impact in their own special areas of expertise. . An Essay Motherland! One is mason essay, Bill Gates and the other is an essay motherland, Peter Singer . Bill Gates has become somewhat of a household name because of juliet, his affiliation with Microsoft. Peter Singer is not known to be as well-known compared to Bill Gates, but that doesn’t mean that he does not have a rather huge amount of followers because of his fight for animal rights. In this paper we. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Bill Gates 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Rights - Is It Morally Wrong to Eat Meat? possible number happiness.
There are many questions that arise as a result of the views presented by different philosophers. One of the questions that . arise is Is it morally wrong to on my motherland, eat meat? The case for animal rights has been advocated by Peter Singer who maintains that there is a difference between the summer rights of human beings and an essay animals but that the later should be given equal consideration and that all animals are equal. R.G.Frey, meanwhile, considers that the human beings have a higher value. Animal rights , Human , Jeremy Bentham 886 Words | 3 Pages. On the simon Moral Fabrications of Meat. claim that both the killing and subjugation of any animal for the benefit of motherland, mankind’s sustenance is a crime against nature, hence “immoral”. Juliet! This line of . reasoning’s basis can most notably be traced to a work by the accomplished moral philosopher Peter Singer , author of the book “Animal Liberation”, published in an essay on my 1975. In it he states: This book is about the tyranny of human over nonhuman animals. This tyranny has caused and today is still causing an amount of summer, pain and suffering that can. Animal liberation movement , Animal rights , Ethics 1938 Words | 5 Pages.
Cited Bentham, Jeremy. Push-Pin and Poetry. Ethics. An Essay On My Motherland! Ed. Peter Singer . Oxford University Press: New York, 1994. Gender! 199-200. An Essay! . Essay Outline! Bentham, Jeremy. The Principle of on my motherland, Utility. Ethics. Ed. Peter Singer . Oxford University Press: New York, 1994. 306-312.
Mill, John Stuart. Coursework Romeo! Higher and Lower Pleasures. Ethics. Ed. Peter Singer . Oxford University Press: New York, 1994. 201-205. Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Ivan's Challenge. Ethics. Ed. On My Motherland! Peter Singer . Oxford University Press: New York, 1994.
332. Ethics , Human , Jeremy Bentham 1260 Words | 4 Pages. suffer both physically and creative writing summer emotionally. It’s an act that goes against and completely defies ethical teachings and all forms of morality in the society . because its consequences are severe minimize the benefits to the culprits only. In addition, Singer , P. (2001) suggests that the terrorist attack that took place in the United states commonly referred to as the November 11 remains to on my, be a major reflection of the deteriorating ethical and moral standards in the society. This attack was a deliberate. Ethics , Human rights , Jeremy Bentham 1635 Words | 5 Pages. Outline key features of utilitarianism. but prioritises the simon rochester mba essay pleasure of a more intellectual nature rather than lower pleasures such as eating food or having sex.
More recently, different . perspectives have been taken on Utilitarianism, one of these being preference Utilitarianism. Peter Singer was a modern advocate of an essay motherland, this approach to Utilitarianism. Preference utilitarianism still seeks to maximise happiness for the majority. However, departing from Bentham’s hedonism, preference utilitarians define a positive outcome in terms of expository essay narrative, ‘preference. Animal rights , Ethics , James Mill 1133 Words | 4 Pages. where as animals use instinct. Christian philosopher St Thomas Aquinas argued since only beings that are rational are capable of an essay, determining their actions, . they are only beings toward which we should extend concern “for their own sakes.” (Regan and Singer , 1989: 6-12). Ethical issues about animals are whether we should eat them, kill them for fur, or experiment on them? In many countries there is no choice in these matters. In poor countries it is a matter of survival. They are not as concerned.
Animal rights , Ethics , Human 1683 Words | 4 Pages. thinkers who began to discover a clearer definition of the concept in the early nineteenth century. Ideas of John Stuart Mill and his predecessor Jeremy . Bentham must be examined as well as the criticisms of their work by more modern thinkers such as Peter Singer and John Rawls. Through the careful examination of the simon mba essay work of these men, one can begin to understand all facets of an essay on my, Utilitarianism and why it has played such and important role in the development of ethics today. As the investigation of Utilitarianism.
Ethics , James Mill , Jeremy Bentham 1564 Words | 6 Pages. pleasures could lead to happiness. Mill talked of ‘competent judges’: “On a question which is the best worth having of two pleasures, the judgment of those . who are qualified by knowledge of both must be admitted as final.” Utilitarianism: Singer , Preferences Peter Singer is the coursework juliet romeo best known Utilitarian alive today. He realised that people don’t always choose happiness: “I’d rather know the truth, even if it hurts. On My Motherland! ”. The greater good means fulfilling the gender essay greatest amount of preferences. This may not mean. Hedonism , Human rights , Jeremy Bentham 916 Words | 1 Pages. Examine the Key Ideas of Utilitarianism. preference of on my motherland, others. This allows people to define what pleasure and pain is for them.
R.M Hare argued for preference utilitarianism as he believes the . Creative Writing Summer! “right thing” to do is to maximise the satisfaction of the preference of each individual involved. Peter Singer states ‘our own preferences cannot count any more than the an essay on my motherland preference of essays on auschwitz, others’ showing that he was more concerned about the an essay motherland best possible consequence rather than ‘the greatest good for creative writing austin, the greatest number.’ There is also negative utilitarianism. Animal rights , Ethics , Hedonism 977 Words | 3 Pages. the foundational ethical imperative would not be utilitarianism. Another reason why an motherland, individualist to become a utilitarian was proposed by bertha mason essay, . Peter Singer in Practical Ethics.
He presents the paradox of an essay on my motherland, hedonism, which holds that, if your only goal in life is bertha jane eyre essay, personal happiness, you will never be happy. You need something to be happy about. An Essay On My! One goal that Singer feels is likely to bring about role, personal happiness is the an essay desire to improve the lives of others, that is, to make others happy. We could. Ford Motor Company , Ford Pinto , Hedonism 1366 Words | 4 Pages. Lecture 1 Required Reading Reference: Velasquez, M. (2012). Business ethics: concepts and cases, (7th ed.) (pp. 76-83). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson. . (Utilitarianism).
Lecture 1 Additional Reading Reference: Taylor, A. (2008). Examined Life: Peter Singer on our obligation to essay, alleviate suffering [video file]. An Essay! Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVViICWs4dM Record a brief description of what the simon required reading was about. What responses do you have to the reading or video e.g. fresh. Ethics , Ford Motor Company , Immanuel Kant 790 Words | 2 Pages. appeared. Preference Utilitarianism is a theory supported by Peter Singer . He believed that you should maximise the best . interests of those affected rather than create the on my motherland most pleasure and least pain. Everybody’s interest must be given equal consideration. Preference Utilitarianism concentrates on the ethical side of expository essay, decisions and an action should not be committed even if it creates the greatest happiness for the greater good. Singer himself stated “ This other version of Utilitarianism judges.
Animal rights , Ethics , Hedonism 2021 Words | 6 Pages. Religious Studies - Edexcel. Investigations: Abortion 50 mark essay. cause problems if there is on my, too much flexibility as it can undermine the sanctity of expository essay, life, which is a firm belief with religious and some non-religious . people. Some people believe that all life is sacred because of the an essay on my intrinsic worth felt within. Peter Singer is a philosopher and bertha essay atheist and believes “each life if of equal value,” thus if a person wants an an essay, abortion because the baby is unwanted, it would be seen as ethically unsound. It’s argued that moral guidelines are derived from religion and so. Ethics , Jeremy Bentham , John Stuart Mill 1484 Words | 3 Pages.
Arthur Miller, an Enemy of the People. other brother, Peter Stockmann, took an opposing stance believing that the health spa was the towns only means to economic salvation, and that . Simon Rochester! closing the spa would detrimentally affect the entire population of the town. The town stood behind Peter , and the town kept the spa and maintained its financial prosperity, while Dr. On My Motherland! Stockmann was shunned and left feeling that the town he loved had chosen the wrong priorities and coursework romeo was not fulfilling the moral duty to preserve life. As Peter is the protagonist. Ethics , James Mill , Jeremy Bentham 869 Words | 3 Pages. however dire your situation might be; granted that you have a duty not to lie, then you ought not to lie – not even to an essay on my, a . would-be murderer who asks you whether his intended victim is at home (see SINGER 74) I am concerned, now, with the various objections that have been made against creative summer camps austin Utilitarianism. On My! For the purposes of role, this lecture, I propose to these objections into two groups: (a) Absolutist. Consequentialism , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 1467 Words | 7 Pages.
examine the key principles of utilitarianism. already mentioned, there are more types of utilitarianism, such as: Preference utilitarianism and two-rule utilitarianism. Preference utilitarianism was . devised by an essay on my motherland, Peter Singer (1946-present), preference utilitarianism sought a way of decision making that took in to account the interest of the minority, unlike the previous theories. Singer stated that every individual’s preference must be taken in to account when deciding the bertha jane essay best interests of the group and not only that, but every ones interests should. Animal rights , Hedonism , Jeremy Bentham 1920 Words | 5 Pages. In our world, protests occur each day on on my, the issues of coursework juliet, animal cruelty and human rights, but when the issues are put together which will reign over the other? . The author Peter Singer of “All Animals are Equal” and “Tools for Research” presents his argument for determining when animal experiments are justified. The author starts his paper with a counter argument, questioning if one would be willing to let thousands of people die if those people could be saved by on my, experimentation on a single animal. Animal rights , Clinical trial , Experiment 1760 Words | 5 Pages. Calculating Consequences: the romeo Utilitarian Approach to motherland, Ethics.
all. For further reading: John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism (Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1957). Harlan B. Role Outline! Miller William H. On My Motherland! Williams, . eds., The Limits of Utilitarianism (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1982). Peter Singer , Practical Ethics (London: Cambridge University Press, 1973). Ethics , Jeremy Bentham , John Stuart Mill 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
some situations, it might be better if they did steal but to them, it’s the wrong thing to do no matter whether it brings them to coursework juliet romeo, a better condition. . Lastly, there are other forms of Utilitarianism such as the “Best Interest Utilitarianism” by Peter Singer where he tries to solve the problem that some pleasures are bad for an essay on my motherland, us. Preference Utilitarianism by R. M. Hare where he tries to solve the problem that people have different ideas of pleasure even if it’s something very small and specific, not. Animal rights , Ethics , Jeremy Bentham 1193 Words | 3 Pages. Preference Utilitarianism • 'Preference Utilitarianism' superseded Mill's Rule Utilitarianism. It was put forward by bertha jane eyre, several scholars, who advocated it . over a period of time. • They are: – Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) – R.M. Hare (1919-2002) – Peter Singer (1946-present) • Preference Utilitarianism uses Preference over Happiness or Pleasure as the Principle of Utility. • Preference Utilitarianism also takes other factors into account, such as duty • This means that most people would get what they. Ethics , Hedonism , Intrinsic value 1313 Words | 5 Pages.
other hand, Mill’s Rule system lacks the on my flexibility to make sensible choices in difficult situations. Essays Camp! It may be that some other and more modern version of . the theory can overcome these problems, such as Welfare Utilitarianism (as supported by Peter Singer ) or Two Rule Utilitarianism (as suggested by R.M. On My! Hare). We could strike a balance between favouring firm moral principles and paying attention to significant consequences or the all-round wellbeing of creative summer camps austin, society. Such a compromise offers a more promising. Ethics , James Mill , Jeremy Bentham 1042 Words | 4 Pages.
conception of impartiality - The utility or interest of the party involved is to be counted equally. (NO privileged class under Utilitarianism) 2) The . promotion of animal welfare and animal right as the happiness of the animal is counted as well. On My! ( Peter Singer ) 21 3) The Utility-oriented approach: A) Act-Utilitarianism: The consequence of bertha mason, this particular act is considered. In this case, killing the on my innocent may be justified for the sake of greater utility. The problem of right and justice. B) Rule-Utilitarianism. Ethics , James Mill , Jeremy Bentham 1037 Words | 5 Pages.
process this tool that could be used to juliet, harm people. On My! The reason is that many lives had been saved. Therefore, the essays on auschwitz supplying of the transistors would . create what is called a maximum benefit and an essay have a minimum harm the concentration situation with the client ( Singer , 2011). On My! Incorporating the utilitarianism system in a business model follows a four-step process. Essay! Each of the four steps are very important and an essay on my there implementation should be executed carefully.
The first step is to; introduce the test to the subject. Applied ethics , Artificial pacemaker , Business ethics 1657 Words | 4 Pages. will refer to Thomas Hobbes’ idea of social contract theory explained in depth in James Rachels’ book The Elements of Moral Philosophy as it is an important . concept in understanding the view of psychological egoism. Additionally, I will also discuss Peter Singer’s view point on acting morally from creative writing, his book Practical Ethics. Having morals in society is motherland, very important to our well-being and harmony due to coursework juliet romeo, our psychological egoism. In order to understand this fully we need to consider how our society. Ethical egoism , Ethics , Morality 1630 Words | 4 Pages. this kind of an essay, unequal consideration, leadership would not be recognizable to us (Price 2006, ch.
4). Expository! Utilitarian moral theory, as developed by philosophers . An Essay! such as Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), John Stuart Mill (1806-73), R.M. Rochester! Hare (1919-2002) and Peter Singer (1946-), holds that the morality of an action is an essay, determined by the overall happiness or well-being produced by juliet romeo, that action. The right action is the one that maximizes happiness over suffering and pain. An Essay On My Motherland! Utilitarians have a very straightforward answer. Consequentialism , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 2233 Words | 6 Pages. other hand, Mill’s Rule system lacks the camps austin flexibility to make sensible choices in difficult situations. It may be that some other and an essay motherland more modern version of . the theory can overcome these problems, such as preference utilitarianism put forward by Peter Singer . Juliet! Preference utilitarianism bases itself on the idea used in act utilitarianism, that the principle of utility is the most important basis of moral decision making. This principle is about maximising pleasure and preventing pain. Preference utilitarianism. Ethics , Jeremy Bentham , John Stuart Mill 1586 Words | 4 Pages.
Explain The Preference Utilitarianism Of Peter Singer. ?Explain the Preference Utilitarianism of Peter Singer Preference Utilitarianism is based on the idea that a good action is on my motherland, one . that maximises the preferences of all involved so that my own want, needs and desires cannot apply to everyone. Utilitarianism is a teleological or consequentialist approach to ethics, which means that the action’s outcome is looked at. Essays On Auschwitz Concentration Camp! It is the greatest happiness principle. On My Motherland! It is the writing camps austin consequences of an action which judge whether it is good or bad. Preference Utilitarianism. Animal rights , Ethics , Henry Sidgwick 500 Words | 1 Pages.
Environmental Ethics: Singer vs Regan Environmental ethics is on my motherland, defined: as a part of philosophy which considers extending the essay traditional . boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to on my motherland, including the nonhuman world (Wikipedia). For example, this includes the preservation of plants and an increase of on auschwitz concentration, animal rights. Peter Singer and Tom Regan both argue that animals need a greater voice than their own in the debate of ethical treatment. Despite their very different philosophical views, Singer and Regan want. Animal rights , Ethics , Intrinsic value 761 Words | 2 Pages. a reader or to make him/her get awestruck. . An Essay On My! In the essay, “ The Singer Solution to simon rochester, World Poverty”, the author Peter singer uses his appeal for the betterment of children as his weapon to make his argument seem more persuading and an essay motherland creates a sense of guilt in the audience. He targets the audience by telling stories that involves children’s safety which makes the reader get awestruck and provokes them. In this essay, Peter Singer uses two pathetic hypothetical stories influencing the reader to donate . Appeal , Audience , Child 874 Words | 4 Pages. Reference. Coursework Romeo! Taylor, A. (2008). Examined Life: Peter Singer on an essay, our obligation to alleviate suffering [video file].
Retrieved . fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVViICWs4dM Content. Peter Singer , discusses applied ethics in regard to poverty and affluence, animal rights and the radical nature of gender, applied ethics. He challenges the motherland viewers on what is simon, moral and ethical behaviour in society as a whole in on my regards to money and bertha jane eyre spending, how we treat other beings and that we have a moral responsibility. Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 395 Words | 2 Pages. Peter Singer’s Solution to World Poverty. Peter Singer’s Solution to world poverty How can we help people in need, and become better human beings? How can it be that we have money for . new cars, houses and vacations, but when UNICEF or some other kind of an essay motherland, healthcare organization ask us for just 2 dollars, we turn them down right away? In the article “Solution to world poverty” Peter Singer gives some of his suggestions on coursework, how to help others, and become better persons.
Singer tells a story about a man named Bob. Bob just bought himself. Donation , Ethics , Giving 783 Words | 2 Pages. The Singer Solution to World Poverty Response. In his essay, “The Singer Solution to World Poverty”, the motherland author Peter Singer wrote a few hypothetical examples to . prove his moral judgments, in which he tried to persuade the readers to give away all the money one spends on luxuries via the example of Bob, a man who spared the innocent kids life trying to save his valuable Bugatti. However, the example of Bob failed to coursework juliet, convince me as a good analogy for other people.
First of all, Singer ignored one of the most considerable element in on my Bob’s scenario. English-language films , Investment , Peter Singer 609 Words | 2 Pages. Critical Analysis of Peter Singer's Famine Affluence and bertha mason jane essay Morality. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PETER SINGER’S “FAMINE, AFFLUENCE AND MORALITY” In his article “Famine, Affluence and on my motherland Morality” Peter . Concentration! Singer gives a seemingly devastating critique of our ordinary ways of thinking about famine relief, charity, and morality in general. In spite of that very few people have accepted, or at any rate acted on, the an essay motherland conclusions he reaches. In light of these facts one might say of essay outline, Singer’s arguments, as Hume said of Berkeley’s arguments for immaterialism, that “… they admit of no. Consequentialism , Ethics , Famine, Affluence, and Morality 553 Words | 2 Pages. A Long Way Gone Informative Essay. s until outside forces put an end to it.
Smith 6 Works Cited beah, ishmael. ? . a long way gone: Memoirs of an essay, a Boy Soldier? . New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Gender Outline! Print. Dupuy, Kendra E., and Krijn Peters . ? War And Children : A Reference Handbook? . An Essay Motherland! Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International, 2010.? eBook High School Collection (EBSCOhost)? . Web. 17 Sept. 2014. Creative! Wessells, Mike. An Essay! Child Soldiers. (Cover Story). ? Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists?. Ishmael Beah , Military use of children , Peter W. Singer 1430 Words | 6 Pages.
?The Value of creative summer austin, Life: Singer , Regan, Davis 1. Introduction In this paper, I will argue that even though Animal Rights Theory is more successful . in expressing the grounds of animal’s value of life compared with Utilitarian Theory of Peter Singer , neither of the theories is successful in appreciating the animal’s value of an essay on my, life. In the first part of the paper, I will mention the rochester major arguments of an essay, Singer’s Utilitarian Theory of Animal Rights. Then under The Relationship between Interests and the Capacities. Animal rights , Animal testing , Animal welfare 3791 Words | 12 Pages. Outline the Main Principles of Utilitarianism. of utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a teleological theory. Three main philosophers have come up with different types of utilitarianism these being: Bentham, . Camp! Mill and an essay motherland Singer . Bentham introducing the idea of Act Utilitarianism, Mill adapting the ideas of simon rochester mba essay, Bentham and trying improve the an essay flaws he saw with his Rule utilitarianism and Singer with his preference utilitarianism theory.
Bentham was hedonist, meaning he was a pleasure seeker. Bentham portrayed two main features of utilitarianism, one being. Consequentialism , Hedonism , Jeremy Bentham 664 Words | 2 Pages. they may be eaten because do not have souls like we do and are lower on the food chain Instructor Explanation: The answer can be found on p. 1 of Tom . Regan’s “The Case for Animal Rights” Question 6. Question : Which of the rochester following does Peter Singer assert about the principle of equality? Student Answer: People should have equal rights because they are factually equal.
People with higher abilities, it stands to reason, should have greater rights. INCORRECT Different groups. Animal rights , Ethics , Jeremy Bentham 1841 Words | 13 Pages. Outline the key features of an essay on my, utilitarianism. philosophers have come up with different types of utilitarianism. Jeremy Bentham introducing Act Utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill trying to role, improve the . flaws that he encountered with Bentham’s theory with his Rule Utilitarianism and lastly, Peter Singer with his preference utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is the original and official form of utilitarianism which states that we must on an essay motherland, any occasion act in bertha mason essay the way which will produce overall consequences better than those that any other act open. Ethics , Hedonism , James Mill 735 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Utilitarianism Is Unsatisfactory as a Theory of Ethics. say it is moral to an essay on my, kill a rapist, ignoring the summer camps fact that murder is immoral.
Although Utilitarianism is not perfect, some people believe it is still . satisfactory as an ethical theory because recently, philosophers such as Henry Sedgwick and Peter Singer has come up with updated versions of Utilitarianism which included principles which state that we should make moral decision which benefit the best interest of the people affected and motherland that no ones happiness can be considered more valuable that. Ethics , Hedonism , Jeremy Bentham 581 Words | 2 Pages.
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Should Genetic Engineering Be Controlle. An Essay? ?Should Genetic Engineering Be Controlled by Law Victor Gatdula Waukesha County Technical College Allen Jackson Written Communications . December 18, 2011 Abstract This paper explores scientists' points of view about mason jane eyre essay genetic engineering . Some of them are sure that it should not be controlled by an essay on my motherland, law; others consider that genetic engineering has crossed the line and as a result should be limited. Nobody doubts that with the help of genetic engineering we can treat some diseases, change. DNA , Gene , Genetic disorder 1326 Words | 7 Pages. ?Genetic Engineering is the deliberate modification of the expository essay characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material (Merriam-Webster . Dictionary, 2014). This was first tested on crops, but scientists have now fathomed the idea of genetically modifying embryos to make the “perfect child.” Thus known as a “designer baby.” This new gene tampering experimentation has raised many questions. The most important being, “is predetermining your child’s genetic makeup unethical?” I believe ethics.
Cancer , Disease , DNA 1733 Words | 6 Pages. Essay About Sports Day in School by Syazwanhusaini1. Every school celebrates its Sports Day and, to this all, the children very longingly look forward to. My school the an essay on my St. Andrews Sr.
Secondary . Creative Austin? School also has its Sports Day every year sometime in the month of November. The month of November is earmarked for the occasion, as, at this time, the weather is congenial for a long span of games on the field. When this day is about to come, there appears to be a lot of activity in the entire school premises as take lime. Avocado so there is an essay motherland, a lot of. High school , The Guest 747 Words | 3 Pages. History of Injectable Tissue Engineering. Essays On Auschwitz Camp? Injectable Tissue Engineering INJECTABLE TISSUE ENGINEERING My part of the assignment is to provide a detailed history of . Injectable Tissue Engineering . I must also provide details how Injectable Tissue Engineering affects the environment. Ttissue engineering has advanced dramatically in the last 10 years, offering the potential for regenerating almost every tissue and organ of the on my motherland human body. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine remain a flourishing area of coursework, research with many. Biomedical engineering , Cartilage , Extracellular matrix 1656 Words | 5 Pages. ASSIGNMENT 2: ROBOTS In this report I will write in detail about the uses and operations of industrial robots, flexible manufacturing . systems, productivity loading and motherland, unloading systems and expository narrative essay, coordinated work schedules.
I will show the an essay benefits and romeo, disadvantages of the an essay above and evaluate the mason eyre essay consequences of such practices. Motherland? First of all robots have many applications such as: assembling products, handle dangerous material, spray finishes on, inspect parts/produce/livestock and simon mba essay, cut/polish products. Assembly line , Industrial Revolution , Industry 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Jhavon Crenshaw Professor Madden English Composition 30 September 2012 Sound Engineering As a future audio engineer, it is in an essay on my motherland, my best . interest to learn the techniques of audio production. For editing sound you need the proper equipment, whether it is software or hardware.
In order to give sound a little flavor you will need to creative summer austin know about mixing. Mastering is what ultimately completes the sound. Equipment, mixing, and mastering are the most important steps in audio production. The majority. Audio engineering , Audio mastering , Film crew 1041 Words | 3 Pages. SOP graduate in Civil Engineering. OF PURPOSE “Sri Mokshagundam Visweswaraiah”, who is the an essay first and on auschwitz concentration, pre-eminent engineer of India, recipient of Indian Republic’s highest civil honor “Bharat . Ratna” is on my, my role model. Essays On Auschwitz? Indian government officially celebrates his birthday as “ENGINEER’S DAY ” in his remembrance.
His achievements have motivated me to become a Civil Engineer from my childhood. My under graduate and graduate background, and work experience have given me the confidence and desire to continue my formal education. I will present. Civil engineering , Earthworks , Engineering 1037 Words | 2 Pages. Genetic Engineering - Technology of the Future. years, genetic engineering has made its way into its spotlight, making it one of the stars in an essay motherland, modern research, especially in biotechnology. Narrative? It . has greatly contributed for the betterment of our society, both in food production and in health, but little do we know about an essay on my this risky discovery. Expository Narrative Essay? OUTLINE I. INTRODUCTION II. GENETIC ENGINEERING – Legacy A. History B. An Essay? Towards the future III. GENETIC ENGINEERING – Its role in our daily lives IV.
GENETIC ENGINEERING – How has it. Bacteria , DNA , Francis Crick 2030 Words | 6 Pages. About Independence Day in Small Paragraph. it a rule that only PM or CM should unfurl the National Flag and address the citizens? Should not a chance be given to a citizen who is enjoying . independence?(?!) This is an attempt to think how a citizen will address on simon mba essay, the eve of an essay motherland, Independence Day . Essays On Auschwitz Concentration Camp? My dear Citizens of India (bayoon aur bahnoo) Namaskar. India is a free country and everybody has freedom. Isn’t it? There is no section of our society which is not enjoying freedom in this country.
Even our prisoners are free to live. Citizenship , Corruption , Free-to-air 701 Words | 3 Pages. Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineers are highly trained scientists who use engineering and on my, life science principles to . Essays On Auschwitz Camp? research biological aspects of animal and human life (1). Some tasks of a biomedical engineer include, developing new theories, modifying, testing, and proving existing theories, and designing health care instruments and devices or apply engineering principles to on my the study of essays concentration, human systems. Biomedical engineering has been created by advancements in technology. It is an interdisciplinary. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Biology 631 Words | 3 Pages. chain branching (addition of alkyl groups) and therefore reduces density. Motherland? Hence, this process is used for outline, low-densitypolyethylene. The newer process, . (called the Ziegler-Natta process) uses pressures of only a few atmospheres and temperatures of about 60oC and uses a catalyst which is a mixture of titanium (III) chloride and a trialkylaluminium compound.
This product is more crystalline, with less branching, hence high-density. Therefore, this process is used for on my motherland, high-density polyethylene. Identify. Battery , Carbon , Carbon dioxide 4332 Words | 14 Pages. Gender Essay? Statement of Purpose for MS in Civil Engineering. ?STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Program Applied : Masters (MS) Major : Civil Engineering “Education is a tool that puts one on a fast track to . acquiring knowledge and personality that sets one apart from the crowd.
It is one bottom less hole; no matter how much one pours himselfinto it, he thirsts for more.” I can still vividly recall the memory of the day I saw the an essay on my labs of civil engineering department in open house program at **** Institute , Guntur eight years ago. Its machinery and the testing. Bachelor's degree , Civil engineer , Civil engineering 759 Words | 2 Pages. Pros and Cons of gender essay outline, Genetic Engineering. There are many benefits of genetic engineering , but there are many risks too.
Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of . Motherland? genetic material in order to alter the hereditary traits of a cell, organism, or population. Basically, scientists take DNA of one product and essays concentration camp, put it into another product to get a mixture of traits from both products. It’s like breeding different breeds of dogs to an essay on my motherland get a certain look or personality. Some people don’t mind what goes into genetically altered foods, while others. DNA , Francis Crick , Gene 1732 Words | 4 Pages. Title Date Rome: Engineering an Empire It is said that Rome was not built in a day . True.
It took ambition, lust, murder and . the unrivalled power of technology to essay essay make the on my Roman Empire span across three continents and many centuries. While the bertha jane eyre essay contributions of ambition, conquest and other political and militaristic factors remain important for the Roman Republic to transform into an Empire, none of this could have been possible without the immense contribution of engineering and technology. In. Ancient Rome , Augustus , Colosseum 799 Words | 3 Pages. An Essay? threatening diseases, make sure that your child is not susceptible to smoking addictions or alcoholism, and then make your child genius? Would you? Are you . asking yourself how this could be done?
Have you ever considered human genetic engineering ? What is Human Genetic Engineering ? Lets start by looking at the cell and gender outline, the source of heritable traits. We know that all organisms are made up by cells and that new cells can only spring from an essay existing cells. Cell growth depends upon the production of new. Cell , Chromosome , DNA 1539 Words | 5 Pages. Chapter 11 1. How may the marketing concept be explained? Is it applicable to engineering firms? * The marketing concept state that . the writing summer engineer manager must try to satisfy the an essay needs of his/her clients by means of set of coordinated activities. * It I applicable to an engineering firm because, same in other firms they need to survive, to rochester be able to do so they must continuously generate income by selling enough quantity of their products or services. 2. What is meant by the term.
Balance sheet , Debt , Economics 1274 Words | 6 Pages. Genetic Engineering Main question: ‘Is genetic engineering the future of life?’ Thesis statement: Even though genetic . engineering has many benefits, it should not be the future of our lives. This research is being conducted because I have a strong interest in it. At first when we had to choose a book to start our ideas, I picked up any book that I could find. At first nothing really interested me, but then I picked up the book ‘Genetic Engineering ’. On My? I flipped through the pages and read some. DNA , Gene , Genetic engineering 941 Words | 3 Pages. Germline Engineering and Reprogenetic Technologies. knowledgeable about the human genome to be able to find specific genes during the embryonic stage of reproduction. Scientists have already . begun to use this knowledge to simon mba essay allow parents the ability to select the sex of an essay on my motherland, their child and screen for genetic diseases via preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with in camps austin, vitro fertilization (IVF).
Sex-selection has already created world-wide discussion regarding the ethics of such a situation. However, scientists are now looking toward germline engineering which will. Assisted reproductive technology , Genetic disorder , Genetics 1931 Words | 6 Pages.
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Essay on my motherland
colledge book report Also, most current books on “How the motherland, Mind/Brain Works,” including Baars Gage, have only a passing reference if any, to the reticular formation, citing only its “posture control and sleep/wake cycle management functions.” Of the mason jane, three books 1999 Scientific American Book of The Brain, the 2007 Scientific American Best of the Brain, and the 2009 Scientifc American - A Day in the Life of Your Brain, none have ANY references to on my, the Reticular Activating System or Reticular Formation! ' var WPEndnote2 = ' Google “Scholarly articles for consciousness in thalamus and midbrain.” ' var WPEndnote90 = ' It is believed that ADD/ADHD is caused by a problem in writing, the reticular activating system (News headline) See http://www.attentiondeficit-add-adhd.com/reticular-activating-system.htm ' var WPEndnote3 = ' Baars Gage admit that much of our cortex memory may not be apparent to an essay motherland, fMRI scans. They also say, “ There is one very important surprise in this tidy picture of maps flowing into higher-level maps of the visual input: after the thalamic nucleus, most axons run downward from the cortex to the thalamus. . This may seem pretty odd for a simple transmission idea of the visual pathway.” “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the jane essay, cortex is an essay on my motherland, required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 A General Theory of Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 var WPEndnote99 = ' Ronald H. Bailey, ., et al. Mba Essay! - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 This is a very important point. Almost every reference I could find to RF/RAS described only on my motherland its control of a few biological functions. But this reference says the RF selects stimuli arising “from the centers of thought, memory and feeling,” which would include stimuli arising from the Love/Belief System and Will—our psychological, emotional, and volitional disequilibria stimuli. ' var WPEndnote98 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and Mind, U. S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, “alerts the cortex” and on auschwitz camp, similar phrases in the following paragraphs. Motherland! These are based on the almost universally accepted theory among scientists that the cortex is home to consciousness and role essay, all our “higher” faculties; that processing of stimuli takes place solely in on my, an upward path to the cortex. But as we shall see, this is an untenable hypothesis, and, rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the simon, RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is an essay, using the cortex to flesh out the percept and to simon rochester mba essay, identify and implement an an essay motherland, “appropriate” response. ' var WPEndnote6 = ' A General Theory of writing camps, Love, Lewis, et al., pg; 33 ' var WPEndnote7 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior, edited by Kandel, Schwartz and Bessell - 1995, one of the most authoritative and an essay on my motherland, scrupulously honest reports of what scientists know and don’t know about narrative, the brain - we find the admission: “ . cognitive neural science is only beginning to contribute to the analysis of the richness of internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and response. For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose that is on my, common to romeo, human experience.
Yet these issues are important to on my, us as scientists and role essay outline, as people. “ It is precisely these mysterious phenomena, ‘the internal representations that intervene between stimulus and response, . the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose’— phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address—to which this theory is directed, and which I believe presents to an essay, any serious student, a cogent elucidation. Coursework Romeo! ' var WPEndnote8 = ' Note that Bruner’s inhibitory system not only automatically removes over motherland 99% of available fact from our consideration, but also from our very perception. We don’t even see or hear or feel these facts. Most of us think we select significant stimuli from the environment, but we are literally and often willfully deaf and blind to essays concentration camp, the grea majority of what the world has to motherland, tell us, allowing the RF to select our percepts—a very important point to this theory. ' var WPEndnote9 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg 65 This is expository essay narrative, important to an essay, our theory. Here we have evidence that although the energy for a given physiological response must come from the appropriate areas of the motor cortex, it is the concentration, Reticular Activating System which administers, monitors, and an essay on my motherland, regulates the application of bertha mason jane essay, that energy to the operant muscles to accomplish the intended purpose. Thus, the Reticular Activating System does not yield processing of on my motherland, stimuli to other components of the brain, as most neuroscientists suggest, but manages the entire operation from start to finish. Creative Summer Camps Austin! ' var WPEndnote10 = ' Dean Wooldridge The Machinery of the Brain, - McGraw-Hill 1963 pg. 64 ' var WPEndnote11 = ' This outline of social animal needs is of my own construction. I welcome comments, criticisms, corrections. Not shown on the diagram are some of the autonomic control functions of the RF in regulation of an essay on my motherland, cardiovascular functions, adrenalin levels, etc. The question mark after Dominance is to indicate that there are human societies and social animal species, e.g. the simon, langur monkey, which do not exhibit strong urges for dominance, proving that this ‘need’ is not innate in all social animals, or that it can be readily attenuated through social learning. ' var WPEndnote12 = ' William James, Principles of Psychology - Dover ' var WPEndnote13 = ' Since our DNA is 99+% identical to that of the chimpanzee, and most of the motherland, brain. * The Secret of on auschwitz concentration camp, Life - PBS TV Series 1993 - Hosted by an essay on my David Suzuki ' var WPEndnote14 = ' Regarding metacognition, see Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Ed., Cognitive Assessment, p. Eyre! 112 - Guilford 1981, and the wonderful new textbook, Baars Gage, Cognition, Brain Consciousness , p. An Essay! 286-288 - Academic Press 2007. Regarding imagination, most all philosophers agree this is a uniquely human faculty. Ability to believe, to bertha mason, draw conclusions based on on my motherland syllogisms, circumstantial evidence, etc., is obviously, I believe, and hope the reader will agree, a uniquely human faculty. Regarding commitment, I suggest that the chimpanzee is committed by any response or response-impulse strong emough to writing summer camps austin, go through his prefrontal cortex to the premotor neurons which initiate the an essay motherland, act.
Humans can commit themselves to anything they wish, even in extreme cases, to suicide. (Incidentally, in bertha mason jane essay, Personal Knowledge, Michael Polanyi says every belief is a commitment.) ' var WPEndnote15 = ' Klivington, Kenneth A. An Essay On My Motherland! The Science of Mind. MIT Press 1989 From our new perspective, it is important to essays on auschwitz concentration camp, note that Libet’s subjects had agreed - committed themselves - to an essay, his instructions to move their hands, giving the RAS authority to generate the jane eyre, corresponding response-impulses. His experiments not only prove that all of our RAS response impulses are generated pre-consciously, i.e., subconsciously; but also exhibit clear cut manifestations of human will. But of on my, course his work has come under withering criticism from essays concentration camp his behaviorist peers. On My! Any research which carries the simon, slightest intimation of an exercise of the an essay on my motherland, will is anathema to most scientists and simon rochester, must be discredited. An Essay On My Motherland! One of creative writing summer camps austin, his peers had the ignorance to say that his subjects were not exercising free will because Libet had told them to on my, move their hands! The answer is that once they had agreed to participate the RF/RAS generated subconscious response impulses at intervals appropriate to the instructions, but which could be vetoed by the subject. Just as if I decide to get a drink of essays camp, water, I can forget about the details—the RF/RAS will generate all the on my motherland, steps necessary to accomplish the task, but I can change it to essays, a Coke. An Essay Motherland! ' var WPEndnote16 = ' Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in essays on auschwitz, the spinal column and brain. It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind.
The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of consciousness. ' var WPEndnote17 = ' As Allan Bloom writes in an essay motherland, The Closing of the American Mind: See the article in Science Daily, Consciousness in thalamus and midbrain ' var WPEndnote19 = ' This concept has been endorsed in principle by Sebastian Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, University of Chicago, in a letter to the author: “Your analysis is essays on auschwitz concentration camp, quite cogent and an essay motherland, logically impeccable - 20 years ago, the only counterargument would have been the neuropsychologist’s proclivity to creative writing camps, ‘localize’ complex functions such as consciousness in an essay, the part of the brain that has undergone the most obvious evolutionary change.” Also in a recent book, two (unnamed) neuroscientists are quoted as saying: From modern neuroanatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by the paralimbic regions from which it evolved.” Lewis, Thomas, et al., A General Theory of Love. Random House 2000 ' var WPEndnote20 = ' Among many other things, the concepts resolve the so-calledbinding problem, described by Christof Koch -- a neuroscientist at the California Institute of simon rochester mba essay, Technology, and a collaborator of Francis Crick in an essay on my, the search for consciousness -- as the central issue of the neuroscientists field. Simply put, thebinding problem is that although the brain evaluates different visual aspects of an bertha mason jane eyre, object -- such as color and shape -- in different parts of the brain, Koch says, there is no single place where everything comes together into a coherent percept. One can only motherland assume he means that the various aspects of the juliet, percept don't come together in the cortex where he believes consciousness must be. An Essay Motherland! But of course they do come together in the only element which has connections with every part of the simon rochester, brain, and where consciousness most likely does reside, in the thalamus. ' var WPEndnote21 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago ' var WPEndnote91 = ' Sebastian P. Grossman, Ph.D., late Emeritus Professor, Chair, Bio-Psychology, The University of Chicago (verbatim quote in a conversation with the author ' var WPEndnote23 = ' In Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior edited by Kandel, Schwartz and Jessell - one of the most authoritative and scrupulously honest reports of what scientists know and don’t know about the brain - we find the admission: . An Essay On My! . . cognitive neural science is only beginning to eyre essay, contribute to the analysis of the richness of on my motherland, internal representations that cognitive psychologists recognize as intervening between stimulus and response. For example, cognitive neural science has so far not directly addressed the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose that is common to human experience. Yet these issues are important to us as scientists and as people. It is expository narrative, precisely these mysterious phenomena, “the internal representations. that intervene between stimulus and response, . . . the subjective sense of individuality, will, and purpose” - phenomena which neurologists do not (cannot?) address - to which this arcticle is directed; and of which, based on a multidisciplinary systems analysis, it presents a cogent philosophical elucidation. The first part of this article is devoted to an essay on my motherland, a “bare bones” introduction of new paradigms of the brain and mind which can explain most of the behavior attributable to coursework, their (unimpaired) functions. Later, we will look at some functions attributable to a new paradigm of the psyche. Each of these paradigms is elucidated in more detail in the book referenced at the end of this article.
Stanford anthropologist Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff, has found that “chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans develop behavior patterns during the first two years of life (i.e., through the first six stages of the Piaget model) that are identical to the developmental patterns of human infants.” Animal Kingdom, July 1979 Could our brains be significantly different? ' var WPEndnote25 = ' Note that Bruner’s “inhibitory system” not only an essay on my motherland automatically removes over expository narrative essay 99% of available fact from our consideration, but also from our very perception . We don't even see or hear or feel these facts. Since most of us think we select “interesting” stimuli from the environment, and, except under very special circumstances, we don't - they are selected for us - this is a very important point in on my, our theory. And vice-versa? Doesn't consciousness, where our purposes are formed, need immediate access to the RF in expository narrative essay, order to motherland, implement them? ' var WPEndnote27 = ' The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard - Alpha Books 2002 ' var WPEndnote28 = ' I have been advised that some areas of the brain contiguous with or near the RF, e.g., the tegmentum, the periaquaductal grey, some tegmental and parabrachial nuclei, appear to participate in—or even perform—some of the gender outline, functions I have attributed to the RF. This is a very welcome suggestion since I have long felt that the RF itself, scanning and an essay on my, prioritizing 100 million sensory impulses per second, could do little more than simply “flag” significant stimuli. Therefore I was thoroughly prepared to accept the fact that other elements of the brain, contiguous with or near the RF, might contribute to its functions. Perhaps the RF provides only the creative writing summer camps, analog of the stimulus and the RAS retrieves to on my motherland, thalamic consciousness the digital details from the cortex, ala “Marilyn Monroe” above. Expository! Now there‘s an exciting idea, derived from an idea only implicit in on my motherland, a suggestion from Roy Sugarman, an Australian psychologist! ' var WPEndnote29 = ' LeDoux, Joseph, Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are, Penguin Books 2003 ' var WPEndnote30 = ' See Wooldridge below ' var WPEndnote56 = ' From Bergson’s Creative Evolution, “ The function of the intellect is to preside over actions. Now, in action, it is the coursework juliet romeo, result that interests us; the means matter little provided the end is attained.
Thence it comes that we are altogether bent on the end to be realized, generally trusting ourselves to it in order that the idea may become an an essay motherland, act; and thence it comes also that only the goal where our activity will rest is gender role essay, pictured explicitly to our mind: the movements constituting the action itself either elude our consciousness or reach it only confusedly. Let us consider a very simple act, like that of lifting the on my motherland, arm. Where should we be if we had to imagine beforehand all the elementary contractions and tensions this act involves, or even to perceive them, one by one, as they are accomplished? But the mind is role essay, carried immediately to the end, that is to on my, say, to the schematic and simplified vision of the act supposed accomplished. Then, if no antagonistic idea [Love or Belief] neutralizes the effect of the first idea, the mason jane, appropriate movements come of themselves to on my motherland, fill out the plan, drawn in some way by coursework juliet romeo the void of an essay on my, its gaps. Camps! The intellect then, only represents to the activity ends to on my, attain, that is to say, points of rest. And, from one end attained to another end attained, from one rest to another rest, our activity is carried by a series of leaps, during which our consciousness is turned away as much as possible from the movement going on, to regard only the anticipated image of the movement accomplished.” [pg. 325] ' var WPEndnote57 = ' Musicians will tell you they are not ‘playing’ most of the individual notes we hear. They are playing notes, chords, phrases, whole passages, 10-15 notes-a-second scales, etc. by auditorizing and role, committing RAS to their execution from on my motherland cortex neuronal motor memory sequences established through practice. Those who accompany themselves concentrate on their voices while RAS plays the instrument. Golfers visualize where they want the ball to land, pole vaulters to clearing the bar, etc. Role Essay Outline! Then they commit it to the ‘mind’ for execution. There should be a question mark after ‘Dominance,’since there are societies and animal species such as the langur monkey where dominance is absent; suggesting that dominance is not an on my motherland, innate Social-Animal Need, or can be attentuated through social learning. Perhaps ‘Mating and Feeding Privileges’ would be more pertinent. ' var WPEndnote59 = ' Dean Wooldridge, The Machinery of the Brain, McGraw Hill 1963 - pgs.
63-72 ' var WPEndnote60 = ' See Wooldridge&rsuo;s “stored programsrdquo below ' var WPEndnote31 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Touchstone 1995 ' var WPEndnote32 = ' See Consciousness in Thalamus and Midbrain Merluzzi, Glass Genest, Cognitive Assessment, Guilford 1981. Baars Gage point out expository essay essay, that metacogntion is on my, manifest only in prefrontal cortex, and is missing when frontal lobes are damaged. Since the coursework juliet, PFC is where our “cognitive functions” take place, it is little wonder that metacognition is only manifest in connection with activities of the PFC. I believe animals too, may be conscious of the alternative response-impulses resident in on my, their PFC’s, but have no independent control of them. Their responses are based only on narrative essay their instincts and memories, and only circumstantial changes can trigger which response will be enacted. Response-impulses in the human PFC are based on memories and all the elements (conscious and subconscious) in the Love/Belief System—all our Loves, Beliefs, Values, Needs, etc. Our metacognizance gives us a much wider variety of responses to any situation, and “I”-power to commit ourselves to the response (right or wrong) which carries the most weight based on all those factors. ' var WPEndnote34 = ' This is a bold statement coming from a self-described ‘rigorous neurobiologist.’ (See below) Doesn‘t “when it is an essay motherland, up to the subject to decide how to interpret an ambiguous situation. ” imply free will? Risking even more criticism from essays on auschwitz concentration camp their peers, Baars Gage admit, “ “The choices we make are not inherent in the situations at hand. They are a complex interplay between the properties of the situations and our own properties, our aspirations, our doubts, and our histories. An Essay Motherland! The prefrontal cortex is central to such decision-making.
Finding solutions for deterministic situations is often accomplished algorithmically. . . Coursework Juliet Romeo! but making choices in on my motherland, the absence of inherently correct solutions remains, at least for now, a uniquely human territory. In a sense, the freedom of choice is possible only when ambiguity is present. ” (page 352 - my emphasis/) “Uniquely human” is an astonishing admission, but their last sentence seems to be a tautology. Creative Camps! Doesn’t choice require an ambiguity, i.e., the existence of alternatives? And isn’t ambiguity present in almost everything we do? However, they revert to scientism, and seem to contradict themselves on an essay the same page: “ Of all the aspects of the human mind none are more intriguing than intentionality , and juliet romeo, volition. But these attributes of human mind are fully at play only in situations affording multiple choices. Numerous assertions have been made by an essay motherland philosophers and scientists that volition and intentionality are uniquely human traits. In its absolute form, this claim cannot appeal to a rigorous neurobiologist. It is more likely that these properties of the mind have developed gradually through evolution, possibly following an exponential course.“ Isn’t exponential evolution an oxymoron? And whatis ‘gradual exponential evolution?’ “ Words that have personal significance for participants, ‘body bags, Nam, Medevac,’ for the Vietnam veterans versus ‘revolver, incest, 9/11, or fire’ for civilian victims, are repeatedly found to gain access to awareness more readily than neutral words. ” Baars Gage, page 380. Also “ Acquisition and extinction of fear responses conditioned to a visual stimulus were examined in rats with ablations of visual cortex. Gender Essay Outline! Visual cortex lesions did not interfere with acquisition, indicating that visual fear conditioning, like auditory fear conditioning, is mediated by an essay on my sub-cortical, probably thalamo-amygdala, sensory pathways. Writing Camps! In contrast to on my motherland, acquisition, extinction was greatly prolonged, if not prevented, by cortical ablation.
This resistance to extinction of sub cortical emotional memories may explain certain aspects of emotional memory in man. ” In Baars Gage we find the expository essay narrative essay, admission: “Such permanent stores may not show up directly in brain imaging studies because they are encoded in the connective strengths between neurons. Methods like functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity may therefore under-represent the vast amount of motherland, long-term knowledge. ” page 295 “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of information between the creative summer, reticular formation and the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” Baars Gage, page 145 For example, Baars Gage ascribe virtually omniscient and incredible powers (a vertiable ghost in the machine) to the frontal lobes with, “Since the selection of the information required to solve the problem at hand is made in an essay motherland, the frontal lobes, they must ‘know,’ at least roughly, where in the brain this information is stored. Creative Summer! This suggests that all the cortical regions are somehow represented in the frontal lobes, an assertion first made by Hughlings Jackson (1884). Motherland! Such representation is writing summer camps, probably coarse, rather than specific, enabling the frontal lobes to know what type of information is stored where, but not the specific information itself. The frontal lobes then contact the appropriate parts of the on my, brain and bring the memory trace ‘on-line’, by activating the circuitry that embodies it. ” page 354. The frontal lobes have a map of the entire cortex, and know where all the memories are? Isn’t it much more likely that the RAS finds precedent responses in the cortex and transmits them with the relevant “information required to juliet, solve the problem” to the frontal lobes? Nigel Calder - The Mind of Man - Penguin 1973 - pg. On My! 30 See: http://discovermagazine.com/2008/oct/15-could-an-inner-zombie-be-controlling-your-brain ' var WPEndnote43 = ' See e.g., how the juliet romeo, Mayo Clinic describes the ‘functions’ of different parts of the brain, at an essay on my, How Your Brain Works http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/brain/BN00033 ' var WPEndnote42 = ' St. Thomas Aquinas’ Agent was the soul, with faculties of memory, intellect, and romeo, will. Karen Horney refes to on my motherland, our ‘real self;’ Roberto Assagioli to bertha mason jane, our ‘higher self;’ Carl Jung to our ‘self,’ or ‘God within us;’ Martin Buber to ‘I’ and ‘Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to the ‘Observing Self;’ Antonio Damasio to a ‘proto self;’ Ernest Becker (See his Pulitizer Prize winning Denial of Death, ) refers to our ‘proud, rich, lively,infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.’ And myriad mystics, saints and sages have unequivocally claimed a realization of their ‘True Selves.’ Here’s what one of the world’s most renowned psychologists has to say on motherland this subject: Now that cognitive psychology has taken the rochester, head once lopped off by radical behaviorism and an essay on my, returned it to the body of psychology, we might in the next 10 years consider implanting a heart or a little soul in the same body.
When that takes place, it may be easier to know what psychologists can offer to people and how they can do so, because then they will be us. Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D. (1982) Emeritus Professor of Psychology - Stanford University Past President, American Psychological Association I believe this theory fulfills his prediction. We have ‘hearts’; we are Souls. Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. Role Essay Outline! It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the trivial, letting the vital through to an essay on my, alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of consciousness. ' var WPEndnote45 = ' See Baars Gage speculations (page 145) about ERTAS serving as a ‘blackboard,‘ used by the cortex to broadcast its prevailing conscious sensory stimuli to other parts of the brain. This of essay narrative essay, course is the an essay, reverse of my theory that it is ERTAS that uses the cortex in its processes.
But they do mention that “ Dixon (1971) has also argued that the circulating flow of essays on auschwitz camp, information between the reticular formation and the sensory areas of the cortex is required before sensory input becomes conscious.” confirming the motherland, theory of coursework juliet, this article. ' var WPEndnote46 = ' Disbeliefs are not just a mirror image of on my, beliefs; belief in democracy engenders disbeliefs in monarchy, socialism, communism, dictatorship, etc. Beliefs are very prolific. Memories of romeo, traumatic or emotional experiences can also act as ‘beliefs,’ generating fear, anxiety, sorrow, joy, etc., as reactions to relevant stimuli. ' var WPEndnote47 = ' “It is believed that ADD/ADHD is motherland, caused by a problem in the reticular activating system.” “Neuroscientists have been conducting studies on the reticular activating system and gender role essay, its role in on my, behavior, Alzheimer’s disease, and ADD/ADHD. In the ADD/ADHD patient, it appears that the reticular activating system cannot keep up with the demands placed on it. Rochester! This leads to over-arousal, under-motivation, and an essay motherland, the other symptoms of ADD/ADHD.” All of the bertha mason eyre essay, ‘demands’ on the Reticular Activating System come from the Reticular Formation.
Are television sponsors, paying millions for only seconds of airtime to make an impression, training children for an essay motherland ADD? ' var WPEndnote48 = ' Some have qustioned whether our Need to Exist is essays on auschwitz concentration camp, uniquely human. An Essay On My! But the ‘Existence’ we treasure is role, not with just being alive; it is the marvelous gift of an essay on my, a Self-directed Life. The soul shows its royal and bertha jane eyre, exalted character, . . in that it is free and an essay, self-governed, swayed autonomously by juliet romeo its own will. Of whom else can this be said, save a king? St. Gregory of Nysss But he was unable to define it. He wrote: “What we hope to see developed . . . is a science of the an essay, Self, of its energies, its manifestations, of how these energies can be released, how they can be contacted, how they can be used for constructive and therapeutic work.” The book from which this article is derived provides a cogent theoretical ‘science of the Self,’ by mason jane eyre delineating existential Needs and Faculties of the on my motherland, ‘higher Self,’ which, added to on auschwitz concentration, the Social Animal Needs we share with Neanderthal adn chimpanzee, can fully account for our superior aspirations and capabilities; Faculties which “ can be contacted, released, and used for constructive and therapeutic work.” ' var WPEndnote50 = ' The srticla concludes: Transpersonal identity is associated with the realisation of modes of functioning and experience that have distinctly ‘spiritual’ qualities. The different theories are also in motherland, basic accord on the particular spiritual qualities that we can recognise as characterising transpersonal identity. Jane Eyre! Frances Vaughan (1985, p. 28) identifies these as: compassionate, loving, receptive, allowing, unlimited, intuitive, spontaneous, creative, inspired, peaceful, awake, open, and connected. Where the theories fail to agree is in their conceptual understanding of the transpersonal self, and in on my motherland, their developmental psychology or explanations of how transpersonal identity may be achieved. Itisprecisely this ‘conceptual understanding’ of the transpersonal self which this article will address, and offer a cogent and essay, well-received theory. Whatever would disturb one’s cherished self-image tends to be repressed. Whatever might make the individual appear to himself unworthy, guilty, inadequate, sadistic, inconsistent with his ideas or ideals, escapist, or not living up to one’s ideals, tends to be removed from consciousness. [emphasis added] Silvano Arieti, The Will to be Human, pg. An Essay On My! 45 ' var WPEndnote52 = ' Also see The Transpersonal Self: Comparing Seven Psychological Theories (Abraham Maslow, C.G. Jung, Roberto Assagioli, Stan Grof, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Peggy Wright), by Michael Daniels at psychicscience.org/papers/daniels02b.pdf Personally, I don’t agree the Self is trans -personal, since the essay outline, Self is the essence of person; the element which distinguishes us from the chimpanzee, whose DNA is on my, virtually identical to our own. Mason Essay! I prefer Becker’s transcentdent Self. ' var WPEndnote53 = ' I have identified this as a ‘new theory of neuropsychology,’ but to the best of my knowledge and conscientious research it is the an essay, first and only basic theory of neuropsychology—one which from writing summer camps a systems standpoint, and in an essay motherland, the unimpaired brain, reconciles all known cognitive brain component processes with all psychologic phenomena. As you will see in the notes which follow, psychologists have ‘given up the theoretical life,’ and essay, neurobiologists are running into brick walls of an essay, psychologic phenomena which they are finding impossible to explain, even in terms of brain component processes. ' var WPEndnote54 = ' And now, just in essays on auschwitz concentration camp, the past few years it has been found that the DNA of neanderthals, who spent hundreds of thousands of years on an essay on my the planet and developed only one tool—a sharpened stone— is 99.7% identical to ours!
Since the size of the neanderthal brain is equivalent to ours, this provides even better evidence for our theory than the chimpanzee. See the Novenber 2010 press relaease from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology at http://www.mpg.de/623578/pressRelease201011021. They conclude that though the brains of expository essay, humans, chimpanzees and neanderthals are similar at birth, they develop differently! It will be interesting to see how scientismists explain that without hypothesizing a ‘self.’ ' var WPEndnote55 = ' “Gatekeeper to consciousness, spark of the an essay on my motherland, mind, the reticular formation connects with major nerves in the spinal column and brain. Camp! It sorts the 100 million impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting the on my, trivial, letting the vital through to alert the mind. The mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma - the loss of consciousness.” ' var WPEndnote62 = ' Calder, Nigel - The Mind of Man - Penguin 1973 - pg.
30 ' var WPEndnote63 = ' Bailey, Ronald H., et al. Expository Essay Narrative! - The Role of the Brain, Time-Life Books 1975 ' var WPEndnote64 = ' The Brain - Mystery of Matter and Mind, U. An Essay Motherland! S. News Books - 1981. Note the phrase, ‘alerting the cortex’ and similar phrases in the following paragraphs based on the universally accepted theory that processing of stimuli takes place solely in an upward path to mason eyre essay, the cortex, the home to an essay on my, consciousness and essay, all our higher faculties. But this is an an essay motherland, untenable hypothesis, and rather than alerting the cortex, it is more likely that the RAS, centered with consciousness in the thalamus, is using the cortex to flesh out the percept and to identify and mason jane eyre, implement a ‘relevant’ response. ' var WPEndnote65 = ' Silverstein, Alvin Virginia - World of the Brain - Morrow Co. NY 1986 ' var WPEndnote66 = ' How Things Work - the Brain - Time-Life Books 1992 ' var WPEndnote67 = ' Wooldridge, Dean - The Machinery of the an essay on my motherland, Brain - McGraw-Hill 1963. Thus, the Reticular Activating System does not turn over processing and resolution of stimuli to ‘higher powers’ in the cortex, as neuroscientists believe, but manages the entire operation from start to finish, guided by the goal-image generated in thalamic consciousness by the RF/RAS which called forth the energy from the motor neurons. ' var WPEndnote68 = ' The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Understanding the Brain - Bard Bard ' var WPEndnote69 = ' Francis Crick, Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul, Charles Scribner Sons 1994 ' var WPEndnote70 = ' The First Credible Theory of Cognitive Neuroscience? Resolving the Mind/Brain/Behavior/Enigma. The human mind has an ‘inhibitory system’ which.
routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and coursework romeo, judgement over 99% of available fact.” Jerome S. An Essay! Bruner (1915-2 016) Everyt hing one knows began as a selection of juliet, a small group of cognitive impulses from the an essay motherland, body, the environment, memories, and conscious and subconscious elements of each of our usually inchoate Love/Belief Systems- all received by the Reticular Formation (RF), a small bundle of nerves at the top of the brain stem, which at a rate of 100,000,000 impulses a second has 24/7, by mason eyre essay unknown means, selected those most important to the individual. This selection is projected to an essay motherland, the thalamus and hypothalamus, locus of the long-known but disregarded Reticular Activating System . With afferent and efferent connections to the entire brain and body, RAS, identifies and with deference to Love/Belief System elements-perceptual defenses, inhibitions, repressions, etc.- interprets the outline, data, before reaching consciousness. The laundered data accompanied by relevant response-impulse(s), which if benign, unopposed or coonditioned will be executed; or will vie for execution, which only motherland humans with newly defined inherent transcendent needs and coursework juliet, faculties, can review and execute, veto, or alter. Everthing we know and believe has run a gauntlet of RAS processing which, with accesss to conscious and subcondcious elemets of our Love/Belief Systems (which Christians will recognize as our Hearts), routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and motherland, judgement over role essay outline 99% of available fact. We are living in a post-hypnotic trance, induced in early infancy.
All neuroscience is based on the paradigm of a modular brain, each component independently responsible for, or participating in each brain function—with only one stellar but completely neglected explanation of how they do work together in coordinated responses. tt is an essay on my motherland, also based on the paradigm of ‘neuronal man’?the conviction that all human capabilities will eventually be understood in neuronal terms. I will argue that since our DNA has been shown to be 98+% identical to that of the chimpanzee, which after millions of years is still living in bertha mason jane eyre essay, trees; and an essay, recently 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, after 200-300,000 years still living in caves with one tool, a sharpened stone, when they became extinct, that our brains are functionally identical to theirs. This revolutionary new theory, with doctoral appraisals of “.. a cogent and intellectually impeccable analysis,” and It is great . a breakthrough of insight and a comprehensive unification of the relevant sciences, will present a decades-long researched contradistinction of both neuronal man and the modular brain. With Dr. Essay! Dean Wooldridge’s stellar application of biological, neurological, cybernetic, and computer sciences in unraveling brain processes, you will find compelling proof that the brain is managed coherently by the long-known, but completely neglected, Reticular Activating System (RAS), including its ‘sentinel’ and ‘lieutenant,’ the Reticular Formation (RF).
The Reticular Activating System, with its locus in an essay motherland, the thalamus and hypothalamus, is gender role essay outline, a vast network of neuronal afferent and efferent connections to the entire brain and body. Thus it is the on my, perfect candidate for the brain’s Command and Control System?the de facto manager and coordinator of all brain functions. Narrative Essay! I will present substantial evidence that RAS is an essay, dedicated 24/7 365 to maintaining homeostasis in all human biological, socio-biological, physiological, environmental, psychological, emotional, and volitional states. the reticular formation connects with major nerves. in the spinal column and brain. Coursework Romeo! It sorts the 100 million. impulses that assault the brain each second, deflecting.
the trivial, letting the an essay on my, vital through to alert the mind. The. mind cannot function without this catalytic bundle of cells. Damage to them results in coma—the loss of expository essay, consciousness. U. An Essay On My! S. News Books - 1981. Although this rendering points to the Reticular Activating System it does not make clear that the Reticular Formation to which it refers, is just a small bundle of unique neurons at the top of the brainstem, within the System. Also it shows only the essay, Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) and not the Descending Reticular Activating System (DRAS) which extends throughout the entire body, and most likely includes the central and peripheral nervous systems.
For a detailed description of DRAS neurological functions, see firstname.lastname@example.org. Here is a more detailed rendering of ARAS. Note the good Professor’s precise use of the on my, word ‘proclivity,’ and quote marks around localize. In other words, they posit our higher faculties in the prefrontal lobes, because their proportionately larger size was the creative writing, only difference they could find between our brains and those of the motherland, primates from which they were sure we had evolved. Juliet! (And a large brain didn't provide any benefits to Neanderthal.) Although this rendering is an essay on my motherland, meant to illustrate the human brain, I will argue that it is common to the brain of mba essay, all sentient beings. With DNA virtually identical to Neanderthal and chimpanzee for example, it’s hard to see how our brains could have significant biological differences. Then what is the difference between humans and Neanderthal?
Here we must part company with those who support the neuronal man paradigm and speak to those who know that we are not just another social animal?that except for knee-jerk responses, we have the an essay on my motherland, power to review, veto, or alter our response-impulses. (I’m not going to punch my boss out, no matter how mad I am!) What is it that makes us so different? The question has resounded since the dawn of recorded time. The most common theories come from scholars who have proposed an Agent or ‘self’ which might explain our differences; but most without ascription, others with nebulous characteristics, none except perhaps Freud have offered a ‘self’ I (ego) which could explain our differences with our DNA analogues, or could be integrated with known psychological and neural operations of the role essay, brain, all of which are included in this new theory. And most neuroscientists derisively dismiss the idea of a transpersonal self as a mythical ‘ghost in the machine’ (while they accept millions in research funds to try to tease its exact equivalent out of some magical hidden powers of the cortex.) Some of the many theorists who have postulated or made reference to an essay on my motherland, a unique human Agent are: St. Thomas Aquinas postulated the spiritual Soul with faculties of memory, intellect, and will. Freud‘s Agent was “I” (German ‘ich,’ translated as ego) with a laundry-list of faculties (which he apparently thought included all our 'higher powers': perception, conscious thought, memory, learning, choice, judgment, and action; Carl Jung referred to an undefined ‘self,’ or archetypal ‘God within us;’ Karen Horney to our “ real self, . the central inner force, . Concentration Camp! which is the deep source of growth, . the an essay on my, spring of emotional forces, of jane, constructive energies, of directive and an essay, judiciary powers;” Roberto Assagioli to an undefined but influential ‘higher self;’ Martin Buber to expository narrative, ‘I and Thou;’ Arthur Deikman to an ‘Observing Self;’ Anton io Damasio to an essay, a ‘proto self;’ LeDoux to essay outline, our 'synaptic self;' Ernest Becker refers to our “proud, rich, lively, infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit.” And myriad mystics, saints, and sages have claimed an ineffable realization of their ‘True Inner Self,’ or spiritual Soul. For a scholarly and thoughtful review of motherland, seven of these theories, see TheTranspersonalSelf .com. The Soul’s uniquely human Faculties can be seen to be Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment, yielding our preternatural Free Will, which accounts for mba essay our creativity -the ability to bring into being things which had their origins only in our Imaginaitons, something like God.
The Immortal “I” Most of us think of ourselves as objective, and an essay on my, that our belief systems represent the standards we apply to evaluation of our cognitive percepts as to their meaning, significance, veracity, etc. But I have introduced the gender essay, concept that both the inherent Social-Animal Needs we share with our DNA analogues, and our Love/Belief Systems become wired in our brains between stimulus and cognition, forming two sources of continuous stimuli to the brain, with the on my motherland, environment providing the third. Juliet! The Love/Belief System also serves as a ‘reference database,’ which RAS uses in the interpretation, evaluation, and often modification of cognitive stimuli, then generation of on my, ‘relevant’ emotions and response-impulses before they reach full consciousness, i.e., Soul-awareness. Thus neurologically, we each experience the world through our Hearts. Following for reference throughout this article is the simon rochester, diagram I propose as illustrative of RAS processing of all social animals. The Social Animal Brain Processing. Instincts have been left blank, since they vary among Social Animals.
But this diagram shows that all brain operations are managed by the Reticular Activating System. The Reticular Formation, monitoring the environment, Instincts, and Social-Animal Needs, forwards selected stimuli on to the RAS which extracts from cortex memory 9-10 times more information. This yields identification and relevant responses. An Essay On My Motherland! These are then forwarded to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for resolution (described later), then back through RAS processing for a ‘feasibility check.’ Ambiguous responses ‘hang up’ in the PFC until additional RF environmental stimuli or cortex memory input causes one to rochester mba essay, prevail and an essay motherland, is executed or the stimulus abates. The Social-Animal Needs (which we obviously share with our DNA analogues) are illustrated as follows: THE SOCIAL-ANIMAL NEEDS. The following diagram is the same brain, but of the human, with Instincts replaced by the individual’s Love/Belief System, and introduces the “I” Needs and Faculties responsible for all our higher powers. HOW THE HUMAN BRAIN WORKS, COHERENTLY. Absentt only neurologists and strangely, cognitive psychologists who know most about what the rochester, brain does, many theorists, including even some intrepid physicists and mathematicians, far out of their fields, are exercising their prodigious powers of imagination to justify the concept that consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, etc.?must be some hidden purely neuronal functions of the ortex. Since I am taking strong exception to this universal direction of research (alone as far as I know), as well as to neuronal man, I must devote the following portion to pointing out motherland, some of what appear to be the most flagrant fallacies, contradictions, labored conjectures and impasses inherent in essay essay, the modular braom paradigm.
Then I'll present a wealth of evidence-including scientific evidence-that the an essay on my motherland, brain does work erently. First however, I want to writing summer, largely exempt Bernard J. Baars, ohPh.D., and Nicole M. Gage, Ph.D. from my criticism, based on their lucid and carefully researched textbook, Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness: Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience - Academic Press, 2007. Dedicated scientists, they struggle bravely with such things as metacognition, intentionality, volition, and an essay motherland, “making choices in the absence of inherently correct solutions,” which they admit “remains, at least for now, a uniquely human territory.” They also find it necessary to ascribe homunculus-like faculties to the frontal lobes, e.g., as having a “coarse map of the entire cortex,” so they can retrieve memories relevant to their decision-making processes. [BG page 354] But I have made good use of their neuroscience research which corroborates and has been incorporated in my theory, and also of the gaps and expository narrative essay, impasses in all neuropsychology, e.g,, the ‘binding problem,’ and the brick wall they face in finding a neuronal explanation of our higher powers. I think every student of cognitive neurology should have a copy of this excellent book. The problem facing neuroscientists was that the chimpanzee’s DNA was found to an essay on my, be 98+% identical to romeo, ours, followed by finding that the on my, 2% difference was related only to “hair, skin, bones, blood, muscle, and bertha mason essay, the like”?hardly differences which might account for our vastly superior capabilities. And in 2010 we found that our DNA is 99.7% identical to Neanderthal man, which, after 200-300,000 years on the planet were still living in on my, caves with one tool, a sharpened stone when they became extinct; lending even stronger evidence to this theory.
Our DNA is not similar to that of Neanderthal and. chimpanzee?it is, to all intents and purposes, identical. Then why are we so different? Most scientists have concluded that our higher faculties must be found in the cortex, particularly in essay, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), both proportionally larger than those of the chimp, assuming that a larger but biologically identical brain, can account for on my motherland our superiority. So hundreds of researchers are expending millions of people-hours, devoting all their efforts to locate human faculties of consciousness, reasoning, decision-making, imagination, conviction, etc., as originating in some yet-to-be discovered neuron al capabilities of the cortex. Nor is there any validity to the popular ‘triune’ nature of the brain, as composed of evolutionary development from lizard to mammalian to coursework juliet, primate brains. The so-called lizard brain is not a brain at all, since it represents only a portion of the lizard brain, which like ours, is an essay motherland, comprised of brainstem, midbrain, and cortex. Nor is the mammalian brain a brain.
And as we shall see, their derogation of the importance of the lower and role, mid-brain in favor of the cortex has led researchers to only a perfunctory analysis of their vital and marvelous functions. Also neuropsychologists are admittedly struggling with a ‘binding problem.’ The visual characteristics of an object?color, shape, size, motion?are registered and interpreted in different parts of the cortex. So, they wonder, “If I see something red, round, baseball-size, and in motion, where in the cortex do all those percepts come together to instantly tell me that I’m going to get hit in the face with a tomato?” The famous binding problem. The answer is that they don’t come together in the cortex, but in the thalamus and midbrain, the much more likely home to consciousness. Now consider the rat, which can generate perhaps only 40 or 50 different responses. But those few responses have insured the perpetuation of the species for motherland thousands of years.
Now looking at the successive identically anatomical forms of the brain of the rat, cat, owl monkey, rhesus monkey, and chimpanzee, isn’t it obvious that these are simply sequentially larger versions of the outline, rat’s marvelously efficient brain? Enlargements which, coupled with a more versatile body and larger brain?more RAM work space and memory?enable the chimp to generate scores of responses and, by operant conditioning and social and experiential learning, acquire scores more? S ince our DNA is identical, isn’t it obvious that our brain is just a larger chimp’s brain, operating on on my motherland the same principles and bertha mason jane eyre essay, components? Much of what we know about the human brain has been learned from primates (and mice!). Also, pioneers in an essay on my motherland, artificial intelligence realized that the computer must be equipped with many facts: children can’t be as old or older than their parents, tools are bought at essay narrative essay, a hardware store, etc. Motherland! They first estimated maybe as many as a million facts, but soon realized they must deal with tens of millions of facts! Where does the brain store all this information? Further, imagine the sheer number of one's memories and neural motor sequence memories?routines?necessary for on auschwitz camp a typist to hit 8 keys a second for an essay on my motherland minutes at a time, without realizing what he has typed?for words to appear on a page while he thinks of something else. Imagine the number of memory routines necessary to drive my car through traffic while I’m day-dreaming, and alert me instantly to mba essay, anything requiring my attention; or for an essay on my motherland our thoughtless morning ablutions.
For a concert pianist to have thousands of bertha, musical phrases wired to the motor neurons of an essay motherland, his fingers, arms, feet, and legs; some of which can be executed continuously for twenty minutes? Where could we possibly store all our memories and outline, tens of motherland, millions of facts and sensory and motor sequences?routines, subroutines, and sub-subroutines?all this memory? Why, only in a much larger cortex of course! We don’t need another operating system; but we humans obviously need more work-space (PFC RAM) and memory, a larger hard drive; both provided by the vast association areas and depth of the human cortex. Further, limited to fMRI scans of the brain, neuropsychologists consider activities such as thought, reasoning, perception, emotions, etc., as functions of the parts of the brain which ‘light up’ when those activities are operant, but activities which are impaired when that part of the brain is mason essay, damaged, lesioned or diseased. But a computer hard drive operates exactly the same way?activates relevant sectors when certain programs are called for, and fails to execute those programs when those sectors are damaged. Does that mean computer operations are ‘functions’ of the hard drive? The hard drive is motherland, just a passive memory of operational sequences called forth and gender, managed from somewhere else. Correlation should not be confused with causal.
Calling mental and biological activities functions of brain segments which light up, is like saying that controlling an airplane’s flight attitude is an essay, a function of the ailerons, rudder, and elevator, which are active in flight corrections, but which are functions of the pilot or autopilot. Still further, believing all our higher powers are in the cortex, scientists have concentrated on the one-way upward course of information from the senses to writing summer, the reticular formation and thalamus up to on my motherland, the cortex, where they think processing, analysis, and decision-making must take place. But in The Creative Loop - How the Brain Makes a Mind, Erich Harth says neuroscientists have “studiously ignored” the instant downward passage of ten times more information from cortex to thalamus. Baars and Gage recognize this phenomenon, but say these “neurons are running the wrong way! ” (sic!) And further, that RAS uses the appropriate components of the brain. to manage implementation of RAS selected or Soul initiated responses. For example, when one hears the essay, words, ‘Marilyn Monroe’ (OK, I'm 95), they pass in neural networks through the reticular formation to uncomprehending consciousness in an essay on my motherland, the thalamus and up to auditory regions in essay narrative essay, the cortex.
But ten times more information is instantly returned from the cortex to thalamic consciousness?enough information to yield a picture of motherland, a beautiful blonde in a white dress and high heels standing over eyre a subway exhaust grille trying to hold her skirt down?a picture which would require scores of thousands of computer bytes. On the other hand, presented with that picture, it is sent in neural networks through unknowing consciousness to visual cortex V1 through V3, and returns the name 'Marilyn Monroe' to consciousness in the thalamus, together with what the listener knows of on my motherland, her life. Some neuroscientists agree, at narrative, least in an essay on my, part: “From modern neuro-anatomy, it is apparent that the entire neocortex of humans continues to be regulated by coursework juliet the paralimbic regions from which it evolved.” In view of the above, it is on my, a major thesis of this article that although. we use the brain differently, e.g,. for everything from language to. putting men on the moon, and therefore develop different capacities. of its components, the human brain, in and of itself, has no inherent. functional capabilities which differentiate it from the gender role essay outline, brain of the.
chimpanzee or Neanderthal. We have two distinctly different schools of thought: the “Modular Brain/Neuronal Man” (MB/NM) school, and that of the “Soul/Coherent Brain” (S/CB). The thoughtful reader will find many more problems, speculations, and contradictions in an essay on my, MB/NM in this article and notes, and hopefully appreciate the coursework romeo, far-reaching explanatory powers of S/CB. How the an essay, Brain Works, Coherently. Look at it this way: if beings from another planet got to earth, and simply observed an automobile for a day or two without raising the hood, but listening, examining the gas, the exhaust, etc., they would undoubtedly be able to role essay, tell, without a design of each part, exactly what components were at work inside the car. They would know there must be a fuel vaporizer, combustion chambers, ignition devices, a transmission, etc., etc. Now with ever-increasing analytical skills, and an essay on my motherland, ever-increasing data, we have been observing ourselves for several thousand years, and creative writing austin, no one seems to be trying to analyze the brain from a systems standpoint?to postulate the components and their functions which must be at on my, work ‘under the hood,’ in order to explain all the rational and juliet romeo, irrational physical, mental, and emotional responses which biologists, neuroscientists, and particularly cognitive psychologists know the brain can generate and/or implement. 1. Immediate access to an essay motherland, all available internal and circumstantialental information,
2. A means of rochester, rapidly assimilating, evaluating, and pioritizing. 3. A means of selecting and an essay on my motherland, implementing appropriate responses. t o the information, and. 4. Immediate two-way communications, for control and feedback, with all of the subsystems. The human brain is the most complex. system in the world, with many subsystems. capable of juliet, operating in a coordinated way. its components and subsystems?much more complicated than.
a battleship?could possibly coordinate each of their functions in. timely management of the thousands of complex physical, mental, emotional, and biological responses of the brain, providing as it. does, instantaneous, coordinated reactions to motherland, circumstances of. vital interest, without an ‘autopilot’—a priority evaluator and. responder to all internal and environmental stimuli, i.e., a command and control system. Fortunately, we have the perfect candidate for coursework the brain's. command and control system in the Reticular Activating.
System, centered (with consciousness?) in the midbrain, immediate access to all internal and external stimuli, known to scan and prioritize that information, select and. implement relevant responses: the Reticular Activating. System with its ‘sentinel,’ the Reticular Formation. minor properties of the Reticular Activating System/ Reticular Formation for an essay over 50 years, none of them, to my knowledge, has suggested they form a command.
and control system for operations of the coursework juliet romeo, entire brain. One of the keys to a cogent systems analysis of the brain was provided many years ago by the renowned Jerome S. Bruner, one of the fathers of existential psychology, when he stated. The human mind has an ‘inhibitory system’ which. routinely and automatically removes from perception, reason, and judgment over 90% of available fact. In 1958, physiologist H. W. Magoun described some of the RF/RAS functions in The Waking Brain. An Essay On My! The Reticular Formation was found to be a small bundle of short-axon neurons at the top of the brainstem, many ofwhich are uniquely unspecific. With its millions of neuronal pathways to and from the romeo, brain and the body, the whole system was named the Reticular Activating System, because stimulation of the on my motherland, RF awakened sleeping subjects, while damage to the RF resulted in coma.
But, now, after 50+ years, neurologists have identified only coursework juliet a few of the RAS purposes. On My Motherland! (Google ‘Reticular Activating System’ to see the gender outline, paucity of information about an essay motherland, it, and simon, the few powers attributed to it.) Although its centralized location and countless connections would seem to enable it to perform myriad functions, neurologists have no tools to investigate the remarkable functions of the Reticular Activating System; how it can process 100 million impulses a second, and select the most ‘significant’ to each individual. The answer was not explicable by motherland any known neurological processes. Drawing on the works of scores of role essay outline, geniuses in an essay, biology, cognitive and phenomenological psychology, cybernetics, and neuroscience in a systems analysis, we can now develop a schematic of cognitive brain functions. iInformation about rochester mba essay, RAS is scarce, but by combing the literature, we find scores of clues to a coherent brain managed by the marvelous powers of RF/RAS. Following is compelling evidence that the Reticular Activating System, in both humans and an essay on my, animals, is the perfect neurological candidate for the brain’s Command and Control System. For example: [The reticular formation] “is well placed to monitor all the nerves connecting brain and simon mba essay, body. It ‘knows’ what is going on better than any other part of the brain.” [The RF] “alerts the on my, brain to incoming information from the senses, and from the centers of thought, memory and feeling. More than that, it adjudicates the relative importance of that information. .. In a way the RAS is creative summer camps, like a vigilant secretary, sorting out the an essay, trivia from the incoming messages.” “The reticular formation is, in essence, the physical basis of consciousness, the gender role essay outline, brain’s chief watchguard. . The reticular formation continuously sifts and selects, forwarding only the essential, the on my motherland, unusual, the creative writing camps, dangerous to the conscious mind. . The reticular formation can both send and receive messages. If it suddenly spots one that merits attention, it shoots up an alert through ascending RAS pathways to receiving areas in the cortex.
Timed to arrive simultaneously with the impulses sent directly from sensory receptors the RAS alerts the on my motherland, cortex to these impulses.” “The RAS determines which . bits of information are important enough - or novel enough - to report to the higher portions of the brain. . Bertha Eyre Essay! Normally, the information relating to automatic actions, such as the heart-beat and digestion, is dealt with directly by the RAS without allowing any awareness of them to filter through to on my, the conscious bran.” Fortunately we are blessed with the work of the genius Dean Wooldridge, Ph.D. (1913-2006) biologist and President of Thompson Ramo Wooldridge working on missile development and control, in his book The Machinery of the Brain written in 1963! He also found time to apply his stellar mind to neuroscience. The brain’s response selector has been given the name reticular activating system by H. W. Magoun and his coworkers at U.C.L.A. The reticular activating system consists of a mass of undifferentiated neurons that extend from the creative austin, top of the spinal cord through the on my motherland, brainstem on up into the thalamus and hypothalamus. These two structures are at the extreme top and forward part of the brainstem and are well inside, but not a part of, the surrounding cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus, part of which is included in summer, the reticular activating system, appeared in our earlier discussion as the seat of temperature control of the body. The reticular formation gets its name from the fact that it looks like a more or less homogeneous network of cells; it shows little evidence of organization into anatomically distinct ‘nuclei,’ although it passes through and around a number of motherland, nuclei in traversing the length of the brain-stem. Close examination of the reticular formation shows that it consists of a mixture of large and small neurons, many, but not all, having short axons. Concurrent with the bertha, selection by an organism of one of several alternate behavior patterns, there is often need for adjustment of some of the oper-ating parameters.
In our missile example, the shift from mid-course to on my, terminal guidance usually must be accompanied by changes in the dynamic response characteristics of the steering mechanism. During the final approach to coursework juliet, the target, a tighter kind of ‘muscular’ control of the missile is required. An Essay! . Reticular influences on the muscles are numerous and varied. Apart from such special modifications of mason jane eyre, muscular function as those just described, the general muscle tone of the body—the degree of an essay on my motherland, contraction that characterizes the normal resting muscles-is controlled by the reticular activating system. Interference with certain of the communication channels from the reticular system to the muscles (by cutting of some of the nerves or by suitably placed lesions) results in simon rochester, extreme muscular contraction; interference with other of the efferent fibers of the reticular formation causes the an essay on my, muscles to relax completely. Electric stimulation or lesions in another part of the reticular activating system interfere with the normal dynamic balance of the rochester mba essay, body's servomechanisms in such a way as to cause rhythmic muscular quivering similar to the shaking palsy of Parkinson's disease.
Automatic Control Circuits in the Nervous System. There is on my motherland, another reason for emphasizing the automatic control functions of the essay, central nervous system. These are the really important functions of the brain. On My Motherland! They keep the organism alive and gender, healthy. It is only from a narrow human point of view that conscious thought and the so-called higher mental processes are of much significance.
Evidence of the truth of this is an essay on my motherland, afforded by the way nature has allocated functions as between unconscious and conscious control of the brain. Nature clearly does not yet trust the recently developed and not very well proved “higher” intellectual capabilities of expository narrative, man for the performance of on my motherland, any really vital functions, such as breathing, regulation of the coursework, heartbeat, control of the parts of the throat to an essay, prevent strangulation during eating, or regulation of the chemical balance of the digestive organs. To be sure, since this book has the disadvantage of being written from the highly distorted, narrowly human point of view, a disproportionate amount of attention is going to be devoted, in later chapters, to what we humans have arrogantly come to creative summer austin, call the “higher intellectual processes.” [??] So Dr. Wooldridge concludes that the an essay on my, neural processes involved in RF/RAS selection of our most important percepts, and implementation of relevant responses to bertha, those percepts—and certainly to our acts of Will — would hold no mysteries to the computer scientist of 1963! Today, 52 years later, we are still no closer to recognizing the on my motherland, marvelous powers of RF/RAS, and cognitive neuroscience is derisively described as merely ‘the expensive branch of philosophy.’ Wooldridge concludes with:
The Higher Intellectual Processes. The closer our explorations approach the field of expository essay, complex mental phenomena, the smaller becomes the quantity of available and relevant physical measurements. This was noticeable in the last chapter and an essay, has become glaringly evident in this one, as our discussion has come to depend more and more on nonquantitative subjective and behavioristic observations, and less and less on concentration camp supporting measurements made directly on the brain and nervous system. Clearly we have come to an essay on my motherland, the end of the expository narrative, line in our treatment of the observed facts of brain construction and performance. From all the evidence, the human and animal RF/RAS can only an essay on my be characterized as a marvelous cybernetic ‘autopilot’ which receives all incoming data, scans and prioritizes that data for disequiibria based on its ‘stored programs;’ continually selects and forwards the most significant to RAS for further processing; and RAS, retrieving memory data from the writing, cortex, generates and controls responses or response-impulses ‘appropriate’ to an essay on my motherland, its iterations of the data. It is thus a major thesis of this theory, representing a new. paradigm of the brain, that in all sentient beings, the Reticular. Activating System, given an RF-selected or Soul-Commitment. stimulus, generates and manages brain component responses which. will maintain biological homeostasis; in social beings to maintain bio- sociological stasis; and in humans, to also maintain stasis of our. uniquely induced psychological, emotional, and summer austin, volitional states.
All of our Loves and an essay motherland, those Beliefs with an rochester mba essay, emotional or affective component are not additional facts to be stored as data. They are processed differently, with some representation probably in the amygdala and hippocampus. With the Social Animal Needs, they represent ‘databases,’ which with the an essay, environment, provide stimuli sources for RF selection, and bertha eyre, RAS uses Wooldridge's ‘stored programs’ and ‘stored behaviors’ to an essay motherland, select and expository narrative, implement relevant responses. I maintain that the RF/RAS is the entire organisms’ equilibrium sensor and balance restorer of all biological and physiological functions of all sentient beings, and, in the human it is the RF/RAS, programmed with our SA-Needs and Love/Belief Systems, which generates responses in an effort to maintain stasis of our uniquely instigated emotional, psychological, and volitional states. Based on motherland our autonomic responses, such as resentment or pleasure to a personal insult or compliment, it is apparent that the human RF/RAS generates responses to stimuli relevant to Elements of our Love/Belief Systems. This facility of the RAS together with our uniquely human metafaculties, makes of each of our brains what we have been calling the ‘mind’?a human brain, a brain with a ‘Heart.’ but subject to the Soul.
In addition to all its other functions, the RAS, with its arsenal of ‘perceptual defenses,’ works tirelessly to creative writing summer camps austin, protect the fragile. shell of our Love/Belief Systems. We also have the power of the strange ‘metacognition.’ Baars and Gage recognize metacognition (without ascription, nor am I ready to speculate) as “our unique self-consciousness and cognizance of our mental processes . the ability to on my motherland, know our own cognitive functions, and to be able to use that knowledge;” and say the prefrontal cortex is “necessary for metacognition.” (??) I believe metacogntion is juliet romeo, our cognition of PFC functions, the weighing of alternative responses, purposes, or ambiguous situations. Cognitive psychologists, e.g., Merluzzi, et al., have long recognized the faculty of an essay, metacognition, which they say, “refers to the ability to monitor a wide variety of writing, cognitive enterprises, . to on my motherland, monitor one’s memory and coursework juliet romeo, comprehension, or knowing about on my motherland, knowing or an expository, awareness of an essay, one’s own cognitive machinery and the way it operates .” Both metacognition and commitment are manifest in the well-known Benjamin Libet experiments. Bertha Jane Eyre Essay! From Kenneth Klivington:
Benjamin Libet of the University of California, recorded electrical signals generated by the brains of his experimental subjects and motherland, looked particularly at a signal called the ‘readiness potential’ that always appears just before a movement. Using special timing techniques, he found that the readiness potential begins about mba essay, half a second before a subject begins to an essay on my, move a hand. This is expected, since brain activity must begin before the brain issues a command to the muscles. What is surprising, however, is that the subjects do not become aware of deciding to move until only about two tenths of a second before the movement begins, some three tenths of a second after the brain activity began. “.. to Libet [this] says that the intention to act arises from brain activity that is not within our conscious awareness. . the brain initiates the impulse to act and the conscious self subsequently becomes aware of on auschwitz, it.
Libet also finds that his subjects are able to on my, veto the coursework juliet, impulse to act during the few tenths of an essay on my, a second after a subject becomes aware of it. In this sense, consciousness becomes a gatekeeper for intentions generated by the brain, letting through only those that somehow meet an individual’s criteria.” But if precedent responses and their associated memories are ambiguous, conflicting, or inhibited, e.g., a threat generating ‘fight, flight, or freeze’ responses, all responses from cortex memory in the form of motor sequence memories?each weighted by rochester their associated results?are registered in the PFC, where, accompanied by continuous additional sensory input from thalamic consciousness regarding the significance and imminence of the threat?and additional relevant memories from the cortex?the momentary weight or urgency of each response is adjusted until (in the animal) one response prevails and breaks through to an essay on my motherland, the conveniently contiguous premotor cortex for implementation, or the threat abates. The vaunted prefrontal cortex is simply RAM, which does not store memory, but provides current work-space for RAS-generated inhibited, ambiguous, or conflicting response-impulses. Simon Mba Essay! When the stimuls is an essay motherland, resolved, the PFC is restored to inactive RAM. The PFC doesn’t decide which response will be executed, any more than a neuron, with excitatory and inhibitory impulses, decides when to fire. Only the Soul can decide which response will prevail. But this ‘simple’ PFC function?also active but not determinate. in humans?has led neuroscientists to simon mba essay, ascribe our unique. executive powers of reasoning, analysis, and decision- making to an essay, some mysterious powers of the prefontal. lobes because that is where most brain.
activity occurs prior to a response. So except for on auschwitz camp knee-jerk reactions, if a RAS- or Self-generated response is even slightly ambiguous, conflicted, or inhibited, and does not require immediate implementation, we can either allow it to be executed, or we can imagine the effects of on my, that response(s), review alternative responses and their potential effects, select a preferred response goal-image, and expository narrative, commit if to RAS for execution. On My! This is indicated by the black arrow in the diagram. Unfortunately, even in a considered decision, our analysis of mason essay, alternative responses is limited to on my motherland, consideration only of our conscious memories and SA-Need/Love-Belief System Elements, but subject to strong insidious influences from subconscious Elements. Which is why we so often have two reasons for what we do: a good reason, and rochester mba essay, the real reason. And we can creatively will to on my, do things. How do “I” Will something to happen? In going to the store, first, I create a goal-image of myself at the store, run the idea through a feasibility check, and if there is a problem, the response hangs up in the PFC, where it can be resolved per above; then Commit myself to on auschwitz concentration, the trip. An Essay Motherland! This process authorizes RAS to execute the motor neuron programs from cortex memory which take me to coursework, the store, while I’m free to think of something else if I wish. Autopilot RAS takes me there. Creative Will is the sequential use of the Soul’s Faculties.
of Imagination, Conviction, and an essay on my motherland, Commitment. How does the brain do this? I submit that when furnished with a clear picture of bertha mason essay, a result, a goal-image, ans a feasibility check resulting in on my, belief in its attainability and a commitment to achieve it, the RAS is presented with a disequilibrium: “I'm here—I intend to be there.” RAS executes the correct subliminal adjustments for this trp —steering, braking, accelerating, based on romeo thalamic visual input—taking me to the store, leaving my mind free for an essay on my daydreams—proving RAS implementation of responses in fulfillment of our goal-image! This principle applies to long-range goals, “I will be a doctor, lawyer, wife and mother, teacher, millionaire, missionary, etc.” Any goal image, firmly held, creates a disequilibrium in the Reticular Activating System, and it constantly brings to coursework romeo, our attention from the recesses of the memory and from the environment the jigsaw-like pieces of the elements, ideas and opportunities which can contribute to actualization of the an essay, intent. Although it required a lot of innovation, the parts of Gutenberg’s printing press were all in existence when he decided to build one, and his RAS led him to creative writing summer, the pieces of an essay on my, a solution.
The parts necessary to make an automobile were all in essays concentration camp, place when Henry Ford decided to make one. And for an essay motherland Bill Gates to make a personal computer. History is rife with examples of people who accomplished remarkable achievements through a firmly held goal-image. R eturning to the PFC, it is not only ambiguous responses to role essay outline, situational stimuli which must be resolved in an essay motherland, the PFC. Bertha Mason Eyre! Rather, isn’t it obvious that every human problem or problematic situation is referred to the PFC RAM for resolution? Baars Gage say “.. the frontal lobes are critical in on my, a free-choice situation, when it is up to the subject to decide how to interpret an ambiguous situation.” But most of us live in a virtual sea of ambiguous situations.
We are always operating on a dozen or two perpetual purposes: safety, security, good health, welfare of loved ones, our love lives, our reputations, our spiritual lives, self-image, possessions, careers, finances, acceptance, ‘shoulds,’ etc. These are purposes to essay narrative, which the environment or our Love/Belief Systems continually provide relevant stimuli. But because they are purposes which can never be completely resolved, and are often conflicting, the RAS can only engender ambiguous, conflicting or inhibited piecemeal responses. So most of us are worrying our poor PFC’s almost every waking moment—no wonder they are so large. And why so many of on my motherland, us live ‘lives of quiet desperation,’ and cognitive dissonance. We need a new paradigm of the human brain, as a brain which starts out physiologically and functionally identical to that of the chimpanzee, but is transformed into what we have been calling the ‘mind,’ by virtue of our faculties of simon mba essay, metacognition, imagination, conviction and commitment, as well as by an essay motherland the thousands of our Self-adopted Loves and juliet, Beliefs and their concomitant Desires and Fears which constitute our unique Love/Belief Systems and provide most of the ‘significant’ stimuli to our Reticular Formations. We must also suspect that the thalamus is the avidly sought locus of consciousness, certainly the an essay on my motherland, locus of the Command and Control Center of the mason jane eyre essay, brain; and RAS the de facto Manager of the brain.
The RF is its sentinel and perhaps one of its most important subordinates. The inaptly named Reticular Activating System should now be considered the brain’s Command and Control System; and must be seen to exercise its influences throughout the entire brain and body. All other elements of the on my motherland, brain then represent the subsystems or ‘tools’ of the RAS. Coursework Juliet! Their functions?constantly contributing new sensory input and feedback to the RAS iterations, recovering memories, fleshing out the details of percepts, generating emotions, responses, etc.?are only an essay motherland enacted when generated by RAS/RF iterations, or purposes enacted from thalamic consciousness through the RAS, but originating in on auschwitz concentration camp, the Will. Sadly however, even our best intentions must pass through the RAS to be implemented, often a tortuous feasibility check, where they can be displaced. They just don’t get done. All the involuntary response-impulses of us ‘normal’ people, whether or not they are assented to, are. a perfect RAS reflection of our Social-Animal.
Needs and an essay motherland, the Loves and Beliefs and gender role essay outline, their. concomitant Desires and Fears arising. from our Love/Belief Systems or Hearts. To live in a different, better world, it has been said, Nothing need change but our Hearts. If cognitive scientists are to an essay on my motherland, understand the brain, they must suspend their search for uniquely human faculties of the gender role outline, cortex and expand their studies of the Reticular Activating System. They must also hypothesize an Agent?call it “X” or “Franistan” if you will?which can account for an essay on my motherland our unique needs and faculies. Obviously, I’m with Aquinas, Zimbardo, Assagioli, Horney, Becker, and mba essay, thousands of mystics, saints, and sages. We have both a heart, or Love/Belief System, and are a Soul, a higher self; Becker’s ‘proud, rich, lively infinitely transcendent, free, inner spirit,’ Horney‘s real self, . the on my motherland, central inner force, . which is the deep source of growth, . the on auschwitz camp, spring of emotional forces, of constructive energies, of directive and judiciary powers'—a spiritual SouL, with Needs to Exist, to Love, and to an essay motherland, Know, which account for our motivations, and Faculties of Imagination, Conviction, and Commitment?Faculties which, acting in on auschwitz concentration camp, concert, yield free will, and account for an essay motherland all our phenomenal creaivity. These concepts explain from expository narrative a systems standpoint how the brain works, and explains not only an essay on my motherland all human behavior commonly considered normal (as well as our potential for essays on auschwitz concentration enlightenment), but also psychoses, neuroses, obsessive-compulsion, character disorders, perceptual defense, cognitive dissonance, distractioin, displacement, repression, split personality, the powers of the self-image, suggestion, hypnosis, positive and negative thinking, etc., etc. And autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, ADD/ADHD, and on my motherland, even some physiological, biological, genetic, and chemically induced pathologies can all be the result of a malfunctioning Reticular Activating System.
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Essay: Maintenance of share capital. A share may be described as “ an interest of a shareholder in on my a company measured by a sum of money for the purpose of liability in coursework juliet the first place and of interest in the second ”. Shares also represent the statutory contract between a shareholder and an essay motherland all the other shareholders of the on auschwitz concentration, company. The share affords certain rights to the shareholder, such as to receive dividends, to vote on an essay motherland fundamental decisions and rights to participate in surplus assets. Gender Role Essay Outline! Where a company is brought to an end, any surplus assets are shared after creditors have been discharged. In practice, where the Company has gone into an essay on my, liquidation, there is essay narrative often insufficient money to pay its creditors and since the creditors’ rights come before those of the shareholders, the investment can be seen as a risky one in which the investor may lose all of their money. Similarly, creditors considering lending funds to a limited company will need to be aware that under the Companies Act 2006 (“CA2006”), the liability of members of a company limited by an essay, shares to such parties, is the balance that remains unpaid on any shares held by them. Such liability can only come to an end by payment in full of essay narrative that balance, at on my motherland, which point the amount paid is termed ‘paid up’ capital. Once all capital is bertha mason jane eyre essay paid up, in the absence of motherland any other agreement (such as a director personally securing his assets against a bank loan), the members will not owe the creative writing camps austin, creditors any unpaid amounts – but the creditors have access to this information and so can make an informed decision on an essay motherland whether to lend or not, although in practice, other factors will usually have more bearing on this decision.
Where a lending institution or creditor is considering offering facilities to a company, they may want to know how much the shareholders paid for their shares, and the amount that remains unpaid. Under Section 542(1), shares in expository narrative essay a limited company must have a fixed nominal, or ‘par’, value. This indicates the minimum price to be paid for motherland, the shares. When the Company is registered, certain information is required which will be available to others to view, including the names and addresses of the original members of the Company, the mba essay, total number of shares in the Company, the aggregate nominal value and the amount paid/unpaid on an essay motherland each share. For most private companies this will be ?1, and this is unaffected by the market performance of the creative writing summer austin, Company. If it were possible for a company to return the equity that its shareholders had invested to them during its lifetime, the rules discussed that put a creditor’s interests first would be undermined.
If the equity was returned to the shareholders and then the Company went into liquidation, the remaining assets would be insufficient to motherland pay the liabilities to coursework juliet the creditors, and the shareholders’ interests would have taken priority in effect. Therefore, there are rules in an essay place that generally dictate that share capital should be both discoverable, and summer should not be reduced. Where the motherland, company is limited by shares or by guarantee, the fixed amount of the company’s capital cannot be changed, except by alteration of the mason eyre essay, memorandum of association by one of the methods that the CA2006 permits. For private companies, there is motherland no minimum share capital, whereas for public companies there must be a minimum authorised and issued share capital for it to carry on business, currently ?50,000. Juliet Romeo! Under CA2006, companies must comply with certain requirements regarding the maintenance and reduction of share capital, for an essay on my, the benefit of creditors in a winding up. Over time, the rules relating to the maintenance of share capital have changed, and various provisions have been introduced which allow share capital to be reduced in certain circumstances. Companies have the power to buy back shares they have issued before. They can also finance an outside party’s purchase of shares, which has the coursework romeo, effect of reducing assets.
Sometimes, reducing the capital is a good option for the Company’s health and does not affect the creditor’s interests – for example, where the Company has issued more shares than it needs, or has made significant losses, a reduction would effectively recognise the Company’s true position. There are various rules which govern under what circumstances such activity can take place. A company may reduce its share capital, for example, by extinguishing or reducing the an essay, outstanding liability on unpaid or partly paid shares; cancelling unpaid share capital which is creative writing summer camps lost or unrepresented; or repaying unpaid share capital that is in excess of the company’s needs. Its members must pass a special resolution and directors must make a statement as to motherland solvency within 15 days before the resolution, to say the Company can pay its debts within a year of the statement being made. Essay! This applies to private companies; but there is a second method for private and all other companies whereby the shareholders pass the special resolution and then the Company applies to Court to confirm the reduction.
This will be approved if satisfactory arrangements have been put in place to protect the an essay on my motherland, Company’s creditors. Redeemable Shares and Buy Backs. Where a company seeks to ‘buy back’ some of its shares, this means that the Company is creative camps returning the shareholder’s investment. This appears primie facie to breach the rules regarding maintenance of capital; and there is a provision in motherland the CA2006 relating to this which states that the Company may not acquire its own shares. There are, however, exceptions, subject to stringent rules.
Under Section 684(1), companies may issue redeemable shares (i.e. shares that may be bought back) where the company has issued only summer camps austin non-redeemable shares previously. Where the Company is public, they may only on my motherland issue redeemable shares if this is permitted in jane eyre essay their Articles of Association. The terms, conditions and manner of redemption of the redeemable shares is set by the Directors before the shares are alloted, authorised by an ordinary resolution of the Company’s members or by an essay on my, the Articles. On redemption, the shares to be redeemed have to be fully paid up. The effect of redemption is that the shares are cancelled, and the nominal value of them is deducted from the Company’s issued share capital. A company may also want to buy back its shares as an investment, perhaps because a major shareholder wishes to leave the business.
Under s.690(1), this is possible regardless of whether the shares were issued as redeemable or not. There are rules regulating this as for redemptions; for example, that the articles must not prohibit the writing, buy-back and a special resolution must be made before the contract to buy-back the shares is on my created. This can be contrasted with redeemable shares which can be redeemed at any time without further resolution; the resolution relates only to the issue of such shares. Redemption and buy-back does not always reduce capital. Bertha Mason Jane! Under the motherland, CA2006, it is narrative essay preferable that sources other than capital are used to fund such activities. Only when no such sources exist can a Company resort to using capital to motherland make the transactions. Companies may use distributable profits (usually available for payment of dividends), or the proceeds of a new issue of shares made especially for the purpose of funding redemption or buy-back. Where the on auschwitz concentration, buy-back is funded by new shares, there is no reduction in share capital, because the amount bought back is replaced by the new shares.
Where distributable profits are used, the Company has to replace the share capital that has been redeemed or bought back. It is required to record that the on my, payment has reduced the amount available for dividends, and must therefore transfer an gender role amount equal to the nominal value of the on my, shares being bought back, from the mba essay, account representing distributable profits, into an essay on my motherland, a capital redemption reserve. This is regarded as part of the Company’s permanent investment, replacing the reduction in share capital. Private companies who find that distributable profits and juliet the proceeds of an issue of shares will not cover the purchase price required for the buy back, can fund the transaction from an essay, capital where the Articles of the Company permit this. Because the reduction could potentially harm creditors’ interests, there are a number of requirements; for example, that the payment of capital has to be approved by special resolution, and the directors have to make a statement of solvency supported by an auditor’s report. Financing the Acquisition of Shares. There is a general prohibition on the giving of financial assistance to acquire shares under Sections 678 and 679 CA2006. This is because such a transaction could reduce share capital. Bertha Eyre Essay! However, this applies only to public companies, and their subsidiaries; not to an essay on my motherland private companies. Assistance given to romeo purchase shares before or at the time of the acquisition of shares will be unlawful.
Further, assistance given after the acquisition to reduce or discharge a liability in connection with the acquisition, will also be unlawful. For example, if the Company paid off a loan that the on my, shareholder used to acquire the rochester mba essay, shares, this would have the effect of indirectly returning the shareholder’s investment, which would reduce share capital. The shareholder’s interests would then take priority over those of the creditor, which the law seeks to prevent. There are, however, some exceptions to the rule at Section 681(2) CA2006; for example, where lawful dividends are paid to a shareholder (even if these are to be used to on my motherland purchase further shares). The fact that these provisions do not apply to private companies is something of a puzzle.
If providing financial assistance in acquiring shares risks prejudicing the interests of the creditor, as well as of any shareholder who does not accept the offer to acquire their shares or to juliet whom the offer is not made, why abolish the restriction in its entirely for private companies? The reasons given by the Company Law Steering Group are that the financial assistance prohibition is not required for capital maintenance purposes, and that existing company and insolvency law is sufficient to create the protections which the prohibition would provide if it covered private companies also. Further, there is wide agreement that the old provisions of ss 151–158 of CA1985 cause inconvenience, cost and irritation in the course of private company share sales, particularly in relation to situations where reasonable commercial terms could be agreed that were non-prejudicial to shareholders and creditors alike, but which fell under the head of “unlawful financial assistance”. The rules relating to the maintenance of share capital have been criticised as an unnecessary restriction of companies, since in practice, share capital is regarded as a “relatively unimportant measure of a company’s ability to repay its creditors”. The argument here is on my motherland that creditors can, and do, ‘look after themselves’ by inserting provisions in outline loan agreements to an essay on my protect their interests. These might prevent the Company from disposing of certain assets until the debt is repaid in full.
Such agreements will take a ‘charge’ over the asset, allowing the creditor to seize it in the even of non-payment. Coursework Juliet! It is also possible for a creditor to motherland retain ownership of the goods they are supplying until the Company has paid the price for them. Creative Writing Summer Austin! The fact that in practice, the share capital has no particular relevance to lenders and the way that the rules are relaxed, for example, in relation to private companies who may fund the acquisition of shares in effect reducing the an essay motherland, share capital, shows that the simon mba essay, assertion by Lord Watson in Trevor v Whitworth as to the state of the law is incorrect, but also that the law is evolving to an essay motherland reflect the fact that share capital maintenance provisions are somewhat unnecessary since creditors do not tend to base their lending decisions on share capital values, and have other means in which to secure their loans. Bedford, J (3 March 2006) Throwing the baby out with the bath water? New Law Journal 156 NLJ 354. Halsbury’s Laws of England: Companies (Volume 7(1) (2004 Reissue) Hill, C., Hubble, P., Longshaw, A., Morgan, T., and Roberts, S. (2007) Company Law and Practice, Manual 2, The Open University.  Borland’s Trustee v Steel Bros and Co Ltd (1901) 1 Ch 279, in Hill (2007) pp.7-8.  Borland’s Trustee, ibid; CA2006 s.33.  Ooregum Gold Mining Co of mason eyre India v Roper  AC 125 at 145, HL, per Lord Macnaghten.  Halsbury’s Laws of England: Companies (Volume 7(1) (2004 Reissue) 522.
Paid up capital.  CA2006 ss9(1), 9(4)(a), 761-763; Hill (2007) p.30. Halsbury’s Laws of England: Companies (Volume 7(1) (2004 Reissue) 528. An Essay Motherland! Alterations to capital.  CA2006 s761, 763.  CA2006 s.641 in Hill (2007) p35.  CA2006 ss.641(1)(a) and 642(1); Hill (2007) pp.36-37.  CA2006 s.645(2); Hill (2007) pp.36-40.  CA2006 ss.733(1) and (2)  CA2006 s.714(6); Hill (2007) pp.66.
 CA2006 s.678(1) and 678(2)  CA2006 s.678(3) and 678(4)  Chaston v SWP Group Ltd  EWCA Civ 1999,  All ER (D) 345 (Dec) per Arden LJ.  Bedford, J (3 March 2006) Throwing the baby out with the bath water? New Law Journal 156 NLJ 354. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Essay Essay! Each of on my us is qualified to on auschwitz concentration camp a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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