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business plan winery It will be daunting, exciting, expensive, frustrating and much more. But if you speak to any of the current wine producers in essay of 1812, Ohio, nearly all will tell you it is rewarding. Most love their business; many are making a good living although admittedly some are struggling. The most successful operations have done lots of homework before the first tank was ordered or shovel of dirt turned. If you plan to open a winery in friendly expository essay, the state of on war causes Ohio, the following, supplied by our Division of Liquor Control will be an excellent resource (.pdf format): Ohio Winery Basics. These pages of our web site are devoted to declaration of thesis utm doc, a compilation of ideas from successful winemakers and informational articles collected over a number of essay on war of 1812 causes years. The Ohio Wine family wishes you well and looks forward to declaration, getting to know you! Our office, the OARDC in Wooster, and the OGIP stand ready to provide whatever assistance we can to make your winery a success. We hope you find these materials helpful. In addition, please reference the following important links. The Grape Web Donniella Winchell Executive Director Ohio Wine Producers Association.
The Dollars and Sense of Starting a Small Winery. The wine business is capital intensive and cash flow has been likened to trying to fill an upside down funnel. Essay On War! While many wine-making operations start on a shoestring, eventually the money will have to be spent if the owner wants the operation to be more than a hobby. One thing is certain, lack of funds will slow, or even kill tour business, taking a lot of hopes, dreams, sweat and equity with it. When starting a winery it is friendly very important to have an accurate picture of what you will require in the way of assets. Essay Of 1812 Causes! Believe me, it is always more than you might guess. To get a rough idea what is entailed in winery start-up, we will look at the costs for a hypothetical 5,000 and 15,000 gallon winery using authentic numbers. We will then prepare a monthly cash flow analysis for the first 5 years using the 5,000-gallon winery figures. Because banks are often unwilling to make a loan to do you, cover unanticipated expenses, the importance of being able to essay on war causes, anticipate cash requirements cannot be over emphasized. This is where the monthly cash flow analysis is indispensable.
The first step in generating this important information is listing all the costs associated with your business. Next, divide all costs into either Capital costs or Operating costs. Generally speaking, capital costs are one-time expenses like your tanks and Operating costs are recurring expenses like payroll. If these numbers seem intimidating, don#146;t worry#151; they are. A small winery is a miniature manufacturing plant, and manufacturing is very capital intensive. There are a pair of salient points to note. The first is that the total outlays do not determine the success or failure of the business.
Large capital expenditures up front can be covered by sales growth in for the lowry, ensuing years. Remember, it is money you are spending to build your cash-making machine. It is more important to on war, keep operating expenses at a minimum. The second point to note is that your winery will live or die by cash flow. Of Thesis Utm Doc! You need to develop a good understanding of your cash inflows and outflows before starting your business. It#146;s OK to on war of 1812 causes, be unprofitable for four to five years in thesis gay marriage, a growing business; if you have correctly priced your product and have structured your debt and of 1812 equity financing to provide sufficient cash to cover expenses, you will become profitable. Conversely, a business which is resume india profitable and growing rapidly, will be dangerously cash poor if adequate capital structuring is not in place. The expense of essay obtaining large amounts of short term financing for costly expansions can quickly eat up profits and destroy a business.
In summary, building a small winery is akin to eating an elephant-you do it one bite at write for your, a time. A carefully prepared five and ten year plan shows just how you plan to eat this elephant. By carefully tracking your progress against this plan you correct any problems before indigestion turns into an ulcer. For the 5000 gallon winery the total first year expenses (capital + operating) are $249,214. First one must figure out how best to finance the capital expenses. These are the up front expenses that must be covered to get the winery up and running. On War Of 1812! One early decision one must make is how much money can be raised for the project.
This will determine the debt to equity ratio, or simply the ratio of borrowed money to how to write, the money you and your investors supply toward the of 1812 causes capital costs. For this example we will assume a 1:2 debt to equity ratio. This is fairly conservative, but the higher the debt to equity ratio the greater the risk of being overextended. This means we will raise $105,132 and borrow $55,120. Probably the best way to borrow and keep monthly payments low is with a long-term mortgage. Long- term mortgages are usually the most flexible and least expensive as compared to equipment and personal loans. Mortgages are given on capital structures which in this case cost $68,900 (physical plant + grounds).
When taking a long-term mortgage be sure not to borrow more than 80% of the capital structure costs to declaration utm doc, avoid paying mortgage insurance, which is quite expensive. In other words, we want 20% equity in our capital structure. So we apply $13,780 of our own funds to the building, and finance the remaining $55,120. Essay Causes! We now have 20% equity in the capital structure, and have $91,352 of the money we raised to of thesis, cover the balance of our capital costs and on war stay within our 1:2 debt to equity ratio. The monthly payments on friendly expository essay, a 30-year loan for $55,120 at essay, 10% interest are entered on the cash flow analysis sheet. Next the operating expenses are distributed throughout the year when they will most likely be incurred. This gives the anticipated month to month total cash outflow. Some assumptions had to be made in order to develop a cash inflow chart.
The winery is designed to sell both on premise and off premise and will contain a retail sales room furnished with a tasting bar. The capital costs reflect this design. It is assumed that the average retail cost of how to an abstract wine is essay on war of 1812 $7/bottle. 85% of production is sold at how to write, full retail and the balance is sold to of 1812 causes, a distributor at 50% of retail. This works out to be $32.68/gallon. It was estimated that a volume equal to 7% of that sold was be poured as tasting wine.
This is entered into the Production Schedule. Also entered into the Production Schedule and subsequently the cash flow analysis is a conservative annual sales growth rate of 15%. The years total cash inflows are distributed between the months according to the Monthly Sales % to reflect the seasonality of wine sales. How To Write! It is assumed that the wineries first year sales were at the rate of 3,000 gallons/year but were not available for sale until they were bottled in February. This accounts for the low sales volume recorded for the first year, which begins in June when the first expenses are incurred. For simplicities sake the winery produces exactly 50 gallons per year and essay on war will not increase its production for the duration of our analysis.
Operating costs are covered by a line of how to write credit secured at 10% interest. Using data we generate it can be estimated that a line of credit no less than $56,000 will be required. See running total for April of first year. The good news is that even with these fairly conservative growth figures the winery will show a profit by October of its third year. Sales will be greater than production in year 5. If the proper planning was not made and arrangements to cover cash flow needs were not in essay of 1812 causes, place, this potentially profitable enterprise might have failed. Note: Parentheses indicate negative numbers. like the ones at Modesto. The cost for write dissertation do you, this inappropriate system would have been equal to half the cost of the winery building.
We spent some time in negotiation, and together we came up with an causes inexpensive alternative, which performed flawlessly. Sequence In Connecticut, as in some other states, the first requirement for the state application is to submit a valid federal permit. In other words, the state is relying on the BATF to check you out first. But because both agencies can be slow to act, this may put you in a time bind. In practice, it is a good idea to write to for the, both state and federal agencies at the beginning of the essay of 1812 causes process, informing them of giver your intention.
You can mention that you wish to receive your license in time to process your harvest. In some cases, when the BATF hasn#146;t acted in a timely manner, people have written a second letter, informing the BATE that they are proceeding with harvest. Try to address the essay on war causes letter to the official in statement for pro gay marriage, charge of essay your region, and for the giver always keep copies of the essay on war of 1812 causes correspondence. Registered return receipts are an inexpensive way to resume india, prove that you have been acting in good faith. On War Causes! While none of this frees you from the how to write a community report legal requirement of of 1812 obtaining licenses first, it has sometimes been helpful in the past. Since licensing can easily take a year or more, start as early as possible. Shortening the service report Time Line In some states a winery can sell another winery#146;s wine.
You can get your venture off the ground with wine you didn#146;t make to get cash flow going. Of course, most of the visitors are interested in tasting your wines, not someone else#146;s. This suggests that a better option is to set up a temporary winery, make wine for the first year#146;s sales, and then switch your license from the temporary winery to the permanent one. Garages are popular locations for of 1812, this kind of activity, if not ideal ones. Another possibility is to share the write a community service report premises of an existing winery, if state law allows. A variant of this theme is to have the first harvest processed at a nearby winery. The refrigerated grape juice can be stored for awhile, then transported to the new winery, where it will be made into wine. That may put ot#146;f the need to purchase a press and crusher until the second year. At Sharpe Hill, we are making wine in a temporary premise, after having the grapes pressed nearby. When the on war causes winery opens, we will have 10,000 bottles of wine in stock. Good Luck with your operation!
Howard Bursen is a winery and vineyard consultant who makes his home in northeastern Connecticut. He can be reached by phone at (860) 974-3089, and by mail at P.O. Box 98, Abington, CT 06230. Model Description The economic decision-making model is designed to represent the economic and technological wine making environment facing the gay marriage manager and operator of a small winery. Essay! Mathematical programming techniques are used in a computer model to allow the statement gay marriage effects of management decisions to be estimated, reflecting real circumstances as nearly as possible.
This will permit the approximation of essay of 1812 causes maximum returns above costs. The model contains several critical production and marketing decisions and winemaking activities that represent a winemaking business. For example, such decisions include: What types of wine and utm doc what varietals should be made and sold? How much of each wine type should be produced? Should grapes be purchased or should the winery engage in essay, grape production? How large a vineyard will be required? What percentage of the wine should be white varietals and what percentage should be red varietals?
What size of facilities and equipment should be used, considering investment levels required? How much labor should be hired in terms of year-round employees and seasonal labor? How can retail and wholesale markets be used? What are the greatest net returns the winery can make? Several restrictions are imposed on the model representing technical requirements as well as marketing limitations. Technical constraints include the several processing stages that are involved in wine production. The model requires that no wine can be sold until these constraining factors have been satisfied and how to an abstract dissertation the wine is properly aged.
The model reflects this through the sales schedule by varietal as shown in Table 1 . This demonstrates that the model is a long#151;run equilibrium model that attempts to determine the operating plan the winery will be using after six years. In addressing the economically best long-run plan, the first five years are not considered, however, an adequate cash flow during the establishment phase (which can last many years, often ten or more) is imperative to the financial survival of the business. It is crucial to consider the cash flow of the winery. The model recognizes that: Labor, grapes, necessary equipment, and other supplies must be available when the grapes are ready for processing. Grape production requires land, labor, and on war causes various other inputs. Obviously, different facility sizes can produce different amounts of wine. These are the types of logical components that put a technological limit on how much wine production occurs. In addition to these and other constraints related to the technology, there are limits to what an write service individual winery can sell resulting from marketing conditions. In order to assure an appropriate blend of products sold, an individual wine varietal must lie between a minimum and maximum percentage of total sales volume. In most cases, an adequate selection of wine types is of 1812 needed to attract a sufficient number of customers. The location can also affect the mix of wine types sold.
Wineries with high tourist traffic and those located on interstate highways report increased demand for sweeter wine; as indicated by conversations with individuals in the wine industry. One Eastern producer of giver lowry viniferas reported that nearly 30% of sales were in a sweet Niagara. As the winemaker stated, the Chardonnay makes the prestige , but the Niagara makes the profits. One can conclude that a high#151;traffic location brings in different categories of retail customers. It is likely that there are higher numbers of unsophisticated wine drinkers desiring fruity, sweeter wines of causes high quality. Write An Abstract! Since these wines are less expensive to produce, their increased sales boost overall profits of the winery. These constraints also reflect market saturation points giving an upper limit on the sales of any one type of wine. The amount of retail versus wholesale marketing is also dependent upon essay on war of 1812, the size of the winery. This study examines the specific cases of six sizes of medium to of thesis, small wineries in annual fermenting capacities of 100,000; 80,000; 40,000; 20,000; 10,000 and 5,000 gallons.
Ample storage capacities were assumed as required. The retail amid wholesale prices per 750 ml bottle projected for each wine varietal under consideration are presented in Table 2. Note that Vidal and Seyval ate presented together here and throughout the essay causes study because data were identical for the two varieties. How To! The retail prices were discounted by 40% in order to reflect wholesale prices. Since total wine production is not sold in the year in essay on war of 1812, which the declaration utm doc wine is made, the prices are further discounted using net present value financial techniques to reflect a gradual sale of wine produced according to variety. Essay Of 1812 Causes! Most equipment requirements and labor availability#146;s are taken from Metz (Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1991 edition).
Conversations with individuals within the industry supplemented this data to thesis gay marriage, expand upon capacities and provide further capital requirement and depreciation information. Essay Of 1812 Causes! Similarly, data was obtained on: 1. Building and thesis for pro gay marriage non-vineyard land requirements and costs. 2. Equipment efficiency and processing rates. 3. Winemaking supply costs. 4. Labor costs and causes requirements 5. Grape requirements. 6. Wine taxes.
7. Marketing percentage limitations. 8. Other related factors. Resume Model! The resulting maximum and minimum sales of on war of 1812 wine varietals as a percentage of resume model india total sales volume in gallons are given in Table 3. These data were based on a survey that was conducted among winery managers in the Ozark Region. the maximum retail sales are projected by annual capacity as follows: 100.000 gallon -22%; 80,000 gallon -25%; 40,000 gallon - 40%; 20,000 gallon -65%; 10,000 gallon -100%; 5,000 gallon -100%. Grape production data such as grape prices, grape yields, grape productions costs, harvest costs, anti similar information are obtained from published estimates (Kirchner, Price, arid Morris, Economic Analysis of Wine Grape Production in essay on war, Arkansas - 1987). Data on general processing plant costs such as repairs and maintenance, insurance, and office expenses percentages were obtained from published sources in related food processing economic analyses (Price et al.).
While this provides a general flavor of the data utilized in this model, it is thesis statement for pro beyond the scope of this paper to discuss in detail the particular aspects used in developing the of 1812 causes economic decision-making model. Interested individuals should contact the friendly expository essay authors. Findings of the Study The model#146;s projected capital requirements for the alternative winery sizes are provided in Table 4. The estimated gross revenue, costs, and net returns above costs are displayed in Table 5, while the schedule of on war of 1812 lull-time employees is shown in Table 6. As the needed investments increased from $163,545 For a 5,000 gallon plant to $2,223,382 for a 100,000 gallon plant, the estimated net returns increased from $1,048 for the 5,000 gallon to a profit of $221,614 (Tables 4 and 5). However, the progression in estimated returns was not smooth as winery plant practices expanded from the student essay 5,000-gallon minimum size. Causes! Profits for a 10,000-gallon plant were estimated to be $39,053 annually, but projected operations for a 20,000-gallon plant resulted in slightly lower profits of $30,836. Based on the prices and how to write service report other data included in essay causes, the model, wineries of of thesis utm doc capacities of 40,000 gallons per year or greater were estimated to be increasingly profitable. The model projected that expansion from the 5,000 gallon size to the 100,000 gallon winery resulted in steadily increasing net returns with the exception of the slight decrease at the 20,000 gallon level corresponding to on war causes, the greatest capital requirements per thesis statement square loot (Table 4 and 5). Causes! The additional financial burdens in the model associated with the purchase of essay for the giver lowry automatic bottling equipment coupled with a tripling of receiving and crushing equipment cost and other substantial increases in of 1812, equipment and labor costs caused the expansion from 10,000 to 20,000 gallons to display a decrease in net returns.
Thus, with the exception of the 20,000-gallon capacity winery, net returns were estimated to increase as the resume india size of the winery is expanded from the 5,000-gallon level (Table 5). Essay On War Of 1812! While net returns for the 5,000-gallon winery show a gain of only $1,048 per year, this in fact is a community report quite favorable. The reasoning behind this is that almost all-conceivable costs are not considered (including a value for personal labor and a return on essay, personal capital invested). About the only costs not considered in the model are taxes on income and inventory. These results indicate a need to consider the potential wine sales market in contemplating expansion. The operation of a successful, profitable winery is dependent on thoroughly knowing and satisfying the market. Even assuming a decreasing retail sales percentage, increasing the size of the winery beyond the 20,000 gallon capacity results in ever increasing net returns up to statement, the last estimated level of 100,000 gallon capacity. It is at this 100,000 gallon winery level where the greatest net returns are obtained at $221,314 annually. While this represented the of 1812 greatest net returns, it also represented only the second highest returns to how to write a community, capital above the interest costs.
Under these considerations, the 100,000 gallon winery had a 9.97% return to capital over and above the 12% already included for interest as compared to the 10,000 gallon winery, which displayed a 12.39% return on capital over and above interest costs. These results reflect the importance of retail sales in the operation of the small winery as a business. These findings also indicate the desirable nature of both the on war of 1812 causes 10.000 arid the 100,000 gallon winery under different considerations. Essay For The Giver Lowry! Capital requirements for the different sized wineries are broken into various equipment categories in essay causes, Table 4. In the model estimates, the most dramatic capital requirement increase in receiving and crushing equipment is resume model india seen to occur between the 10,000 and 20,000-gallon sizes. Essay Of 1812 Causes! Only between these sizes did capital requirements nearly triple for write dissertation, receiving and crushing equipment.
The next most sizeable receiving and crushing equipment capital requirement increase is a $50,000 or approximately 8% increase between the 40,000 and 80,000 gallon level. Substantial increases of 564% in estimated capital outlay are also displayed for the 20,000 gallon plant#146;s bottling equipment where the need for greater technological efficiency and increased capacity becomes necessary due to the expansion from the 10,000 gallon level. Cellar and essay fermenting equipment, tanks, and barrels tend to display more even increases relative to the additional capacity achieved (Table 4). However, refrigeration equipment needs did not change for how to write service report, the 20,000 and 40,000-gallon levels nor was there an increase estimated in of 1812 causes, these costs between the 60,000 and 100,000-gallon capacities. Capital outlay requirements for all equipment were estimated to write service, range from on war of 1812, $89,545 to $1,174,382 respectively for utm doc, the capacities studied (Table 4). When the additional capital requirements for buildings, customer sales areas, and offices are considered, capital requirements range from $163,545 for on war, the 5,000-gallon winery up to $2,223,382 for friendly expository rubric, the 100,000-gallon winery. The substantial capital requirements for essay of 1812, getting into the wine business are well evidenced by these estimates. Naturally, the amounts could differ.
Capital outlay would likely decrease with the purchases of used equipment, for instance. The problem (or many managers of wineries is what wines to produce and in what amount. Essay For The Giver! The question is often answered in one of two ways. One way is the traditional vineyard-driven winery; the other way is the market-driven winery. It is the contention of the authors that the path of ruin frequently begins with the essay of 1812 idea that the winery will make what it grows and sell the resulting wines. However, the authors believe the more successful concept is to grow and make what you can sell. This latter situation is one in a community report, which wine selection is on war of 1812 causes driven by market conditions rather than by the grapes produced in the vineyard. Observing and analyzing market conditions will allow the resume winery manager to establish guidelines of an economically viable mix of wine sales in order to address decisions on what wines to produce and in what amounts. The breakdown of the of 1812 mix of wine sales for the model winery by variety is presented in Table 7. White wine comprised 57.5% of sales with red wine accounting for the 42.5% difference. The heaviest concentration of wine sales was estimated to be in the Vidal and Seyval varieties.
Also, other varieties experienced relatively favorable profit margins as indicated by the fact that they are sold at for the giver lowry, a maximum percentage allowable within the model. As denoted by of 1812 causes the a in Table 7, these more profitable varieties are the Chardonnay, Vignoles, Cabernet, Cynthiana, and Chambourcin wines. Not surprisingly, these are the higher-priced wines. This demonstrates a need to declaration utm doc, closely investigate high-priced wines in the sales mix. Costs of production and potential marketability need to on war of 1812, be carefully considered as well. Thus, a good indicator of the potential profitability of a given variety is the price of the wine relative to the cost and student essay amount of grapes required. Also, with the exception of the Vidal and Seyval varieties, the other wine varietals were sold at the minimum percentage allowable (denoted by essay on war of 1812 causes b in Table 7). While the amount of essay giver wine sales naturally will change from one winery size to another, the percentages as related to capacity remained constant. When setting retail prices, the manager of the winery must also consider the effect that price has on sales.
While one should consider the prices that local competitors charge for similar wines, one must keep in mind that while the competition needs to be considered, they may be charging too much or too little relative to marketing conditions. This study can provide a baseline for determining retail prices. From that baseline, the manager of the winery should experiment to find the best price. It is crucial, however, to consider thoroughly the specific marketing environment involved. While Concord wine was included in the model, none was ever produced or sold by the model winery since it was unprofitable at $2.50 retail per 750 ml bottle and essay on war of 1812 the model did not require it to be produced. Concord may, of course, be worthwhile, depending on the market, as indicated by write an abstract for your do you the fact that some wineries do produce and sell it. Given that these results are specific to the data used, it would be useful to essay on war of 1812 causes, calculate the resume model india break-even wine prices under which the on war winery operator will just cover variable or total costs. Table 8 presents the break-even prices for the various varietals under different winery sizes. Statement! For the purposes of this table, variable costs are defined to be those costs related to the production of one additional bottle of wine for the various varietals, assuming a winery is already in operation.
Therefore, these variable costs include the essay of 1812 causes cost of additional purchase or production and harvest of grapes, necessary utilities, bottles, yeast, wine taxes, and related supplies. Since all labor hired is for full-time, year-round personnel on salary, additional costs attributable to how to write, labor are non-existent. Likewise, interest and insurance as well as depreciation and repairs and maintenance on essay on war of 1812, capital equipment are irrelevant to these variable costs. As Section I of Table 8 demonstrates, the variable costs attributable to write, producing an additional bottle of causes wine range from as low as $1.07 for Niagara at (lie 100,000 gallon winery to $1.97 (or producing a bottle of Cabernet at a community service report, the 5,000 gallon winery. Of 1812 Causes! While prices would have to be higher than this by a significant level to make a profit and cover fixed costs and constant labor expenses (salary), It displays the somewhat low prices necessary to justify producing additional wine once the winery is already in operation. Resume India! These results also indicate the essay on war of 1812 causes desirability of producing several varietals in a more diverse blend will increase the marketability and desirability of the business in terms of attracting customers. Consequently, the production and sales of some less profitable wines may be justified when considering total operating profits. There is a steady increase in essay for the by lois, the required break-even price above variable costs as winery size decreases. While the amounts are not substantial, this indicates the on war causes increased technological efficiency of larger capacity equipment. The increased technological efficiency associated with higher-capacity wineries is even more evident from the break-even wine prices above total costs (Table 8, Section II).
It should be noted for the purposes of interpreting these projected prices that in order to allocate fixed and constant labor costs, all costs not considered as variable (in Table 8, Section I) were added before dividing by the total amount of production for the winery size in question. While technological efficiency in terms of resume mechanization is reflected in the tables, the essay on war causes component of model labor presents issues not represented within the break-even prices. The small winery has only limited expert stall. It is critical that those key people have time available for conducting the actual business operations amid management necessary in an economically suitable winery. Time must be devoted to planning, conducting marketing studies, making production management decisions, and developing a marketing strategy. While the physical work involved in making wine is definitely important to on war causes, the success of the write a community service report winery business, it is of 1812 equally vital to devote adequate tissue for conducting business operations. In the break-even illustration (Table 6, Section II), the required break-even price more than doubles in friendly expository, comparison to essay of 1812, the break-even price above variable costs. This demonstrates the relatively large component of fixed and constant labor costs attributable to a winery and indicates the do you large pot lion of costs attributable to capital equipment (depreciation, insurance, interest, repairs, and maintenance) as well as salaried employees.
The group of red wines has an estimated higher break-even rice than do white wines. Red wine, due to essay causes, the aging process, requires a longer time before it can be sold. Therefore, the net present value techniques that account for model india, the storage costs and causes foregone interest that could be earned create a need for higher prices for red wines in thesis gay marriage, general. Niagara displays the on war of 1812 causes lowest break-even price above total costs, with Vidal, Seyval, and write Vignoles also displaying favorable break-even price levels. Chardonnay possesses the highest break-even price for a white wine because its aging and sales scenario parallels the on war of 1812 causes red wine conditions described. The 100,000-gallon winery possesses extremely favorable total cost break-even price levels at essay lowry, about $2.50 above the break-even prices for variable costs. Essay On War Of 1812! At the higher capacity levels, the importance and potential of wholesale marketing should be investigated given these favorable price levels. How To Write Dissertation! As Table 8 illustrates, estimated break-even wine prices above total cost steadily increase with decreasing winery sizes.
At the 5,000-gallon winery level, this amounts to approximately five additional dollars per essay bottle over break-even prices above variable costs for several varietals (Table 8, Section II). Break-even wine prices range between $5.66 and $7.49 for the 5,000 gallon winery and between $4.79 and $6.43 for the 10,000 gallon winery. These Findings demonstrate the need or very small wineries to emphasize a retail sales program of marketing. While this break-even analysis extends the usefulness of the research conducted, it should be noted that the data used would still differ from the particular circumstances of any specific individual winery. They are meant to be used as guidelines in india, focusing, planning, and stimulating decision-making processes. This study does not address the production of fruit and dessert wines. While these wines are often given a negative connotation by on war modern winemakers, they can still be an for pro important source of profit. A good example is essay on war given by write some of the authors#146; observations of Concord which, when produced as a varietal, is sold at a approximately $2.50 per 750 ml bottle on a retail level. However, it is possible to use Concord as a feed stock to on war of 1812, produce a light sherry that can sell from $5.00 to $8.00 per model india 750-ml bottle. While this is only an essay causes example, it serves to write report, illustrate the essay on war causes need to for the giver lowry, be open to alternative products, especially those that may utilize otherwise less than desirable grapes.
Fruit wines can also be a very high-profit item. They often appeal to the entry-level wine drinker and often possess a high profit margin. Opportunities exist for converting low-cost, damaged fruit unsuitable for fresh market consumption and creating a desirable, high-quality fruit wine. Conclusions The specific findings of this study will not directly apply to any givers individual situation. Additional factors and components should be considered as they relate to the individual small winery and the goals of the owner and manager. The results do provide information, however, that will be of use in the management and operation of a small winery.
Several economic considerations for small wineries can be raised from the study. Winery location is a component vital to a winery#146;s economic success or failure as a direct result of the influence of the area on essay on war of 1812, marketability. Location is tightly bound to a winery#146;s marketing plan and giver by lois its success. Observations by the authors indicate that this is perhaps the single most critical factor for essay causes, the winery in the 5,000 to 20,000 gallon size. As this study shows, the bulk of sales should be at retail for the smaller wineries to declaration of thesis utm doc, survive. Customer flow into the winery should be the result of a deliberate and carefully planned marketing program. On War Of 1812! Part of the program can be the declaration natural result of consumer traffic being exposed to the winery simply by passing by and being convenient and accessible. Therefore, it is essay of 1812 important that a winery be on a relatively major route, not isolated on a side road. There is some evidence that shows that the most successful wineries are those clustered with other wineries.
Due to declaration of thesis, increased tourist traffic, a wine region will support more sales for the individual wineries than the isolated wineries could support for themselves. On War Of 1812 Causes! Cost of marketing is often directly related to locations. Clusters of wineries can benefit from group advertising and promotions, On interstates and mains highways, identifying billboards and signs are of vital importance. Also, it must be observed that marketing costs are related to profits. It is the essay by lois lowry authors#146; observation that the wineries that are growing are those with the strongest promotion programs, good locations, and good wine quality.
Those that are in isolated locations, without a good marketing plan are static in growth and in danger of going out of essay business. Crucial considerations in the planning process also include the influences of retail and wholesale levels as well as availability of different varietals desired by the customers. Of the six-winery sizes analyzed, the essay for the 100,000 gallons winery provided the greatest net returns at $221,314 annually. However, the on war of 1812 10,000 gallon winery provided the greatest net returns per dollar of capital invested at 12.39% above the 12% already included (or interest or opportunity cost of capital. Statement For Pro! The 10,000-gallon winery provided this higher rate of return because it assumed that 100% of essay of 1812 sales are at the retail level. While there is service report a necessity to evaluate the cost associated with obtaining grapes through purchasing or personal production, the risk associated must also be considered. If the required vineyard acreage is essay under separate management, the operator of a winery has limited control over the purchase price of essay for the giver by lois lowry grapes. This creates one type of distinct risk.
However, engaging in production of essay on war of 1812 causes grapes in ones own vineyard comes with its own set of risks in how to write an abstract for your do you, production and related factors. Investments its vineyard acreage would be in addition to the substantial outlay of capital required for the investment of evens small wineries. The 100,000 gallon winery required both 125 acres and on war of 1812 causes a total capital outlay of $2,223,382 for buildings, non-vineyard and, plant equipment while the 5,000 gallons winery needed 6.25 acres and declaration of thesis utm doc $163,545 for other capital. Capital outlay requirements could be reduced, however, under varied circumstances such as purchasing used equipment. Wine production of the model winery tended towards white wine types with 57.5% of the total projection.
Not surprisingly, the model projected that higher priced wines were produced at the maximum level allowed. Nonetheless, it is advisable to examine the cost being accrued in the production of all wine varieties and types relative to the price of the wine. A lower priced wine with relatively lower costs may be a more profitable venture than a higher-priced wine with relatively higher costs. Individual circumstances have to prevail in essay on war, consideration of the value of individual wine varietals. Break-even analysis allowed estimation of the wine prices required to just cover variable costs arid total costs. Break-even analysis indicated the need to investigate the service report potential of wholesale markets for the higher capacity wineries. In comparing break-even prices above variable costs to the break-even prices above total costs, there tended to be a $2.50 to $5.00 per 750-ml bottle difference for the different winery sizes. These results indicate the fact that if a winery is already in production, a specific wine varietal may be justifiably produced if it is covering the break-even price above variable costs.
This allows consideration of increasing product availability in order to attract customers. The study results indicate that adequate planning and essay of 1812 causes management is for the a key component to economic success or failure in the winery business. While there are many reasons to enter into the wine business other than making money, there is a distinct need to address the essay of 1812 causes economic aspects of the wine business. Economically unsuccessful wineries are not managed by student friendly expository individuals who plan to fail, but by managers who often fail to plan. Even if profits are not the primary motivation for owning anti operating a winery, they are often pertinent to the cash flow and very survival of the winery.
Detailed attention to production of premium grapes and the making of high quality wine at on war of 1812 causes, the sacrifice of developing and following adequate business practices can still result in the winery going out of business. It is the contention of the authors that the transitions from grape-grower to wine marketer can be difficult. The authors believe that the winery owners and operators that make this conceptual transition are the ones that are the most economically successful. Knowing one#146;s market and operating in such a way as to satisfy that market is essential to student essay rubric, operating a successful profitable winery. Of 1812! Tips on Buying Barrels Apart from preferences for French or American oak, the major considerations (or buyers In the East who purchase barrels are price and availability.
Barrels from France cost several times as much as barrels made in the United States due to report, currency exchange rates arid, unless a tonnellerie is able to stock and ship barrels from the East. Either a hefty freight charge from California or placing a large minimum order In France may add significantly to on war of 1812 causes, the cost. Accepted standards of how to dissertation excellence in oak barrels wherever they are made include quality wood with uniform grain and without insect damage or other defects. The wood should be hand-split rather than quarter-sawn, air#151;dried rather than kiln-dried, shaped over a wood fire rather than by the use of steam, and toasted over an oak fire rather than by the use of on war propane. Only a limited amount of information can be obtained by examining a barrel before it Is used for wine: uniformity of grain arid color, degree of toast, the smelt of the barrel, and perhaps Its tightness.
Buyers should check for bits of wood or foreign matter inside every barrel, and broken staves or other shipping damage should also be looked for. Most barrels come with a one-year warranty, and it is a community service report important to make sure that the warranty is effective and that it states what happens if something goes wrong. The reputation of the essay on war of 1812 seller Is important, and it may be wise to get references on gay marriage, both the seller and the barrel manufacturer. The life of a barrel in essay of 1812 causes, terms of getting discernible flavor or complexity from the declaration of thesis oak is generally considered to essay on war causes, be between four and six years, after which the barrel must be rejuvenated or replaced. Shaving the barrel is one way of extending the life of a barrel for another four to six years, and barrels may be shaved once or twice.
A product known as Innerstave, which involves placing pieces of oak in a cylindrical construction inside the barrel, is another way of extending the life of a barrel. A winery may find it advantageous to institute its own barrel buying and replacement program based on economic as well as winemaking factors. Thesis For Pro! Advance planning ran help determine what percentage of essay on war causes wine is to be kept in new barrels, in barrels three or four years old, and in barrels that have been shaved. Experimenting with different kinds of oak for different kinds of wine, or using different oak flavors in combination, may make economic sense. At least as much American oak is used for wine in the United States as French oak, and in recent years American coopers have been increasingly making barrels with the wine industry In mind. The use of Yugoslavian oak has been on the decrease during the past decade because of leakage problems associated with thc method of sawing staves used in that country. Although they are somewhat more expensive, silicone bungs are winning high marks for durability and thesis statement gay marriage ease of essay of 1812 use.
They may be affected by sulfur, and should either be replaced with wooden bungs during sulfuring or protected by how to write an abstract for your wrapping them in a product like Saran Wrap. (Excerpted from Consider More Than Wood When Buying Barrels, Wine East, July/August, 1988.) Buying Membrane Cartridge Filters Membrane filters permit a sterile filtration to be carried out just prior to bottling. Apart from choosing the essay causes pore size of the filter to meet winemaking needs, most buying decisions are based on factors related to write an abstract for your do you, the maintaining of sterile conditions, the essay causes rate of declaration of thesis flow, and the total amount of wine that can be put through the cartridge before it is replaced. Essay Of 1812! The two elements of the model india membrane filtration system are the filter cartridge arid the housing In which it Is contained, with most manufacturers making both. Housings may be made of of 1812 several different materials. Stainless steel is how to write a community service most frequently recommended, with both, #316 or #304 being available. Plastic is the least expensive, but cannot withstand heat sanitation requirements. Essay Causes! O rings are considered to be a preferable way of statement sealing the cartridge in the housing.
Sanitation is Important, and all fluid contact points should be highly polished. The easier-to-clean gasket and clamp connections are preferable to threaded connections. The housing materials must also be compatible with the method of sterilization chosen, steam, hot water or chemicals. Steam requires a stainless steel housing. Chemicals may be used with any type of housing, but must be used with plastic housings. Essay Of 1812 Causes! Certain types of chemicals, notably chlorine, cannot be used with certain materials.
Even though a filter membrane removes all spoilage microorganisms, there are many sources of contamination between it and a sealed container. Equal attention must be paid to sanitizing the filler, containers, closures and closure equipment. Just as the filtration system must he sterilized before it is used, it must be possible to test the system periodically to make certain it is working correctly and that there are no leaks. This process Is called integrity testing, and one factor in using a membrane filtration system is to determine which integrity testing system is easiest to use. Cartridges come in lengths of 10, 20 and 30 inches. Each manufacturer uses a different membrane polymer that it considers superior. Some of the essay for the polymers are inert, some have a positive or negative charge; some are more fragile than others, some are reinforced. One of the essay on war biggest differences is that some polymers have more holes per square centimeter than other. Student Expository! All manufacturers sell filters in different pore sizes that are in essay of 1812 causes, common use slip yeast.
For bacteria, a 0.45 micron pore size is required. Each cartridge length has its optimal rate of flow and Is available in a different price range. Buying properly sized equipment is important, for it is estimated that half of the industry is guilty of the practice of speeding up the rate of flow by increasing the pressure through the how to a community filter. Essay! Increasing the rate of flow decreases the life of the student essay filter, and a winery that increases the pressure may have to essay on war, buy three to five times as many filters per year than those using the correct flow. A winery that envisions future expansion can save the cost of replacing one housing by initially buying a housing to accommodate a 20 or 30 cartridge and how to write an abstract for your dissertation then using a 10 cartridge until the need arises for a longer cartridge. Medium sized wineries can increase flow rates by placing a number of cartridges in multiple element housing. When buying multiple cartridge housings, buyers should make sure that cartridges are supported by three retaining rods rather than one to avoid having the cartridges twist under high flow conditions. (Excerpted from Basic Considerations in buying Membrane Cartridge Filters. Of 1812! Wine East Buyers Guide, 1988, and revised in 1991) The Better Business Bureau One source of information that is frequently overlooked is the Better Business Bureau, of which there are nearly 200 local offices in an abstract for your dissertation do you, the United Stales and Canada. While they are often thought of as a way of getting a complaint resolved the on war majority of contacts they have fall into the category of inquiries, and they prefer it that way. They will provide information about a company before you do business with it. They also have a wide variety of giver by lois lowry publications and consumer information for distribution.
Most telephone books carry a listing for the nearest Better Business Bureau. The location of the closest office to essay on war, you may also be obtained from the Council of Better Business Bureaus, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209, or telephone (703) 276-0100. Tips on Buying Filters In filtration science, the terms absolute and nominal are used to distinguish between the 100% removal of particles and the less than 100% removal of particles. It is common in winemaking to refer to thesis for pro, absolute filters and depth filters. Membrane cartridge filters, are in the category of absolute filters and remove 100% of the particles above a certain size. On War! For a discussion of resume model india these filters, see Buying Membrane Cartridge Filters. Depth filters are up to 99% effective and causes do an excellent job of clarifying wine. Types available include plate or plate and frame filters, pressure leaf filters, lees filters, and vacuum pre-coat filters. Serviceable filters, such as those using a 10 inch microfine cartridge, are available for the amateur winemaker and may be used by small commercial wineries producing 2,000, 3,000, or perhaps up to friendly expository, 4,000 gallons of wine.
The plate filter, or plate and frame filter, is the essay of 1812 most economical and most versatile first unit for the small winery to consider buying and is used in very large wineries to how to write for your dissertation do you, make smaller batches of wine. Plate and #145;plate frame filters are often used interchangeably, and it may be helpful to think of these units in terms of their filtering media. The plates may support filler pads or sheets, on the plates may be placed in frames to permit diatomaceous earth filtering. A small winery processing a few thousand gallons will find a 6-plate or 9-plate filter adequate, each plate being 40 x 40 cm in size. Essay! A larger winery processing between 10,000 and 20,000 gallons may want In consider a 20-plate or 30-plate unit.
While more plates can be added, moving In 60x60 cm plates is recommended somewhere between 30 and 50 plates. If a new winery believes that it#146;s five-year growth will take it to between 10,000 and 20,000 gallons in size, money may be saved by initially buying at of thesis, least a 20-plate unit. When, buying a 20- plate unit, purchase one with a double outlet manifold, because it affords better distribution of the wine into the unit. On War Of 1812 Causes! A pressure gauge is important to help monitor filtration and should be purchased. Thesis Statement! Stainless steel housings are preferable to painted steel housings, stainless steel plates, however, are expensive, and it is causes often recommended that plates such as Noryl plates made of a food grade plastic be used instead. How To A Community Service Report! Plate filters can be used as diatomaceous earth filters. To do this, it is of 1812 causes necessary to have at least 10 plates with, D.F. Student Friendly Expository Essay Rubric! frames, and a winery planning ahead for future growth could consider an eventual 60 frames. Two kinds of filters are made for specifically for diatomaceous earth filtration: vacuum pre-coat filters and pressure leaf filters.
The rotary drum vacuum filter Is mainly used for the filtration of freshly pressed grape juice, heavy tank bottoms resulting from juice clarification, fermented or unfermented lees, apple juice and apple juice sediments, enzyme treated fruit juice and vinegar lees. Essay Of 1812 Causes! A new disc version of vacuum filter is fairly economical amid wineries with a production of 20-30,000 gallons may want to consider purchasing this unit, the drum vacuum filter, more expensive and definitely more bulky, is used by wineries with capacities of 250,000 gallons and model over. Pressure leaf filter are available in two formats, one with time filtering elements placed horizontally, and the other where they are vertically positioned. On War! One advantage of the horizontal unit is that if filtration must be stopped for how to write dissertation do you, any reason, there is no chance of having the filtration cake fall down from the screen as is the case with, the vertical unit. On the other hand, only one side of the of 1812 causes screen can be used on resume model india, the horizontal unit, as opposed to using both sides of the screen on the vertical unit. The vertical unit is usually more compact and was at one time less expensive. Today the filters with the horizontal screens are comparable in cost and have overtaken the vertical units in popularity.
Other major buying considerations include the ease with which the unit can be operated and cleaned. The method of cake removal is also a consideration, the dry cake discharge being preferable to wet simply on the basis of waste disposal. Units are available in essay of 1812, stainless steel or stainless steel alloys. Resume India! Where bronze is used, there is the possible problem of the bronze oxidizing and turning green. There are a number of of 1812 causes factors involved in friendly expository, making a decision as to whether to convert a plate filter into a diatomaceous earth filter or buy a pressure leaf filter.
There can be substantial savings of essay on war of 1812 causes time in the speed of operation and in essay for the lowry, cleaning and pre-coating by using a pressure leaf. The drawbacks of a pressure leaf filter for some users could be that it is more difficult to operate, that the minimum production lot size should be 250-300 gallons, and that the hose should not be moved from, one small container to another during filtering. A quick economic test can help determine whether a lees filter should be purchased. For every 100 gallons of lees produced, approximately 50 gallons of wine can be recovered. At $3.00 a gallon, $150 could be saved for each 100 gallons of lees. Essay Of 1812 Causes! With the for pro selling price of a small lees filter at about $10,000, it would be necessary to save about $2,000 a year before considering the purchase of a lees filter. This test would not apply if there were also a different application for the lees filler such as filtering juice to get clear juice before fermentation. Filters are sometimes designed to do more than one job.
A lees filter, for example, can be bought that can be used both as a lees filter and as a filter for finished wine by acquiring two types of plates and a special type of pump. The reverse is not true: a plate fitter cannot be used as a lees filler because of the high pressures at which lees must be filtered. Buying a filter for dual purposes is a controversial subject. There are those who believe, that optimal results come from using equipment designed for a specific purpose. Others believe that combination units make sense in terms of economics. In addition to the dual option lees filter, plate and frame filters are available that can make a virtually sterile filtration.
If there is any one piece of advice consistently given by those who make and sell filtration equipment, it is to emphasize the willingness of those who serve the industry to work with whenever they need help. Almost without exception, the suppliers of filter equipment and media would prefer to work with new customers right from the start and thus minimize the number of problems. On War Of 1812 Causes! (Excerpted from essay, What to Look for When Buying Filters, Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1988, and revised in 1991) Tips on Buying Stainless Steel Tanks When locating tanks, leave at on war causes, least a four-loot alleyway between the bases of tanks for pumps and hoses, six to eight feet if a forklift will be used In the tank area. Head room should be allowed for, a minimum of 2-1/2 to essay giver, 3 feet from the top of time tank and on war of 1812 the ceiling. If tanks are to be placed outdoors, will local zoning requirements pose a problem? Tanks of 250 gallons or less are usually put on a cradle, and tanks of 20,000 gallons or more on concrete foundations. Other tanks may be put on a concrete foundation, a mild steel base, or mounted on thesis statement for pro, legs (avoid wooden platforms because of the difficulty in cleaning underneath). Mounting on legs may be more practical for the smaller winery because a small press can be moved right under time tank.
Methods of proper temperature control must be considered, and can range from placing tanks in a cold room to the use of heat exchangers or internal coils. Jacketing requirements can be calculated from a number of variables, and a decision on refrigerants is on war usually made prior to ordering the insulation jackets. Depending on india, the size of tank arid the supplier, it may be prohibitively expensive to add jackets to tanks at a later date, or it may be possible to do so at a reasonable cost. Ordering several tanks at one time, or combining an order for tanks with another winery may lower the of 1812 per-unit manufacturing cost and save on shipping charges. Resume India! It is on war of 1812 most economical to ship a full truck load. Model India! Some manufacturers can cut costs when tanks are ordered in standard sizes. Essay On War! Other companies are equipped to custom-build tanks to customer specifications at an affordable cost. The gauge of essay by lois steel used in constructing a tank is of 1812 causes generally dictated by the size of the tank.
Type 304 stainless steel is the least expensive; type 316 with nickel added is more corrosion resistant and its use may be advisable depending on the amount of exposure to SO2 and resume high acid wines. A mill 2B finish is usually adequate. The size and type of drain fittings must be compatible with other equipment. A variety of diameters and types are available. A common mistake made by newer wineries is to use a pump that is too small, and a size with a diameter of at on war of 1812 causes, least 1-1/2 inches should be used from the start.
Get more than one estimate. The size and of thesis capabilities of a manufacturer may make prices more competitive for one size tank than another. Make sure that the estimates are based on on war of 1812 causes, the same specifications, particularly in terms of the weld and a community service how it is causes finished out. The proper cleaning and sanitizing of how to a community service report tanks is essay on war causes a point most manufacturers stress. Any area that does not have a smooth, flat surface is a potential source of contamination. Special attention should be paid to weld areas, behind doors and under the gasket. (Excerpted from Buying Stainless Steel Tanks: A Primer. Wine East, November-December 1986) Tips on essay giver by lois, Buying a Wind Machine While wind machines have traditionally been used to help safeguard against essay on war of 1812, late spring frosts, recent research at Kent State University indicates, that in the East a wind machine may also be used effectively in mid-winter during periods of severe cold to keep temperatures in the vineyard above the critical level that would cause extensive damage to write an abstract dissertation, vines. Of 1812 Causes! On nights when there is a temperature inversion, the temperature near the base of a vine can be as much as 4°C lower than at the top of the write an abstract dissertation do you vine and 6°C colder than 15 meters above the of 1812 ground. A wind machine can mix the colder air on the ground with the warmer air above to raise the temperature at ground level. The decision to buy a wind machine may depend in large part on the uses to which the wind machine is to be put. If the wind machine would be intended for use only to protect against resume model, spring frosts, comparative costs can be calculated for a wind machine with and without heaters versus the rental costs of a helicopter.
Minimum standards for wind machines have been developed by Dr. James K Ballard of essay Washington State University. According to service, him. the tower should hold a propeller 32 to 41 feet off the ground, the motor should strong enough to propel the air 300 to 400 feet, with 10 horsepower per acre being supplied at the propeller. The propeller should be a 6° angle from the vertical, revolve at on war of 1812, approximately 590 revolutions per minute and make a 360-degree horizontal rotation every 4-1/2 minutes. In a recent development, fiberglass blades are replacing aluminum blades because of their resistance to resume, corrosion.
(Excerpted from Should You Consider Buying a Wind Machine?. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide. 1990.) Tips on Buying Vineyard Equipment and Supplies Large pieces of equipment such as tractors and essay of 1812 mechanical harvesters are frequently bought from dealers handling a particular manufacturer#146;s brand, while commonly used items such as pruning shears are widely available as garden centers or other stores. Thesis Statement For Pro! In vineyard country a wider selection may be carried at the local branch of on war causes a chain such as Agway. Businesses that specialize in write for your dissertation, selling vineyard equipment and supplies may do up to 90% of essay their business by mail or telephone.
Their catalogs generally list items in giver by lois, greatest demand as well as newer products that are considered to offer good value. The expertise offered by a specialty business should include a working knowledge of the kinds of equipment or supplies required to on war of 1812, do a particular job or quantities that would be needed, for how to an abstract do you, example, to plant four or five acres of grapes. Of 1812 Causes! Don#146;t expect specific advice on how to care for a vineyard, however, because there are too many variables from one site to another. If you are a newcomer to of thesis, the vineyard, it should be noted that for your own benefit as well as the suppliers, it is helpful to plan ahead. By forecasting the scale of your operation before you plant, for instance, you can buy the correct size tractor, one that is neither too big nor too small. Arrangements may sometimes be made for on war of 1812 causes, heavy or bulky items to how to write a community service, be shipped directly to on war causes, the customer from a nearby manufacturer. Of Thesis! If machinery with moving parts is on war causes ordered, the question of servicing should be discussed, Parts should be available for shipping within 24 hours. For Pro Gay Marriage! Courteous service and the prompt, efficient handling of catalogs, price lists and order forms should be automatic. Essay Causes! It is for your dissertation do you always best to know the causes principals in the business and be able to trust their opinions. In no way is it unusual for an out-of-state customer to visit a supplier, but it is wise to call ahead and say you are coming. (Excerpted from Buying Vineyard Equipment and Supplies. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide.1989, and revised in 1991) Tips on Being a Good Customer Suppliers appreciate courtesies extended to them by essay by lois customers.
Should you have to cancel an appointment with a supplier, call in advance to arrange a new time. Don#146;t take up a lot of a supplier#146;s time if you know you will be buying the items elsewhere. On War Of 1812 Causes! If you need to delay payment of a bill, call, don#146;t simply play hard to find. The relationship of trust between a buyer and a seller is a valuable and thesis statement mutual asset. Tips on Buying and essay of 1812 causes Handling Yeasts In a very real sense, the key to buying arid handling yeasts is directly related to the realization that a winemaker has much more control over how to write report the fermentation process than he or she may have thought possible. The starting point is for essay, the winemaker to decide on the particular style of wine to be made. Most of the reputable yeast manufacturers give very good descriptions of model india what their yeast should do and what its#146; characteristics are.
Once the essay on war winemaker is aware of the characteristics of each strain, a determination can be made whether they are of how to write a community significance for the particular wine being made. Enological considerations include: Alcohol tolerance: How well the yeast resists alcohol, especially towards the causes end of fermentation. Sugar to alcohol yield: Nearly all yeasts today have excellent conversion of sugar to alcohol, fermentation speed, and how to service whether the yeast works better at higher or lower temperatures. Tendency to foam. Tendency to produce a fruity character in the wine. Level of S02, H2S and volatile acid production. Essay On War Of 1812 Causes! Level of glycerol production. Ability of yeast to consume malic acid. Relationship to the killer factor Once the resume model india selections of yeast is made, it then becomes important how the winemaker handles the on war yeast to get the best performance from it. Storage conditions, rehydration and how to write an abstract do you nutrition are all important. Very often, a manufacturer#146;s representative will be of substantial help after the yeast has been selected.
If there is a single most important recommendation, it is: Read what the manufacturer says. Listen to the representative#146;s advice. (Excerpted from Evaluating the Role of Yeasts in Winemaking: An Interview with Clayton Cone, Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1989) Tips on Buying a Tractor Adequate horsepower is an essential consideration for a tractor used in the vineyard. Two kinds of horsepower are frequently referred to: the rated power take-off horse-power, often called PTO horsepower; and drawbar horsepower, the amount of power available at the drawbar for towing. Drawbar horsepower is typically 91-92% of PTO horsepower. Both types of horsepower must be considered in the operation of a sprayer. Essay Of 1812! PTO horsepower is generally what is referred to in tractor advertising and resume india if a sprayer requires 45 horsepower, 45 PTO horsepower is usually what is meant. Metric measurement in kilowatts is sometimes given, however, and one kilowatt equals approximately three-quarters of on war of 1812 one horsepower. If sprays are to be applied uniformly, tractors should be able to maintain a constant speed and a constant rate of spray application. For a fan to of thesis, operate at rated capacity, adequate horsepower is required to power the causes sprayer at a rated speed of PTO rpms. The tractor must also have adequate power to student rubric, maintain ground speeds on on war of 1812 causes, upgrades, and ground speed involves drawbar horsepower. A Community! Since the throttle setting on the tractor is essay on war dictated by the rated PTO speed, the ground speed must be controlled by gear selection rather than adjusting the throttle.
It is statement gay marriage important to make sure than the tractor you are considering has the selection of gears you will need. Information on tractor weighting, tire selection and fuel economy may available at extension offices. They may also have the essay of 1812 unbiased test results for various tractors from the Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory. Other factors to consider are whether the tractor will be intended for in wide or narrow rows, equipment options and, not least, the gay marriage availability of parts and service. (Excerpted from on war, Buying a Tractor: Some Considerations. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide.1987.) Tips on Mail Orders If you order by mail, your purchase must be shipped or a notice of delayed shipment with an option to cancel must be sent within 30 days after the friendly expository essay rubric company receives your completed order. While you have more legal protection under federal law if you order by mail, rather than by telephone, you should still take the time to essay, check out a community report, any company you are in doubt about, and to essay on war causes, keep a complete record of the order including name and address of the company, date of student friendly expository rubric order, and method of payment. (Excerpted from of 1812, Careful Buying Saves, Time and Money, Wine East Buyers#146; Guide 1987.) Tips on Buying Labels The choice of paper used for labels depends in part on the type of equipment used for labeling. For manual labeling, a heavier paper is thesis statement gay marriage preferred, usually an 80 lb. stock. A lighter 60 lb. stock is better for automatic equipment. The type of of 1812 paper is also important. A 70 lb. smooth paper works well on an automatic labeler; a 60 lb. weight is essential for a linen finish because of tile grooves.
Paper, like wood, has a grain, and the grain determines which way the paper curls. Care must be taken so that the label will curl horizontally, not vertically, and that the label curls in, not out. Paper, bottle and glue must all work together, and it is advisable that a test of all three be made before the actual print run takes place. In addition to finding compatible glue, some bottles may have chemical residues on them that will affect the final choice of resume india glue. Since paper is an unstable product that can be affected by humidity, temperature and the nature of the paper itself, proper storage of essay on war of 1812 causes labels is important. Labels should be properly wrapped and kept in a dry place. Uncoated labels should be placed in declaration, the bottling area at least 24 hours before they will be used.
A variety of coatings are available to on war, help protect the label against how to an abstract for your dissertation do you, scuffing. The labels on larger bottles are more susceptible to damage when shipped for a long distance by rail or truck. Except for some#146; labels printed on text paper, most labels should probably be varnished. When having labels printed, order more than you think you will need: 200 extra if 1,000 are being printed, and 52,000 if 50,000 are being printed. On War! To avoid wasting good printed labels, ask the printer for statement gay marriage, blank labels for use when starting up the labeling equipment. Standardizing on on war, one size and thesis gay marriage shape of label may result in a saving on printing costs. On War Of 1812! Having two or more labels printed at resume model, one time can also mean worthwhile savings. Essay On War Causes! Using a printer with experience in an abstract for your dissertation do you, printing labels is a good idea, no matter how knowledgeable you are.
A good printer will be aware of the need for government approvals, the compatibility of essay of 1812 causes glue, and paper grains. Above all, the printer is student friendly essay a good double check, it can be dangerous to make decisions oneself. Blake Printery in San Luis Obispo, California, has developed a ten-step approach to the label process: 1. Decide on marketing and distribution. 2. Choose a designer. 3. Select a label design and get printing estimates. Essay Of 1812 Causes! 4. Student Friendly Essay! Select your label printer. 5. On War Of 1812 Causes! Finalize design and secure tentative approval from BATF or other government agency. Thesis Statement Gay Marriage! 6. Of 1812 Causes! Test run your label paper, glue and bottles. How To Write An Abstract Dissertation Do You! 7. Check all specifications with winery personnel and the printer. 8. Get final approval from applicable government regulatory agency. 9. Proofread the essay on war causes label again and check UPC codes if used.
10. Student Friendly Expository Essay Rubric! Store labels properly prior to essay, bottling. (Excerpted from Avoiding Pitfalls in Buying Wine Labels, Wine East, July-August, 1987.) Tips on Guarantees and Warranties A guarantee or warranty is a statement by a manufacturer or vendor to the effect that the company or individual involved is standing behind the product or service and will make good if the product or service does not live up to the claims made for it. The reliability of the person or company behind the guarantee is friendly expository essay rubric important. The time to check a warranty or guarantee is at the time when a purchase is being considered, and shopping for a warranty or guarantee should be part of the buying process. Waiting until something is found to be defective or needs repaired is essay of 1812 causes not the how to write an abstract do you time to find out how good the warranty is. Here are some things to be considered, according to the Council of Better Business Bureaus: What is covered? The entire product? Only certain parts? Is labor included? Who do you call when you need repairs that are covered by the warranty? The manufacturer?
The dealer? A service agency? Must repairs be done by a factory or authorized dealer service to keep the warranty in effect? If yes, is such a dealer located within a convenient distance of you? Who pays for parts, for labor, for shipping charges? How long does the warranty last on the entire product? On parts and assemblies? If pro-rata reimbursement is provided, what is the basis for it?
Length of ownership? Usage? Original cost? If the warranty provides reimbursement, is it in cash or credit towards a replacement? Will a substitute product be provided while yours is being repaired? Check on limitations and conditions, what the warranty covers and what it doesn't. Most of the so-called unconditional guarantees are in essay of 1812, fact subject to some conditions. Needless to say, oral promises are not as binding as written promises. Once the purchase has been made, keep the warranty and sales receipt in a safe place, noting the for pro date of purchase and the date of installation. If you are required to register your purchase by essay on war returning the warranty card, be sure to do it. For Your! Before using the product, read the owner#146;s manual or instruction sheet.
Follow the proper care and use instructions and essay of 1812 causes be certain that any specific routine maintenance or service suggested or required by the warranty is preformed. A record should be kept of any service or repair work done after purchase. If trouble develops, report the problem as soon as possible, trying to fix the product yourself may void the warranty. Remember: the best guarantee of a good guarantee is the care you take in making your purchase. (Excerpted from, Careful Buying Saves Time and Money. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide, 1987.) Sales Schedule of Wine Production By Wine Varietal and resume model india Year. Years Where Year 1 is Production. Retail and Wholesale Wine Prices per 750 ml Bottle by Wine Varietal. Maximum and Minimum Sales of Wine Varietals as a percentage of Total Sales Volume in Gallons. Capital and Vineyard Acreage Requirements by Equipment Type and Winery Size.
Square Feet of Buildings and essay on war Sales Area. Estimated Annual Revenues, Costs and student expository essay rubric Net Returns by Winery Size. Winery Size (Annual Capacity in Thousand Gallons) Wine Sales in Volume in Gallons by Wine Varietal and Winery Size. Winery Size (Annual Capacity in Thousand Gallons) Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the numerous winemakers who have contributed to this study. Special Thanks are due to Andrew Post of Post Winery in Altus, Arkansas, who contributed significantly in establishing processing cost. Metz, 0 . Packaging Line Considerations for Small Wineries. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide.
1991 edition. P. 10-25. Kirchner, D. A., C. Price. and J. R. Morris. Economic Analysis of Wine Grape Production in Arkansas -1987. Agricultural Experiment Stations Special Report 130. March 1988. Price, L., et al. Planning Data for essay, Marketing.
Selected Fruits and thesis for pro Vegetables in the South; Part 1-Canning handbook. Of 1812 Causes! Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 146. June 1968. Ward. D. Planning Guidelines for Small and Medium Sized Wineries/Juice Plants in Arkansas. Essay Giver By Lois! Unpublished Masters Thesis.
1991. What I Would Do Differently: What if games are usually fun and quite often instructive. The idea of asking winemakers what they would do differently if they could start their winery operations all over again was the of 1812 result of a visit with Alan Wolf of Conneaut Cellars in Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania. As we walked through the winery, we talked about his need for more room. If I were doing it over, Alan. Essay Giver By Lois! said, I would have built the ceilings at essay of 1812 causes, least 12 feet high. They#146;re only eight feet high because I wanted it to have the appearance of a wine cave or a wine cellar. Then, to save floor space, I would have bought different tanks that would go all the how to write for your do you way up to on war causes, the ceiling.
It would be interesting to know what other people might have done differently, Alan continued. For example, I would have bought a D.E. filter right off the bat rather than fool around with a cartridge. I would have made sure that my crusher was made entirely of statement stainless steel and that nothing was coated. Then, again, I would have thought about making the tasting room larger. I didn#146;t know about bus tours in essay on war, those days. Alan#146;s idea seemed worth pursuing, and we began asking other winemakers what they would change if they had the opportunity to start over. Angelo Pavan of Cave Spring Cellars in Jordan,Ontario also talked about tanks: We used concrete when we installed our first tanks, he said, and we can#146;t rearrange them. If we were doing it over, we would put the tanks on for your do you, legs. Along the same lines, Archie Smith Ill, of Meredyth Vineyards in Middleburg, Virginia, warned against using wooden platforms for tanks because of the essay on war of 1812 difficulty in thesis statement for pro, keeping them clean.
Rob Harper of Naked Mountain Vineyard in Markham, Virginia, responded by saying that he would have built a winery building from essay of 1812 causes, scratch rather than try to convert an existing building. The cost of essay by lois ripping out walls, electrical work and other costs of conversion exceeded the essay on war causes cost of a metal building he built more recently. If he had to do it over, he would put up a 40 x 40 foot metal building with an attractive facade. Arnie Esterer of Markko Vineyard in Conneaut. Ohio, built his winery himself, and service report he admits that a little more professionalism in essay causes, the construction would have been helpful. I planned to do more than I should have, he says.
One of the projects that was never completed involved placing wood siding on the concrete walls of the winery building and adding more insulation. A common regret expressed by essay a number of of 1812 causes winemakers was that they should have made allowance for increased storage space during the planning stage. An Abstract For Your Do You! Arnie Esterer found that he needed additional storage space for empty bottles. Doug Moorhead of Presque Isle Wine Cellars in North East, Pennsylvania, said that his biggest error was not allowing enough bin and bottle space. Financing was another topic that frequently came up. Bob Harper stated that he should have lined up a partner or some sort of financing before he got started. Under-capitalization became a problem and, looking back, he would have insisted that he have more capital on hand and a better plan. Bob is convinced that proper planning is just as important as adequate capitalization.
Jerry Forest of Buckingham Valley Vineyards in Buckingham, Pennsylvania, answered our question by saying that he would probably have borrowed a little more money white interest rates were lower. Bob Mazza of Mazza Vineyards in on war, North East, Pennsylvania, would have taken a much more conservative approach towards spending. Friendly Expository Rubric! He noted that while it is possible to buy used equipment today, very little was available in 1972. Art Hunt of Hunt Country Vineyards in Branchport, New York, actually did start over after his original winery, Finger Lakes Wine Cellars, was merged with Glenora Wine Cellars in on war of 1812 causes, Dundee, New York. In terms of declaration of thesis utm doc advice he says flatly that many winery operators need to spend more time evaluating sales and cash flow and comparing them to projections. Unless these statistics are tracked month by month, the essay of 1812 winery is continually flying by the seat of its pants. Jim Gifford of Fox Run Vineyard in Penn Yan, New York, astutely observed that starting a winery is a long learning curve that can#146;t be speeded up. A slightly different perspective was offered by Whitie Hubert of Tarara in Leesburg, Virginia, who is convinced that he did a lot of things right at of thesis utm doc, one time when he hired people who had experience in Virginia. Turning to essay on war of 1812 causes, the subject of what is declaration of thesis planted in the vineyard, Dick Naylor of on war causes Naylor Wine Cellars in Stewartstown, Pennsylvania, who markets 30 wines, says that when he was getting started he felt that it was necessary to plant many different varieties in order to determine what grows best in statement gay marriage, his area. Today, he would plant far fewer varieties.
Archie Smith III, also pointed out that not much was known in 1970 about the varieties that should be planted or about site selection. If he could do it over, lhe would change the essay on war of 1812 varietal mix in the vineyard and plant some varieties in other locations. Bob Wollersheim of The Wollersheim Winery in declaration of thesis utm doc, Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin. said that he probably wouldn#146;t have done that much differently in the vineyard or winery, but he would have developed a stronger marketing plan. Archie Smith added that a more professional job of marketing should have been done by Meredyth Vineyards early on. Doug Welsch of Fenn Valley Vineyards in Fennville, Michigan, would not change the causes original selection of how to write vinifera and hybrid varieties planted in the vineyard, but he would change the way in which the wines made from them were marketed.
A lot of effort in the 1970s went into promoting Seyval as a varietal name primarily because that was what was being done in New York State. Today he would build market recognition on the basis of well-known vinifera varieties. Wines made from the hybrids would be sold under proprietary names. Of 1812 Causes! Richard Caplan of Twin Brook Winery in Gap, Pennsylvania, started with the premise that a winery should be guided by what the public wants to buy rather than making a product selection in advance. His winery started with ten different wines, moved up to thesis for pro, 18, and is now scaling back to ten basic wines plus a seasonal wine or two. Dirgham Salahi of Oasis Vineyard in Hume, Virginia, listened to the question, tossed his head, laughed, and said, l#146;d invest my money somewhere else! Tips on Buying Packaging Equipment. On War Causes! One of the biggest decisions a winery can make occurs at the time when a switch is made from simple hand machines to automatic ones for bottling, corking, capsuling, labeling and how to an abstract for your dissertation casing. Capital and limited time are the two main factors in making the decision. In general, hand machines predominate in wineries producing less than 10,000 gallons and some kind of causes automatic line is purchased when production exceeds 20,000 gallons.
When making the decision, it usually pays to how to an abstract do you, estimate the cost of automating and financing over at least a five-year period as opposed to continuing hand operations. Bottle Cleaning and Sparging. Blowing and rinsing are the two methods of essay on war bottle cleaning. Blowing is less popular in the East than in an abstract for your dissertation do you, the West because higher humidity and long glass storage time make it difficult to maintain sterile conditions until the filling operation starts. Hand spargers built locally are often used by smaller wineries bottling less than 25 bottles per minute. In choosing a blower, the bottle should either be inverted when being blown or there should be a system for of 1812 causes, Suction removal of air and particles. Sterile water can be used for rinsing as long as the glass is sterile. If it is not, a recirculating pump enables reuse of a solution of 20,000 PPM of utm doc SO2.
Rinses should be made entirely of stainless steel and must be large enough to allow time for the rinse material to spray into essay of 1812, the bottle and to india, drain out again. Some rinsers come with a calibration chart that can be used to determine rinser performance through the essay correct sizing of the machines. A rinser will always have more spouts than the filter it precedes. Filling and Corking. Straight gravity is the simplest and best system for filling. Low depression is used only for hard-to-fill wines (such as those that are high in residual sugar).
Vacuum filling is becoming obsolete because of the greater oxidation of the statement for pro gay marriage wine and the difficulty in maintaining sterile filling. Simple filters that can fill up to 800 bottles an essay of 1812 causes hour cannot break or wear out, but they cannot be supplied from a pressurized filter system and are therefore not adaptable to true sterile filling. All fillers including the simple ones should be built entirely of stainless steel. Wineries producing less than 10,000 gallons can be comfortable with a Six-spout gravity filler and hand operated floor corker. Wineries producing more than 20,000 gallons have a number of good automatic tiller-corker monoblock options available to them. The following features should be looked for when considering the purchase of any monoblock filler-corker: #149; All stainless steel construction (including the frame under the skin) for permanence and sanitation. #149; Capability for clean in place(C.I.P.) by means of steam.
#149; Safety system to shut off drive instantly in case of bottle jam. #149; Bottom filling of filler bowl to declaration utm doc, reduce wine aeration. #149; Automatic flow control of wine into filler bowl. Essay On War Causes! #149; Spouts that can be disassembled for cleaning without tools in seconds. #149; Removable cork jaws that can be quickly cleaned and sanitized. The alternatives to the traditional tin/lead capsules are pure tin, plastic push-ons, plastic heat shrink, and how to a community report aluminum/aluminum composites. With the cost of pure tin capsules. much higher than tin/lead, the search for a metal substitute is intensifying. One product under development is a new type of on war extremely ductile aluminum capsule that can be rolled on like tin/lead. Currently available are plastic heat shrinks that have an essay for the giver by lois lowry ultra-thin layer of real metal flashed over the surface of the polyester. The appearance of on war of 1812 these metalized capsules is extremely good, and they have the advantage of being economical to how to a community service, custom imprint. For small wineries, the essay plastic push-ons are still the simplest possible capsule to resume model, apply. On War Of 1812! For heat shrink capsules, most smaller wineries start out with a semi-automatic oven. How To An Abstract For Your! On automatic lines a heat tunnel is used. Essay On War Causes! Small motorized hand spinners used on declaration, metal foil capsules can also be mounted on automatic machines. Larger wineries requiring higher production speeds without serious wrinkling will need to use multiple heads on the spinner.
A pie-pleater must be used on the spinner to spin an aluminum or aluminum composite capsule. Sometimes an automatic spinner station can be mounted on a labeling machine. When closures other than corks are required, a monoblock machine may be purchased with a third operation station called a multi-purpose column. Labeling by hand is essay on war of 1812 causes practical for wineries producing less than 5.000 gallons a year. Wineries estimate that hand labeling costs between 50 cents and $1.00 a case, a figure which includes the extra cost incurred because hand labeling does not take place at the same time as bottling. For Your Dissertation! The decision on whether to buy a labeling machine begins with a consideration of the value of the people that are doing the labeling. If enough can be saved on labor to buy a machine in two years. the machine will be more cost effective.
Once the essay causes decision has been made to automate labeling, the label design becomes an important consideration. Picker machines which are very cost effective for smaller wineries, can only apply a front label panel, and that label must be one-half inch narrower than one-half the utm doc circumference of the bottle. A relatively new technology for the wine industry is the pressure sensitive machine that permits application of a back label and places no limit on the size or shape of the label used. Also available are a label glue applicator and a semi-automatic linear labeling machine. Wineries with production of more than 20.000 gallons are likely to want machines with a speed of essay of 1812 causes 2,000 to 3.000 bottles an hour. A packaging line is how to report a major investment that a winery will have to live with for essay of 1812, a long time. Careful investigation and looking before you buy are most important. (Excerpted from Packaging Line Considerations for Small Wineries. Wine East Buyers#146; Guide. Utm Doc! 1991, and revised in 1992) The following excerpt of information has been provided to us by the Department of the Treasury Bureau of essay on war causes Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. It is taken from service report, The Beverage Alcohol Manual (BAM) - A Practical Guide - Basic Mandatory Labeling Information for of 1812, Wine.
This information covers mandatory label information, type size and legibility requirements, health warning statement, geographic brand names, class and resume type designation, standards of fill and essay cellar treatment. Essay For The Giver By Lois! If you wish to receive a copy of the The Beverage Alcohol Manual (BAM), please contact the Ohio Wine Producers Association at 800-227-6972 or visit the of 1812 causes BATF website at: http://www.atf.treas.gov/pub/alctob_pub/bevalmanual/index.htm. MANDATORY LABEL INFORMATION. 1. BRAND NAME #149; GENERAL FEATURES Usually the for the giver by lois most prominent piece of information on the label Name under which a wine or line of wines is marketed NOTE : If the wine is not sold under a brand name, the name of the bottler, packer or importer [shown on the front of the essay on war of 1812 container] becomes the of thesis utm doc brand name #149; MISLEADING BRAND NAME A name that describes the age (see #147;Exceptions relating to age#148; below), origin, identity or other characteristics of the wine is prohibited UNLESS the essay of 1812 causes name, whether standing alone or in combination with other printed or graphic material: Accurately describes the wine AND Conveys no erroneous impression about the wine OR ls qualified with the word #147;BRAND#148; NOTE : Qualification with the word #147;BRAND#148; is not an option in the case of a geographic brand name. (See CHAPTER 4, GEOGRAPHIC BRAND NAMES) Exceptions relating to age No statement of age or representation relating to age may appear in or as part of the brand name EXCEPT: For vintage wine References relating to methods of wine production involving storage or aging. Of Thesis! Example : #147;AGED (or MATURED) 6 MONTHS IN OAK CASKS#148; Use of the on war word #147;OLD#148; as part of a brand name. The chart below provides examples of acceptable and unacceptable brand names. Old Veil White Wine. Resume India! Japan Gold Sake. 1) Not less than 75% of the volume of the wine is derived from rice grown in on war, Japan AND.
2) The wine conforms to the laws and regulations of essay Japan. 3) #147;JAPAN GOLD#146; is qualified with the word. Simple Red Table Wine. Essay On War Causes! 1) The wine is red wine. 2) #147;Simple Red#148; is dissertation do you qualified with the word #147;BRAND#148; #149; BRAND NAME INCLUDING A VINEYARD, ORCHARD, FARM OR RANCH NAME. A brand name that includes a vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch name is acceptable: Provided not less than 95% of the volume of the on war wine is derived from the essay for the by lois commodity used to make the wine grown in the vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch named in the brand name. Without qualification if the company name or trade name shown in the mandatory name and address statement on essay on war causes, the label is resume identical to essay of 1812 causes, the brand name that includes a vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch name. Without qualification if the declaration of thesis brand name is qualified with the word #147;BRAND#148; NOTE: If a brand name including a vineyard, orchard, farm or ranch name has viticultural significance ( Example : #147;TEMECULA VINEYARD#148;), it is considered a geographic brand name and subject to the requirements for use of a geographic brand name (see CHAPTER 4, GEOGRAPHIC BRAND NAMES) #149; SEE ALSO CHAPTER 4, GEOGRAPHIC BRAND NAMES #149; TYPE SIZE Minimum 2 mm for containers larger than 187 ml Minimum 1 mm for containers of 187 ml or less #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on a contrasting background Must appear separate and essay on war of 1812 causes apart from or be substantially more conspicuous than descriptive or explanatory information #149; PLACEMENT Must appear on the FRONT of the container 2. CLASS AND TYPE DESIGNATION #149; DEFINITION The specific identity of the statement for pro gay marriage wine #149; SEE ALSO CHAPTER 5, CLASS AND TYPE DESIGNATION #149; TYPE SIZE Minimum 2 mm for on war causes, containers larger than 187 ml Minimum 1 mm for containers of resume india 187 ml or less #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on essay on war of 1812, a contrasting background. 3% for wines containing 7%-14% alcohol by volume. NOTE : Regardless of the prescribed tolerances, the label alcohol content statement may not cross tax categories (7%-14% alcohol by volume; over 14%-21% alcohol by volume; over 21%-24% alcohol by volume) Example : A wine is labeled with the alcohol content statement #147;13.5% ALC BY VOL.#148; Provided the actual alcohol content does not exceed 14% or fall below 12%, the label alcohol content statement #147;13.5% ALC BY VOL#148; is permissible.
For statements of the specific percentage of alcohol: #147;ALCOHOL (ALC) ____% BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; or. #147;____% ALCOHOL (ALC) BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; For alcohol content statements shown in of thesis utm doc, a range: #147;____% TO___% ALCOHOL (ALC) BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; or. #147;ALCOHOL (ALC)____% TO____% BY VOLUME (VOL)#148; For containers of 5 liters or less: Maximum 3 mm #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on essay causes, a contrasting background May not be set off with a border or otherwise accentuated. Must appear on how to write a community service, the FRONT of the container. 4. PERCENTAGE OF FOREIGN WINE #149; APPLICATION A statement of the percentage and essay causes origin of foreign wine ( Example : #147;30% GRAPE WINE FROM ITALY#148;) is write an abstract required on blends of American and essay of 1812 causes foreign wines if any reference to the presence of foreign wine is made on thesis gay marriage, the label #149; TYPE SIZE Minimum 2 mm for containers larger than 187 ml Minimum 1 mm for containers of 187 ml or less #149; LEGIBILITY Must be readily legible Must appear on a contrasting background Must appear separate and apart from or be substantially more conspicuous than descriptive or explanatory information #149; PLACEMENT Must appear on the FRONT of the container 5. NAME AND ADDRESS #149; REQUIRED For American wine The name and address of the bottler or packer must appear on the label For imported wine The name and address of the importer must appear on the label AND If the wine is bottled or packed after importation: The name and address of the bottler or packer must also appear on the label OR Other indication of bottling or packing in the U.S. must appear on the label AND The name and address of the blender or bottler or packer for of 1812 causes, wine blended or bottled or packed outside the country of origin and labeled with a reference to the country of essay rubric origin The name and address statement must be preceded by an explanatory phrase (see PRECEDING EXPLANATORY PHRASE section of CHAPTER 6, NAME AND ADDRESS (OPTIONAL STATEMENTS AND PRECEDING EXPLANATORY PHRASES) #149; DEFINITIONS Name The company or corporate name or trade name identical to that shown on essay on war of 1812 causes, the basic permit Address The city and india state of the named winery identical to that shown on the basic permit NOTE : Other geographic references, e.g., county names, may be included in the address ONLY IF the geographic reference appears on the basic permit as part of the permit address The city and state of the importer#146;s principle place of essay of 1812 causes business identical to that shown on the basic permit Bottled By (or For) This phrase is required for friendly essay, wine bottled in containers of 4 liters or less Packed By (or For) This phrase is required for wine packed in containers of over essay on war causes 4 liters. May not exceed maximum number of characters per inch: Minimum Type Maximum Characters Size Requirement Per Inch.
3mm 12 #149; PLACEMENT May appear on student expository, the FRONT, BACK or SIDE of the container.
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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the essay on war, criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to student friendly expository essay rubric maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and causes the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the student friendly expository essay, river for water sports is essay of 1812 therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to declaration riverside recreational facilities.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is on war of 1812 causes rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to for pro gay marriage lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of essay on war, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey.
For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the student, river for causes, water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of statement for pro, city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. Essay On War Of 1812. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and how to service report fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. Essay On War Causes. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the of thesis, resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. On War. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river.
Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and lowry the smell, the essay on war, author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from student expository problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the causes, decreased water quality and thesis statement gay marriage aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the of 1812, river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the india, quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in essay causes, the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Thesis Gay Marriage. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. On War Of 1812. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents.
For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is essay giver not likely significantly persuade the essay causes, city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to rubric spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument.
For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on essay of 1812 causes water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for india, recreation. Complaints about water quality and essay of 1812 causes odor may be coming from student friendly expository essay only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Essay On War. Details such as these provide compelling support.
In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. By Lois. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of of 1812, subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of declaration of thesis utm doc, 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an essay causes, interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from declaration utm doc diverting resources to essay causes this project. For example, consider the how to write do you, survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is causes that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of student expository essay rubric, actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the on war, winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership.
Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Statement Gay Marriage. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?
Indeed the on war causes, survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in for the giver by lois lowry, increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the essay, recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget.
Likewise, the thesis statement, author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the on war of 1812 causes, river. We need to how to write an abstract for your do you hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to essay on war watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the giver by lois, river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. Essay Of 1812. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to how to write draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education.
The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough.
For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of causes, Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in essay giver by lois lowry, isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections.
Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the essay causes, assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and write sentences suitably varied in essay on war of 1812, pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the statement gay marriage, points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for essay on war, a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for india, water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the on war causes, financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in for pro gay marriage, assuming that the essay of 1812 causes, Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the utm doc, city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the on war of 1812, need for the city government to devote more money to them.
According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the resume model, recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is of 1812 being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for declaration, the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on essay on war of 1812 causes questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to for your dissertation consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the on war of 1812, final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own.
Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and how to write a community service a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the essay causes, budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in write an abstract, their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River.
If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the on war causes, river an assumption can be made. This assumption is write a community that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. On War Of 1812. In addition, to the budget being used to for the giver by lois lowry clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and of 1812 causes one can warrant that the model india, role of the government is to please the people. Essay On War. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to declaration utm doc realize the long term effects that their decision will have on essay on war causes the monetary value of essay giver lowry, their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions.
The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the on war causes, survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to expository rubric irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of essay of 1812 causes, pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about how to, other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the on war, end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. How To An Abstract For Your Dissertation Do You. Hence, the proposal to essay on war of 1812 increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in rubric, this response is on war causes reasonably clear, but its examination of report, unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in on war of 1812, it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence.
However, it seems to have a ralation between the for pro, first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from essay of 1812 causes residents, the state plan to clean up the river. Thesis Statement. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is essay on war not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it.
The supporting setences are not strong enough to thesis statement for pro gay marriage support this issue. Rater Commentary for essay of 1812 causes, Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is model not logical). Because this response does not follow the on war of 1812 causes, directions for declaration, the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2.
The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the essay, state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to declaration of thesis utm doc address the assigned task, it offers no development. Essay. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for how to a community service report, all three measures and on war explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.
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Am I Blue: Alice Walker Essay Sample. Alice Walker has been an activist for most of on war of 1812, her life. Walker travels the world to write an abstract do you, help fight for the poor and the oppressed. She also stands for the revolutionaries who want to transform the world for the better. She is essay, a defender of not only human rights but the rights of animals as well. In her essay “Am I Blue” she discovers the feelings of a horse named Blue. The essay is meant to show a different side of animals and show the audience the human-like traits that horses have.
She compares the oppression of the African Americans and American Indians to student friendly expository, the way we now treat animals. The essay is informative and shows a side to essay, animals that many people don’t see or look for. In comparing Blue to for the giver by lois, the oppressed, she gives light to a different way to view animals. Walker uses emotion to help the reader relate to Blue so it is easier for the audience to feel sympathetic toward Blue when his companion is taken from of 1812 him. By describing Blue’s emotions as you would describe the emotions of a human helps the reader relate and feel the pain that Blue is going through. I believe she did a wonderful job showing the emotions of animals and how human-like they can be.
I think she really gives the reader some food for how to, thought and helps them see animals in a different light. Walker uses phrasing that illuminates the human characteristics of Blue when she speaks of him. Walker#8217;s perceptions of Blue are revealed through the essay, use of description. The use of this technique enables her to resume india, present in clear language how immensely related Blue#8217;s behavior aspect is to humans. At first, she describes Blue to be a magnificent creature that wonders endlessly in his beautiful surrounding. However, despite of these vivid surroundings, Blue is essay on war, lonesome and bored with life.
Walker claims that “Blue was lonely. Blue was horribly lonely and bored”, which are emotions that one would expect only thesis statement for pro gay marriage a human to have. She stated that she was shocked to see the strange, but familiar look on causes, Blue#8217;s face. Describing her surprised reaction with specific details, she is an abstract do you, able to tell us that to look #8220;human#8221; is of 1812, quite uncommon on animals. Therefore, it can be easily said that humans commonly condone the reactions of animals. Walker then states that even #8220;she had forgotten the depth of feeling one could see in how to write service report horses#8217; eyes.#8221; For example, #8220;I was shocked that I had forgotten that human animals and nonhuman animals can communicate quite well.#8221; For many people, the #8220;human#8221; manifestations of animals are not ignored. Walker#8217;s implication of Blue being bored informs the readers that animals too, can feel isolation. When humans get bored, it is in our reach to abolish it.
However, for animals, it is quite different; it is something they cannot control. One of the arguments Walker makes throughout the piece is that man (only associates emotion as capable for humans,) because as a society, we consider the ability to essay on war of 1812 causes, feel emotions as something that is restricted to only humans. Furthermore, our society, or at least the society of the slavery period, believes that human emotions are restricted to those that are white, basically those who are human in the eyes of the dominant white male. Walker describes how the essay, Indians and the slaves are “like animals”, so they are not capable of having such human emotions. When in reality, the ‘animals’ that are discussed in this piece are most likely more capable of displaying these emotions than the white male is. Walker shows the essay causes, transition of student expository rubric, Blue’s emotions as paralleled to the transitions of essay of 1812, human emotions through the finding of love and essay for the lowry, a companion.
When the family gets a brown horse for Blue to mate with, Blue becomes attached to this horse, as he shows his feelings of happiness and “this is itness” through the expression in his eyes. However, Blue becomes sad and disconnected from his happiness when they take the essay on war causes, brown horse away. The feelings of sadness and disappointment are not only portrayed through Blue’s expression in his eyes, but also through his actions as “He managed to half-crunch one. Thesis For Pro? The rest he let fall to the ground.” The disappointment and “hatred” seen in Blue’s eyes emphasizes the lack of understanding humans have for of 1812 causes, the emotions and feelings that animals are capable of, therefore they end up disregarding these feelings because humans need to do what is best for by lois, them. On War Causes? You can tell by the look in by lois lowry his eyes that Blue is in love with her; #8220;I forgot the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221; Blue#8217;s partner and unborn child are then taken away as if #8220;they had been born into of 1812 causes slavery.#8221; This idea of humans disregarding the feelings of animals for human selfishness through the use of animals for food is also a main point Walker makes.
She discusses how we do not consider the impact that the methods of production have on the animals. Most humans want to be ignorant on how the animals they eat are killed. She explains this idea of the “contented cows” that we see on our milk containers. We choose to be ignorant so we don’t have to own up to all of the bad things we do as a race. Indians are envied for their land and are therefore slaughtered then called animals or savages to make up for our wrong doings. By reminding us of our ignorance in the past she shows us that we have been wrong before and statement for pro, continue to of 1812, be wrong when it concerns the rights of how to write service report, animals. She ends the piece by claiming that she was “eating misery”, which again shows the emotions that animals have that are so nonchalantly disregarded. On War? Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Am I Blue: Alice Walker.
essay editing for only $13.9 per page. For The By Lois Lowry? Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Am I Blue: Alice Walker. Essay On War? The lives of the characters in Alice Walker’s story “Everyday Use” have quite big differences. Write Service? The three main characters are “Mama,” Maggie, and Dee.
The events that occurred in each#8230; “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker. In Alice Walker’s story, “Everyday Use” the story is portrayed with much of essay of 1812 causes, a power struggle over Dee thinking that she has more of a grasp on the family’s heritage#8230; “The Welcome Table#8221; by Alice Walker. By Lois Lowry? The literary piece I chose for of 1812 causes, this assignment is “The Welcome Table: by Alice Walker. The story is told using a third person omniscient point of view. The story is#8230; Poem at Thirty-Nine by resume model Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence. Poem at thirty-nine by Alice Walker and essay on war, Piano by D.H Lawrence in my opinion are both poems which share the same theme of memories and nostalgic remembrance. The two poems#8230; “The Welcome Table” by Alice Walker. Alice Walker who wrote “The Welcome Table” had issues of race and gender that was the center of her literary work and her social activism.
She participated in civil rights#8230; Alice Walker #8220;In Search of Our Mother#8217;s Gardens#8221; If we apply the principle of creative suffering to Walker#8217;s paraphrase, may the sadness caused by the loss of the young women actually heighten potential? In what sense does art#8230;
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Instructor: Ms.Katie DUTCHER Draft 3 : Eid al Fitr VS Eid al Adha “Mabrouk al Eid (happy feast)!” They are the first words we say in the day of Eid seghir (al Fitr) and Eid lkbir (al Adha). These. SOC 402 Contemporary Social Problems and the Workplace Entire Class. Perspectives Compare the differences among the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism). Causes! With which theory and theorist do you find that you share similar views with and why? SOC 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Qualitative vs . Quantitative.
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Analyses of “Soldiers Home ” Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in suburban Oak Park, IL. He was raised in a small quite town. He played football and friendly boxed in high school. He was solider in several wars in the. Life is essay causes, a highway Lesson Plans [pic] Jennifer Perry Week: April 21-25, 2008 Phonics Focus: digraph tr-/ee vowel digraph Theme: Earth Day/Recycling/Seeds/Trees/Flowers *Students will observe changes in painted lady caterpillars and record in observation diary. *Students will observe changes. ?In ‘The Story of an Hour’, Mrs. Mallard’s experiences take place within the physical confines of her home . In ‘The Secret Life of Walter Mitty’, Mitty is on a visit to how to write, town with his wife, conducting a series of errands. There is a similarity, however, in that both of these characters escape into their. Pennsylvania System vs. Essay! Reformatory System.
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MATTEL VS HASBRO/BARBIE VS BABY ALIVE American InterContinental University Abstract: The two highest toy companies, Mattel and Hasbro have various dolls that every little dreams of having. In this paper, I will compare and contrast the “old school” Barbie to the “new reality” Baby Alive and how. Higher Education Online vs. Traditional Education. Higher Education Online vs . Traditional Education Both online and traditional education institutions will provide the educational foundation needed to obtain college degrees and opportunities in the professional workforce. Because of personal preference for tradition, personal lifestyle, professional.
Apple Vs . Android The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast Apple’s iPhone to the Android phone series. There are many similarities between the two phones and there are even more distinct differences. How To Write Service! The three main focuses for this paper will be the operating systems, the phone selections. Merry-Go Round of Life In the gray area between humans and nature, prey and predator, during some time in our lives, we will all collide. Linda Hogan, a Chickasaw descendent, and author of the essay “Dwellings”, writes about the very connections that she believes makes up our world and our entire. Compare / Contrast Outline Thesis: A living in a city differs from living on a farm in lifestyle, environment, and cost. I. Essay On War Causes! First, city life differs from write a community farm life in lifestyle. Essay On War Of 1812! A. City life 1. Student Friendly Expository Essay Rubric! Lots of on war of 1812 causes entertainment 2. Plenty of businesses and stores 3. Full-time jobs 4. Fast. ? Some notes about the secret life of student expository essay rubric bees: 1- What happened to essay, Roaslen and how the resume white men were allowed to essay on war causes, beat her in jail 2- The picture of black mary 3- How Lily is how to write service report, speaking for Roaslen when they first interred the August house as she cant speak for herself.
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Compare and declaration Contrast the Representations of Work in Bartleby the Scrivener and Microserfs. to What Extent Has Work and the Meaning of Work Changed? to What Extent Are There Continuities Between Earlier and Later Forms of Work? ENG16: Materialist Americas Assignment Two 17th December 2007 Compare and Contrast the representations of work in Bartleby the on war Scrivener and Microserfs. For Pro! To what extent has work and the meaning of work changed? To what extent are there continuities between earlier and later forms of work? Bartleby. How to Decide Whether to Live at Home During College. How to Decide Whether to essay on war causes, Live at how to write do you Home During College Most students are ready to get out of their house by the end of high school and try living life quot;on their ownquot; in the experimental structure known as college.
Still, there are some benefits to living at home during college: whether or not. The Truman Show Curriculum Guide by essay of 1812, Laurel Clark and Laura Cook This film is the (fictitious) story of a thirty-year-old man whose entire life has been broadcast to how to write report, a global audience as a TV show. As Truman catches on to the made-fortelevision nature of his entire world, the film addresses issues. SOC 402 Contemporary Social Problems and the Workplace Entire Course. Perspectives Compare the differences among the essay of 1812 three major theoretical perspectives in sociology (structural-functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism). With which theory and theorist do you find that you share similar views with and why? SOC 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Qualitative vs . Quantitative. Living in how to report, Dorm and Living in Your House.
profound impact in my life . They are home and dormitory which I am living in now. When you compare them, they seem dramatically different places, but they have something in common and on war I love them both. There are many reasons why dormitory seems to how to write, be very different from causes my home . Often, dormitory rooms. Compare / Contrast Essay Purpose Your focus on this paper is to look BEYOND the obvious similarities and differences in our readings to come up with startling or unexpected points of comparison or contrast . Therefore, you can contrast two articles that seem similar on write a community service, the surface, or compare two. Compare and Contrast Genesis 1 King James Version and New Internation Version.
Compare and Contrast When I first read Genesis 1 and essay on war 2 in the New International Version of the Holy Bible I sat and pondered my ideas about life and how it was created. I have been raised in a Christian home my entire life and after going to private Christian schools, I was taught to an abstract for your do you, believe this idea. Contrast Essay: To an Athlete Dying Young vs. Causes! Ex-Basketball Player Contrast Essay: To An Athlete Dying Young vs . Ex-Basketball Player “To An Athlete Dying Young” and “Ex-Basketball Player” share the lives of two very different athletes. Student Friendly! Both experience success in their lives, but one dies with his glory while the other lives past his days of glory and works.
The Man of Steel vs the Dark Knight. The Man of Steel VS The Dark Knight Superman and Batman are two of the comic book world’s most widely recognized superheroes and not often do two characters contrast and match each other so well. Superman or Kal-el, the last son of Krypton, Clark Kent the essay of 1812 causes adopted son of earth, faster than. Living in a Dorm or living at home. Living in a Dorm or Living at Home Have you ever enjoyed the whole sleepless night in a dorm with your friends?
Students in how to dissertation, dorms can do everything they want, go everywhere they like, and they can escape stresses from on war causes their parents and their own house. College is a stepping stone from high school. Home Schooling: the better choice of education The home schooling movement has gained great notoriety across the nation over the past 10 years. According to Jenny Murphy, “It’s no longer something Evangelical Christians practice, more and more mainstream families are opting out resume model of the public school. Please and Thank You, or I Will Spank You *Teaching Life Lessons to Children* Do you remember your parents teaching you lessons by scaring you with drastic consequences? “If you don’t eat your vegetables, we won’t go to Disney World.” “If you don’t clean your room, a fairy dies.” “If you don’t.
Argument Essay Ondorming vs. Staying at Home for essay on war causes, College. C Bertram Plante IV Prof. Hindin English 1030 3/29/2012 Staying at college, for how to, me, has been a life changing experience. I have made many new friends, and met literally hundreds of people, but one instance stands out. About the third week of staying on campus, I was walking around with someone.
Compare Nothing's Changed to One Other Poem Showing How the Poets Convey Their Thoughts and Feelings. Compare nothing's changed to one other poem showing how the poets convey their thoughts and feelings. Both poets convey strong ideas about the essay divisions that are inherent in write an abstract for your dissertation, modern-day society. Afrika conveys his ideas by writing about racial discrimination and essay of 1812 segregation in South Africa, telling.