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nbc 5 homework San Jose , California. Homework Diner is a high-impact service strategy in which the mayor’s office leverages resources and the holocaust essay, mobilizes volunteers to increase family engagement by bringing parents and caregivers into essay on the their children’s elementary schools to help with tutoring and the holocaust outline, enrichment activities, thereby helping to address low student achievement. Homework Diner tests the adage, “If you feed them, they will come.” By leveraging the offer of a healthy meal to families living in communities where food insecurity is marketing behaviour, prevalent and who may not have time to prepare a family meal, Homework Diner brings parents and caregivers into their children’s elementary schools and the holocaust essay, connects them with their children’s teachers and the larger school community. One evening a week, the students receive tutoring and essay, homework help and their parents and the holocaust essay, caregivers receive the support they need to help the children succeed in school. After the tutoring sessions conclude, the families enjoy a nutritious meal prepared by volunteers. Family engagement is a critical ingredient for a child’s school success, regardless of the age of the child or the family’s ethnicity, income, or education level. Research suggests that family engagement promotes a range of benefits for students including improved school readiness, higher school attendance, better social skills, advanced language and math skills, higher grades and test scores, and an increased likelihood that students will graduate from high school and continue on to higher education.1 However, many families face difficulties or barriers that prevent them from becoming engaged in their child’s education, while teachers and administrators report that getting families involved can be difficult. By bringing parents and guide resume, caregivers into the holocaust outline their children’s elementary school at least one evening a week, and sharing a community meal, Homework Diner fosters easier and more productive communication between home and school; gives parents the support they need to help their kids with schoolwork; encourages family bonding; and improves students’ academic achievement, in-school behavior, and confidence in their own success. By bringing parents and caregivers into their children’s elementary school at least one evening a week, and sharing a community meal, Homework Diner fosters easier and a case in organizational behavior answers, more productive communication between home and essay, school; gives parents the papers consumer support they need to help their kids with schoolwork; encourages family bonding; and improves students’ academic achievement, in-school behavior, and confidence in their own success.
1. The mayor’s office convenes an outline advisory group of school partners, community organizations, and city agency leads involved in K-12 education, food security and nutrition, food service, family social services, and volunteer management to: Develop the Homework Diner initiative; Establish responsibility for the recruitment, training, and management of all volunteers; Guarantee support from relevant city departments; and student friendly, Engage partners to help design and gather impact metrics. 2. A minimum of one teacher per academic grade and members of the school staff must be present during Homework Diner to ensure that tutoring and homework help align with the the holocaust essay curriculum and to meet, interact, and provide support to parents/caregivers and volunteer tutors. 3. Volunteers, including retired teachers, parents, community members, social service providers, and high school and college students, support the teachers and school staff in providing tutoring and other enrichment activities. 4. Volunteers prepare and serve nutritious meals to the families. 5. Each Homework Diner site must have an on-site coordinator who recruits and supports volunteers, leverages community resources, and makes sure that Homework Diner activities are aligned with the guide resume core instructional day. 6. The mayor’s office secures donations and grant funding to enhance the implementation of Homework Diner.
Required Metrics Include. Increase in the holocaust outline, student homework completion Improvement in bella's answers, student academic performance Increase in reading/writing test scores Increase in math test scores Improvement in outline, student academic behavior Improvement in sustained classroom attention Confidence in participation in the classroom Number of parents/caregivers involved in the initiative as volunteers (food prep, set up, and clean up) over guide resume, the course of the program year/period Number of the holocaust outline parents/caregivers who regularly attend Homework Diners during the student expository essay program year/period Improvement in parental/caregiver relationship with child’s school. Optional Metrics Might Include. Increase in participating student attendance at school Increase in parental/caregiver involvement with child’s school Number of parents/caregivers who serve on the holocaust essay outline school committees after participation in Homework Diner Number of parents/caregiver who volunteer at their child’s school after participation in diving thesis, Homework Diner. Conduct an initial planning meeting with all initiative partners. Most likely, partners will include the local school superintendent, local food banks, culinary schools or volunteers with experience in food service and nutrition, social service providers, and organizations with experience in essay, volunteer recruitment and guide resume, management.
Relevant partnerships with city agencies should be discussed early in the process. The planning meeting is an the holocaust essay outline opportunity to: Introduce partners and clearly define roles and student essay rubric, expectations. Determine the initiative’s scope and scale, including how often the Homework Diner will operate (recommend at least once a week during the school year) and how many families will be served. Identify the outline elementary school(s) to pilot the initiative and articulate what will be asked of those schools, including of their teachers and resume, school staff. Ensure that sufficient space (in the school’s cafeteria or gymnasium, for example) will be available for each Homework Diner session. Discuss the the holocaust outline city services and supports that will be made available to the schools, the volunteers, and participating students and families. Research Behaviour! Based on the above, determine the number and type of volunteers needed for this initiative and identify potential sources of volunteers. Homework Diner can be positioned as a volunteer opportunity for both individuals and groups (e.g., corporate groups, veterans groups, neighborhood associations, faith-based groups, and culinary schools).
Identify the training that volunteers will receive as part of the initiative (tutoring, homework assistance, etc.), and the person/group responsible for the holocaust, delivering the training. Identify a dedicated on-site coordinator who recruits volunteers, provides training and technical assistance to the volunteers, leverages community resources, and makes sure that Homework Diner activities are aligned with the core instructional day. The coordinator can be a volunteer, AmeriCorps member, member of the school staff (such as a parent/family coordinator), or community schools coordinator who cultivates partnerships between the school and community stakeholders. Develop a pipeline for the food supplies. On The! This could involve a partnership with a local food bank, a corporate partnership, or a local nonprofit that redistributes food. Ensure that sufficient food supplies will be available for each planned Homework Diner session. Additionally, determine who will prepare the meals, such as volunteers, students from a local culinary school, a local restaurant, etc. Develop a budget to cover materials and supplies. (See the Resource section for a sample budget.) Create a project timeline, taking into consideration the following:
School calendars PTA meetings Parent-teacher conferences Other potential after-school space usage conflicts Religious holidays and school breaks Develop a communications plan to mobilize, connect and the holocaust outline, update the volunteers. Engaging Teachers And Supporting Volunteers. Engaging teachers in the programming is guide resume, a critical component of essay outline this blueprint; a minimum of bar passage one teacher per academic grade should be present at each Homework Diner session. However, the essay outline on-site coordinator should first consult the school’s principal on any union issues that should be addressed with regard to bar passage resume, the teachers’ involvement in outline, Homework Diner. The school may consider providing stipends to teachers for their time, or the principal may organize a rotating schedule for teachers’ participation in Homework Diner. Additionally, the guide resume principal may elect to the holocaust outline, offer teachers comp time for participating in Homework Diner (e.g. “Volunteer at Homework Diner and leave 15 minutes after the students the bella's study in organizational following Friday!”). Teachers are the experts in the academic strategies and standards that the outline students are trying to student, master; they are the most effective resource for guiding the essay work of volunteers who provide the tutoring, homework help, and other academic supports to the students. During Homework Diner, teachers lead students and parents/caregivers through particular skills, such as division or reading comprehension. Teacher involvement may also include providing the guide resume “homework to-do list” and visuals and/or manipulatives to the holocaust essay outline, use during the session.
Teachers can loan wall charts, posters, and other materials to be copied by volunteers and kept for weekly Homework Diners, and parents/caregivers and volunteers can assist in providing manipulatives for math (bottle caps/straws, etc.). Particularly in grades K-3, teachers may send out weekly homework assignments on Monday, with all work due on Thursday or Friday. If Homework Diner tutors focus on the weekly homework assignments, then the curriculum is set and guide resume, the activities will be certain to benefit each student. In addition to the teachers, other volunteers should be recruited to essay outline, help, keeping in mind the wide-range of activities needed for Homework Diner, including: Setting up school facilities prior to start of each session Preparing meals Serving meals Providing homework assistance to students Serving as a “reading buddy” to students Providing childcare and enrichment activities for guide resume, siblings too young to attend school (e.g., songs, rhymes, reading, sorting) Providing enrichment activities and support services for parents, caregivers, and entire families Cleaning school facilities after each session concludes.
Securing Resources For Homework Diner. To successfully execute Homework Diner, the on-site coordinator should make a plan to secure all materials in essay outline, coordination with identified partners as part of the guide resume initial planning meeting. As suggested below, many of the the holocaust resources can be secured in-kind or at a discounted rate. Consider costs for by lars, the following: Food for meal preparation. Some food may be donated by outline the local food bank or a local grocery store, or purchased at a substantial discount through a local food service provider. Private donations might also help cover the food costs.
Basic equipment such as a refrigerator, plates, tables, chairs, tablecloths, kitchenware, cutlery, and bella's a case study in organizational, storage units. Using the school’s cafeteria may reduce many of these equipment costs. Volunteer background screening fees. Food permit. Funding for an on-site coordinator’s time (unless this person is a volunteer). Portion of the cafeteria manager’s time. Homework materials. Small stipends for the volunteer educators.
Recognizing And Thanking Volunteers. There are numerous ways to outline, recognize volunteer participants who contribute to making Homework Diner a success. Bella's A Case Behavior Answers! The on-site coordinator should be welcoming and energized during training and throughout the course of the programming. Following the conclusion of volunteers’ participation in programming, the the holocaust essay on-site coordinator can have students write and send thank you notes to volunteers. Once the metrics have been fully collected, the on-site coordinator should share the bella's study behavior impact with the volunteers. Additional quarterly or semiannual progress reports are also encouraged and will help volunteers understand how their efforts contributed to the initiative’s overall and the holocaust essay, long-term success on academic performance and family engagement. Other sources of volunteer recognition may include the local school board and news media or a joint thank-you letter from the essay on the reformation mayor and school superintendent. Tracking and reporting outcomes to key stakeholders is essay, critical to Homework Diner’s success.
In addition, formative data collection creates a feedback loop necessary to adjust programming to improve outcomes as necessary. The following outcome metrics must be collected: Increase in student homework completion Improvement in student academic performance Increase in reading/writing test scores Increase in guide resume, math test scores Improvement in essay, student academic behavior Improvement in sustained classroom attention Confidence in participation in the classroom Number of parents/caregivers involved in the initiative as volunteers (food prep, set up, and clean up) over the course of the program year/period Number of parents/caregivers who regularly attend Homework Diners during the program year/period Improvement in parental/caregiver relationship with child’s school. Optional metrics might include: Increase in participating student attendance at school Increase in parental/caregiver involvement with child’s school Number of parents/caregivers who serve on school committees after participation in on dumpster by lars thesis, Homework Diner Number of parents/caregiver who volunteer at their child’s school after participation in Homework Diner. The following tools can be utilized to assess the initiative’s impact: Participant sign-in sheets Parent/caregiver pre- and post-program surveys Interviews with parents/caregivers Focus groups Teacher surveys Student pre- and post-program surveys Student report cards Student school attendance and tardiness records. A mayor’s office may consider taking the following additional steps to expand and deepen the impact of the initiative: Provide GED and ESL services for parents/caregivers; Actively create a “family dinner experience” at each Homework Diner session where each family has its own table – complete with tablecloth and reusable dishware and cutlery – to share a meal together and engage in conversation and reflection on the evening’s activities; Engage parents and the holocaust outline, families in the programming (e.g., help with meal prep, set-up, and cleaning); Host quarterly dinners when report cards are distributed, enabling teachers and volunteers to review student performance and progress with parents/caregivers; and Offer a menu of support services to student friendly expository, parents/caregivers including job skills, clothing bank, food bank, health screenings and QA sessions, local youth sports opportunities, and outline, time for families to discuss challenges their children might be having, such as with behavior, attitude, and peer pressure with staff and student friendly expository essay, volunteers.
A community school “is both a place and a set of partnerships between the school and other community resources… Community schools offer a personalized curriculum that emphasizes real-world learning and community problem-solving.” Schools implementing a community schools strategy may be best suited to implement Homework Diner because they: Have a dedicated community schools coordinator that can align resources on the holocaust site; Generally have established parental involvement initiatives on campus; and Typically have other wraparound support services to essay, support children and the holocaust outline, families. Alternatively, instead of a school setting, the mayor’s office may pursue implementing Homework Diner in collaboration with a local nonprofit that has afterschool programming. Ideally, the nonprofit partner would play the bar passage on-site coordinator role and provide programming facilities and participants. When identifying a nonprofit partner, the mayor’s office should consider: Population the nonprofit serves; Volunteer management capacity; Access to facilities for programming, including a kitchen or space for food prep; Availability of resources, both cash and in-kind, to support programming; and Hours of the holocaust outline operation.
In this scenario, the school system can collaborate with the mayor’s office and the nonprofit to ensure that program activities align with core academic curriculum by sharing weekly homework assignments and instructional materials. Additionally, the school system will relay data on guide resume Homework Diner students’ performance with regards to the program’s impact metrics. However, this option will eliminate one of Homework Diner’s key objectives, parental engagement in the school life. While metrics like academic performance and school attendance can still be measured, the mayor’s office and nonprofit will need to revise other metrics to the holocaust outline, align with the program model. In Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Manzano Mesa Elementary School, in collaboration with ABC (Albuquerque/Bernalillo County) Community School Partnership, launched Homework Diner in the spring of diving eighner 2012 as a six-week pilot program. Today, students, accompanied by their parents/caregivers, gather at Manzano Mesa Elementary School one evening a week (immediately following the the holocaust conclusion of afterschool programming) for on dumpster diving by lars, 20 weeks during the school year to receive tutoring and homework assistance.
Upon completion of the homework session, volunteers serve a meal to participants, prepared by culinary students from Central New Mexico Community College. The food is essay, donated to the school through a partnership with the Roadrunner Food Bank, which minimizes program costs. Albuquerque Mayor Richard J. Berry has played an active role in Homework Diner’s implementation. In particular, the Mayor’s Office assists with partner engagement, procurement of permits and other city services/resources, volunteer recruitment, advocacy, and student friendly, resource development. A 2014 survey of Manzano Mesa Elementary School teachers and the holocaust, Homework Diner parents/caregivers revealed key successes of the initiative: 100% of teachers reported an increase in participating students’ homework completion. Research Papers Behaviour! 95% of teachers reported an increase in participating students’ academic performance in essay outline, the classroom. 90% of teachers reported an increase in participating students’ academic performance on standardized tests. A Case Study In Organizational Behavior! 90% of teachers reported an increase in participating parents’ involvement in school activities. 90% of teachers reported a decrease in of participating students’ absences from school.
90% of teachers reported a decrease in the holocaust essay outline, participating students’ school tardiness. 91% of surveyed parents/caregivers reported that Homework Diner made homework a more positive family experience. 91% of surveyed parents/caregivers felt more comfortable asking teachers for help. One parent/caregiver reports: “I believe that Homework Diner is marketing research consumer, a great program both for me as a parent and my children. Some of the the holocaust outline new ways of doing some of the lessons can be very confusing, and being able to on dumpster diving eighner thesis, come and outline, sit with the teachers and my kids to do the homework is a big help.
I find that my children are getting most of their work done in one day, as well as having fun doing it.” The success of Homework Diner has resulted in the City of on dumpster eighner Albuquerque, through the the holocaust Mayor’s Office, appropriating $100,000 in the city’s FY15 budget to fund the initiative’s implementation in eight additional elementary schools. The following represents an student friendly expository essay estimated cost-structure for essay outline, Homework Diner site implementation in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Estimated total expenditures per year are $11,000. Costs will vary by state and guide resume, city. Full-time Community Schools Coordinator: $3,300 (prorated salary estimated at 5 hours weekly) Cafeteria Manager: $3,200 annually (prorated salary estimated at 4 hours weekly). Supervises use of school cafeteria for food prep and service. 3 Teachers and Instructional Coach: $2,000 annually ($20/hour plus taxes) Food: $2,600 annually (most food is donated) Food Permit: $50 annually Napkins and cleaning supplies: $200 ($10/week) Startup equipment (e.g., refrigerator, plates, tablecloths, tables and chairs, kitchenware, cutlery, storage units)
To learn more about Albuquerque’s Homework Diner programming, please refer to the following resources: For additional information on the holocaust essay outline the community schools model, please refer to the following websites: Research On Impact Of Family Dinners. Jarrett, Robin L., Ozge Sensoy Bahar, and guide resume, Renique T. The Holocaust Outline! Kersh. ““When We Do Sit Down Together” Family Meal Times in eighner, Low-Income African American Families with Preschoolers.” Journal of essay Family Issues (2014). National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. “The Importance of Family Dinners VIII.” September 2012; http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-research/reports/importance-of-family-dinners-2012. We’d like to thank the following organizations for their support: City of Albuquerque, NM for bar passage, submitting the Homework Diner concept to the holocaust outline, the Cities of Service Blueprint Contest and for their generous support in developing this blueprint. Bar Passage Resume! City of Charleston, SC for their valuable lessons learned.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. The Holocaust! Teachers assign a lot of book reports to bar passage ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the outline workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to on the reformation enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the holocaust essay outline, the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of friendly it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the outline way through.
The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out essay, worksheets for students to essay outline complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to on the reformation read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the the holocaust students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes.
These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the on the reformation worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to essay outline each different book that is assigned. Bella's Study In Organizational Behavior Answers! These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and essay outline, the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is marketing research papers where the essay outline book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and diving by lars, their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book.
Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. Outline! This helps get students thinking about the friendly expository rubric traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for outline, these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form.
The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into bella's study behavior, three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the outline report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Guide Resume! Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and the holocaust outline, can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in guide resume, lots of fun book report ideas suitable for the holocaust, young children.
They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. On Dumpster Diving By Lars Eighner! Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for outline, young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the bar passage headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme.
The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is essay better for books that may feature multiple themes. Marketing Papers Consumer! Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to essay complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book.
Create the report in bella's a case behavior answers, the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to essay outline give the book a thumbs up or down rating at essay on the, the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters.
Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in essay outline, the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the marketing behaviour character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. The Holocaust Essay! Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to bella's a case in organizational answer the who, what, where, when, and why of the holocaust essay these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. Guide Resume! When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is the holocaust called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Bella's In Organizational Answers! Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from the holocaust, beginning to end to get a feel for bar passage resume, it overall.
Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for the holocaust essay outline, points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and thesis, make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at the holocaust essay, your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to guide resume change in the report. The Holocaust Outline! Create a plan to make those additions or changes.
Make the changes to marketing the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and essay outline, this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the a case in organizational answers text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time.
Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. The Holocaust Essay! That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in on the, understanding submitted reports.
Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to the holocaust outline use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports.
Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Marketing Research Papers Consumer Behaviour! Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of the holocaust essay these tips. Make up a reading schedule to on dumpster complete the outline book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Bar Passage! Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports.
Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the the holocaust essay book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for diving thesis, something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Essay! Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs.
Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of the holocaust essay outline, historical writing. It bears on on dumpster diving by lars eighner thesis Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way.
And today, larger issues are at outline stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of friendly expository essay, Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on outline McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for guide resume the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of the holocaust essay outline, Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to reformation, the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on the holocaust essay April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to student expository essay rubric, forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that.
David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the the holocaust, tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. Essay On The Reformation. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. The Holocaust Outline. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and reformation sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by the holocaust outline three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the bar passage, case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of the holocaust outline, a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in by lars eighner thesis, 30 years of historical writing on the holocaust Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the guide resume, order to withdraw from Vietnam?
Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. Essay Outline. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the guide resume, war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and the holocaust right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons. Friendly Expository. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in the holocaust, 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 , Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and bar passage the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of the holocaust essay outline, McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation.
All this (and more) is in bar passage resume, spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in the holocaust essay, Gravel’s edition of essay on the, The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the essay, publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S. On Dumpster By Lars Eighner Thesis. Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an the holocaust outline, historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on friendly expository rubric Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of the holocaust essay outline, “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived.
Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from bar passage resume Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by the holocaust outline McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and on the that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. The Holocaust. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the by lars eighner, action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the the holocaust essay outline, October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to student, win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions.
(3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of essay outline, plans to expository essay, withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of the holocaust, 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the guide resume, secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the the holocaust outline, withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved).
There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of guide resume, progress toward the goal of the holocaust essay outline, a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Resume. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to essay, NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu.
At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. They were “to intensify the expository rubric, struggle” and “to bring Americans out of essay, there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on a case study behavior answers November 2021 was called to review plans in the holocaust, the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory.
It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273. The plan was to present it to Kennedy after the essay on the reformation, meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of essay outline, Vietnamese forces: 7. Friendly Expository. With respect to action against the holocaust outline North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for marketing research papers behaviour sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of the holocaust essay outline, action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and essay on the later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to the holocaust, McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to on dumpster diving by lars thesis, McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording.
The main change is that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of the holocaust outline, possible increased activity, and in marketing research papers, each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North. But the thrust is unmistakable, and outline the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the student friendly essay rubric, Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam.
From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from outline Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for bar passage resume Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the the holocaust outline, Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and student friendly essay rubric the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the essay outline, plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle?
Second, did the change in behavior answers, NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on the holocaust essay outline both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in resume, the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of essay, supporting evidence appears in bella's in organizational behavior answers, the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and the holocaust essay more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to papers, those forces is no longer there. Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately.
On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the the holocaust, planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to reformation, Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on the holocaust outline a proposal to guide resume, the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of the holocaust essay, October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.”
On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against marketing research North Vietnam.” In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. The Holocaust Essay. Instead, the marketing, disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of the holocaust essay, McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. On The Reformation. Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years.
McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the essay outline, war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in guide resume, Saigon. . The Holocaust Essay. . . Further repressive actions by Diem and reformation Nhu could change the essay outline, present favorable military trends. On The Reformation. . The Holocaust Outline. . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . Guide Resume. . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is outline, no reason to think a replacement would be better. Marketing. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. The Holocaust Essay. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the resume, precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report:
We recommend that:  General Harkins review with Diem the the holocaust outline, military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965.  A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by resume U.S. military personnel can be carried out by the holocaust outline Vietnamese by papers consumer behaviour the end of 1965. It should be possible to withdraw the outline, bulk of U.S. personnel by that time.  In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on bella's study in organizational behavior to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and outline related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over on the, the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and the holocaust essay outline training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . On Dumpster. . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the holocaust outline, the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by friendly expository December 31, 1963.
He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. The Holocaust. That would set it in concrete. . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and essay on the stressed its importance. Essay Outline. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the friendly expository, first 1,000 out by the holocaust essay the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of resume, this meeting, in the John F. Essay. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the essay on the, release of essay outline, partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to research papers behaviour, particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of essay, listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam.
In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for in organizational answers the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to essay, Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. Friendly Expository. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and essay outline this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at friendly expository this point. McNamara makes no mention of the holocaust essay outline, NSAM 263.
However, on essay the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is clear that one of these items is the essay outline, recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the on dumpster diving eighner thesis, McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the the holocaust, possible political effect in Vietnam of bella's a case, announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the the holocaust essay, last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum.
Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Papers Consumer. Part of the the holocaust, enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of bella's a case study in organizational answers, this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and the holocaust essay particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the guide resume, supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from essay outline May 1963, from on dumpster diving by lars October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the the holocaust, McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the papers consumer behaviour, military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. The Holocaust. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to friendly, assume that if wiggle room existed in the holocaust essay outline, the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents.
Many of the resume, new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of essay outline, a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in guide resume, U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible.
He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. The Holocaust Essay. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the bella's in organizational behavior, 1,000 man withdrawal is essay, recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc.
This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to bar passage resume, be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. Essay. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. In Organizational Answers. However, there should be an essay, intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on essay on the North Vietnam. Outline. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of bella's a case study behavior answers, Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for the holocaust essay outline sea entry, available boats are susceptible to a case study in organizational, weather and too slow. Sea is the essay, only means of exfiltration.
However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and on dumpster eighner thesis exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an the holocaust, answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and bella's Scott from outline Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in by lars eighner, November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and essay a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the guide resume, projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is the holocaust essay, recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for guide resume pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. The Holocaust Outline. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.)
The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by marketing consumer behaviour the end of the holocaust essay outline, 1965. There followed, on essay on the reformation October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from essay outline General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to guide resume, train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the holocaust outline the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for bella's a case study in organizational behavior answers the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum.
The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and essay outline as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September. Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is student essay rubric, no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. Outline. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of bar passage resume, how the initial withdrawal was to outline, be carried out. Friendly Expository. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to the holocaust outline, change policies in Saigon. Essay On The. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to the holocaust outline, a process that would play out over essay, the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters. The Holocaust. The withdrawal decided on expository rubric was unconditional, and essay outline did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into student essay rubric policy. Outline. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of South Vietnam to win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force.
But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at friendly expository least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in the holocaust outline, Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. On Dumpster Diving Thesis. The particular importance of the holocaust essay, this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the diving eighner, Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . Essay. . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that:
CIA guidance to Saigon Station for marketing research consumer intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the the holocaust outline, program of seaborne raids and sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to bar passage, withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Outline. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.
His recent book Death of a Generation is bar passage resume, a full history of the holocaust essay, how the assassinations of bar passage resume, Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Essay Outline. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the bar passage, struggle for power and policy that marked the the holocaust outline, whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to expository, Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and the holocaust essay his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam.
Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the diving by lars eighner, monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. Outline. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an marketing research papers consumer behaviour, irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the the holocaust essay, decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the essay on the reformation, most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Essay. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and a case in organizational behavior was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came.
Diem was indefensible in many ways. The Holocaust Essay. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of a case study in organizational, what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from outline Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in essay on the reformation, the North. The decision to the holocaust, launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. Resume. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.
In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and essay he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to guide resume, introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point.
It is outline, not difficult to behaviour, understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the the holocaust essay outline, American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to bar passage resume, maintain the the holocaust outline, illusion of continuity, and on the reformation thisin the moment of trauma that followed the the holocaust essay, assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in thesis, late 1963 did not necessarily entail the the holocaust essay outline, war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Essay. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the the holocaust outline, commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates.
But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. On Dumpster Diving By Lars Eighner Thesis. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the outline, North, direct conflict with China, and on dumpster by lars eighner thesis nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in the holocaust outline, January of guide resume, 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in the holocaust outline, 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess. He was not crazy. His political fate in essay, 1964 did not depend on the holocaust essay outline a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse.
To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of bella's behavior, events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. Outline. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963.
And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only by lars eighner thesis, be said to the holocaust outline, have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the bar passage resume, U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared. The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at essay the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to guide resume, allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the essay, atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret?
Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of bella's a case in organizational behavior, September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of the holocaust, Public Affairs, University of diving eighner, Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an the holocaust essay outline, odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the consumer, hardcovera fact I discovered on essay outline my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to on dumpster diving by lars thesis, an honorable high official of the holocaust outline, Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights.
Still, the hardback was never reissued, and bella's study in organizational behavior no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at outline the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in study in organizational, early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the the holocaust essay, withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in essay reformation, the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the holocaust, the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an guide resume, open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996.
8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to essay, JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to research papers behaviour, Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to the holocaust outline, this. However, by student expository essay rubric any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in essay outline, 1962 saying to friendly expository, him privately and the holocaust essay outline unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S.
Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is on the reformation, still available on outline the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the bella's a case in organizational behavior, one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on essay outline Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in essay reformation, those days, including his orders to outline, Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in essay, a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the holocaust essay outline the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox.
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