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Resume for realtors

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Beyond the Resume: How to Choose the resume Best Candidates. A traditional resume (or a LinkedIn profile) may be necessary for anyone who’s looking for a job, but in my 10 years as a business owner, I’ve never relied on either one to my parents essay hire. Honestly, I think resumes are a waste of time. Part of the problem is that it’s human nature to resume exaggerate or even glorify a simple role. But the bigger issue is research, that there are a lot of for realtors, things resumes can’t tell you about a candidate—like whether he’s the type of person you want to work with or whether she’ll fit in with your company’s style. Instead, I’ve used a few non-traditional techniques that help me look beyond the global resume to find great employees.

Here are some tips for finding the best hires for your business without relying solely on resume for realtors a piece of lab abstract, paper or virtual profile. For Realtors? Pay Extra Attention to the Application. Research Paper? The first step in resume for realtors the hiring process often involves an application. In the tech industry, where an ad for i love because essay a job usually results in a high volume of for realtors, applications, I play close attention to how people handle this initial interaction. Do applicants craft a personalized, interesting cover letter and of 1812, follow up with an email or phone call a week later?

Or do they simply fire off their resume without taking the time to interact beyond that? Someone who doesn’t take the resume for realtors time to be “remembered” not only seems less eager, but is most likely not a serious candidate. One sneaky way to weed out the candidates who are just blasting out their cover letters is to add a special code or a hashtag to your application. I’ve been known to say something like “be sure to of 1812 include #iactuallyreadthis on your cover letter.” I know immediately that the people who don’t put my special code in their letter aren’t paying attention to detail. And that fact alone tells me they probably aren’t right for us. Do More Than Ask Questions at the Interview. For Realtors? When you bring your narrowed-down bunch of candidates in for interviews, you’ll definitely want to sit down with them and ask the sample standard questions , including soliciting specific examples from their previous work experience. But I also like to see how people perform on the job, rather than just have them tell me. For example, if you’re hiring someone to answer phones, have candidates answer a mock phone call and see how they do. For Realtors? If you’re looking for developers, have them refactor some code.

Even if you’re looking for something less task-based, like a project manager , you can have the candidate look at a current project outline and see what kind of questions or suggestions he or she might have. You’ll also want to essay classical look beyond the skills and experience to make sure the for realtors candidate fits well with your company culture. At my company ShortStack , we don’t want to see a candidate on her “best behavior”—we want to see how she’ll be to lab abstract hang out with during lunch or maybe even over resume for realtors a beer, because that’s part of our culture. Lab Abstract? Every Friday, our whole teams goes out to lunch together. Resume? It’s meant to be a fun outing, so I will invite prospective employees to make sure they can relax with us—or at least try to relax! You probably already ask your applicants to provide references (and if you don’t, you should), but you want to make sure you’re using these contacts to their fullest potential to get the information you want. For example, I’ll ask references about the candidate’s work performance, but I’ll also ask what the person’s sense of causes, humor is like. This can tell you a lot, and as far as I know, won't get you into legal trouble. (Ask your legal counsel to be sure—HR laws vary from state to state.) If the person’s more of a serious type—or on the other end of the spectrum, the office joker—he or she might not be a good fit for your organization. Resume? I also like to ask if a candidate’s work area was clean or messy, how he or she interacted with the global warming essay rest of the staff, and if he or she participated in any external activities, such as softball or volunteering. Think of what matters to you and your company culture , and use that as a guide for questions.

I know this isn’t possible with all positions but, if possible, take the potential employee for a test drive before hiring full-time. Trial periods are almost like internships , but better paid and more serious. They can last for for realtors a few weeks or a few months, but can give you a good idea of whether the person is the right fit for global essay prompts your office. Resume? For example, we give potential graphic designers and developers a few (paid) freelance projects to start with and then see if they have the skills we’re looking for. Look at it from an investment standpoint: If the salary is $60,000 and you invest $1,000 in a freelance project and discover that the person isn’t the right fit, you’re not out because, $1,000—you just saved yourself $59,000! It’s also important to pay from a legal standpoint. The person could have a great idea that you want to move forward with, but if he or she wasn’t paid and you don’t end up making a full-time offer, you could run into legal issues if you end up using the idea. If you do go down this path, try not to mention the possibility of resume for realtors, a full-time position so if the i love essay person doesn’t work out, it’s easier to move on to the next candidate. Make sure to clearly state that the period of work-for-hire is for a certain number of weeks and includes specific responsibilities.

The next time you’re looking to hire, think beyond the for realtors resume. Resumes are great for providing a list of (potentially exaggerated) skills, but building a successful team requires more than a list of classical, traits on for realtors paper. Photo of woman interviewing courtesy of puppet research, Shutterstock . Jim Belosic is the resume for realtors CEO of ShortStack, a self-service platform used to build engaging campaigns for sample lab abstract social, web, and mobile. ShortStack contains 40+ widgets and applications where users can integrate contests, sweepstakes, RSS feeds, Twitter, YouTube, MailChimp, and Aweber newsletter signups that maximize their online presence and potential. Resume? You can follow ShortStack @shortstacklab. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. You must login or register to post a reply. 1 Topic by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-11-25 03:32. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Topic: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. As per Ottens#039; request, I#039;m posting my little essay on Chinatown as a neo-noir here. Resume. This was my final essay in my film studies course in which we looked at sample the films of Roman Polanski and for realtors Krzysztof Kie?lowski as examples of the auteur in cinema. As a fan of film noir, I decided to write about Chinatown as a prime example of neo-noir. Roman Polanski’s Chinatown as a Neo- Noir Film in Regards to Visual Style and Narrative Structure. Since the decline of the original film noir movement, numerous directors have made attempts to revive it.

One such example is the period film Chinatown (1974), directed by Roman Polanski and starring Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and Jon Huston. Chinatown expresses its neo- noir quality through its use of narrative and visual structure. The typically noir characters, plots, and themes are easily identifiable—though with some twists—and the film gives off a familiar sense of pessimism and moral ambiguity. However, while most film noir and neo- noir create this sense of i love ambiguity in the narrative through the resume for realtors use of overtly dramatic low-key lighting, Chinatown creates this through the use of global essay visual symbolism. Overall, the film is most characteristically noir in the way in which it ties its narrative and visual structures to the theme of the inability of mankind to fully understand the world. Defining the narrative and resume visual structures of Chinatown. In terms of narrative, the sample film appears at first to be a straightforward story.

A woman claiming to for realtors, be Evelyn Mulwray hires Jake Gittes (Jack Nicholson) to tail her husband, Hollis Mulwray, as she suspects he is cheating on her. After obtaining shots of i love my parents essay him with a young woman, the story hits the newsreels, and the real Evelyn (Faye Dunaway) confronts him at resume his office. Furthermore, clues begin to family big family essay, point to resume for realtors, a government scandal, and Gittes discovers that water is research, being dumped into the ocean despite a drought. While attempting to resume for realtors, contact Mulwray, Gittes finds the police investigating his death, and he is hired by Evelyn to essay, find out resume for realtors, how it happened. Later, while investigating an area of the reservoir where Mulwray was found which is also linked with the water dumping, Gittes is caught by essay on war of 1812, two thugs. One thug (Roman Polanski himself) slits Gittes’ nose for for realtors, being “nosy,” and he bares this as a mark—either as a bandage or a scar—for the rest of the family essay film. Resume For Realtors. Finding new clues, Gittes seeks out Noah Cross, Mulwray’s business partner, who he suspects is part of the government scandal in which farmers’ land is being bought up to be resold after the new dam makes the land more valuable.

When they meet, Cross hires Gittes to find the puppet paper young woman with whom Mulwray was photographed. Following more leads, Gittes investigates a retirement home in which the retirees, unbeknownst to them, own the land being bought, which will be left to Cross upon their death. The thugs return to confront Gittes, and he flees with Evelyn to for realtors, her mansion, where they make love. She receives a call and must leave, Gittes following her secretly to a small home where the young woman is being housed. Because. He confronts Evelyn, who claims she is her sister who has just learned out Mulwray’s death. Gittes returns to the Mulwray mansion and finds bifocal glasses in resume the garden pond and concludes Evelyn killed her own husband. Again, he confronts her, discovering the classical conditioning young woman, Katherine, was in fact her incestuous child with her father, Cross.

Gittes plans an escape for her and her daughter. Also, upon for realtors, the realization that Mulwray did not wear bifocals, but Cross did, Gittes goes to confront Cross. At this point, all the essay of 1812 clues have fallen into resume place. The film ends with Gittes bringing Cross to watch Evelyn and classical Katherine leave. The cops are also present, and when Cross attempts to take Katherine, Evelyn shoots him non-lethally and begins to drive away. Resume For Realtors. Despite Gittes claim that Cross is the murderer, the small family essay cops focus their attention on Evelyn, and fatally shoot her. Cross takes Katherine away, and Gittes is left dumbfounded at the events, the only answer provided being, “Forget it, Jake. For Realtors. It’s Chinatown.” Aesthetically, symbols drive the visual structure. The most powerful of essay these is the image of for realtors a broken or imperfect lens.(1) Early in the film, Gittes uses two watches while tailing Mulwray, so that when the car runs over one, it will break and stop, showing when Mulwray has left. When he investigates a farm that is being bought in the government scandal, one lens of his sunglasses is on war causes, broken along with a headlight on his car.

Later, at Evelyn’s mansion, while she cleans the resume for realtors cut on his nose, Gittes notices that Evelyn has a dark spot in one of sample lab abstract her eyes.(2) Then, when she leaves to see her daughter, he is able to follow her because he has broken one of her taillights. When he finds the glasses in for realtors the saltwater pond, one of the lenses has been broken. Finally, in the climactic finale, Evelyn is killed by a bullet that destroys one of puppet paper her eye sockets. All of these symbols involve a glass lens, often used for seeing, or eyes themselves. Strengthened by other frequent appearances of glasses, binoculars, and for realtors cameras, this creates a heavy focus on an attempt to see and understand, often without the ability to do so. It may also be important to essay conditioning, note that the racial aspects of the film, such as the Asian housekeeping staff at the Mulwray mansion, the prevalence of racial stereotypes, and resume the concept of Chinatown also express a lack of warming prompts understanding. A specific instance of this occurs when the Asian gardener tells Gittes that the water is bad for the grass (as it is saltwater, an important clue), but he mishears it as “glass,” taking it to mean only the more obvious clue of the glasses in the pond. As Dana Polan points out of the film: “It renders ethnic space—here figured in the name ‘Chinatown’ which Gittes and his associates virtually shudder at each mention of—as something so other and for realtors alien to the main patterns of the city that it seems part of another, ineffable geometry. To enter into Chinatown is to leave the space of bearable rationality and personal security.”(3) Polan also ties the idea of misunderstanding to global warming essay prompts, the film’s camerawork, in which the viewer follows Gittes about, almost as if looking over his shoulder.

We receive only the impartial information Gittes receives. He states that, “In part, the film constitutes vision as misleading insofar as it divorces sight from the confirmation that might come from the resume for realtors other senses”(4) and that, “Gittes hold on vision is doubly limited: there are things outside of his range of vision … and there are ambiguities in the things he can see.”(5) Overall, this visual structure creates a pervading lack of lab abstract understanding and a certain ambiguity to the film. We never quite know if what we are seeing is all of the resume truth, or if we may be mistaken. The narrative and visual structures in Chinatown as examples of neo- noir. It is not hard to find classic noir elements in Chinatown ’s narrative. The basic structure, that being of a detective story, is classical conditioning, fundamentally a part of film noir . Gittes is himself stereotypically noir —a male detective who must solve an intricate crime and in resume the process figure out his own sense of morality. Small Family Big Family. In reading Jon Tuska’s cultural analysis of noir men in his book Dark Cinema , this connection becomes incredibly poignant. He states that “these actors in their roles were passive receivers of the actions of outside agencies and their responses, instead of being initiative, were strictly reactive.”(6) Furthermore, he states of the noir man: “Keeping women in their ‘place’ means for men that they, too, must keep to their place. … It is their purpose in life to work, to for realtors, provide, to paper, protect, and to serve without ever questioning. … Noir men who … choose to live outside the resume for realtors traditional role assigned to them … are subject to destruction no less than is the femme fatale .”(7) With this in mind, it is easy to see how a Polanskian character—trapped between being the tormented and essay tormentor—can easily fit within a noir narrative. Resume For Realtors. Indeed, Gittes often plays the role of the tormented, as most evidenced by the wound to his nose and the subsequent bandage and scar, described by Herbert Eagle as “the mark of this symbolic castration.”(8) However, at the same time, he often acts as a tormentor, even if it is unintentionally.

This is most notable in the fact that his actions inadvertently create the events that bring about the puppet research paper death of Evelyn. He puts all the pieces in play, and then watches helplessly as they come to resume for realtors, fruition. The film introduces us to his dual role from the beginning—by spying on Mulwray and thus ruining the man’s reputation, Gittes acts as a tormentor, but as he was used by Cross and his associates to do so, he also appears as the tormented. The character of Evelyn is paper, also typically noir . Resume For Realtors. This can become tricky, though, as our first view of her may remind us of the classic sort of classical femme fatale such as O’Shaugnessy in The Maltese Falcon (1941). However, as we later find out, she does not act with direct criminal intent. In the end, the viewer is resume for realtors, inclined to feel sympathy for research paper, her. Resume. It is sample, important to note, however, that Polanski is not merely playing with the expectations of the femme fatale here.

While Tuska does outline the two more common types of noir women, the femme fatale and the nurturing wife or mother, he also mentions a third and more rare type to which Evelyn belongs. He calls them the “beautiful neurotic” and for realtors compares them to the femme fatale saying, “she is still the sample lab abstract primum mobile which brings both herself and the noir male protagonist to catastrophe.”(9) Indeed, while she lacks criminal intent, Evelyn is the key piece that brings about the narrative’s tragic end. Thus, his claim that the noir woman “must be punished for this attempt at independence, usually by her death, thus restoring the balance of the patriarchal system”(10) rings true: as she drives away with her daughter, attempting freedom, Evelyn is killed, and the balance is restored as Cross, the resume for realtors patriarch, seizes his incestuous offspring and slips away. Cross too, and the nature of the criminality in general, is essay conditioning, also characteristically noir in Polanski’s film. For Realtors. Carlos Clarens states of conditioning film noir in for realtors his book Crime Movies that: “They could be arranged along the lines of a detective story that, in its course, exposed a brutal and corrupt society that did not always coincide with the straight world’s idea of itself. Essay On War Of 1812 Causes. Even in the safer context of the detective film, the mere depiction of evil in places higher than the for realtors underworld conferred an awareness of the seamy side that other genres never provided.”(11)

We see in Cross this high class kind of criminal, representative of essay a deeper sort of moral degradation. This is not a film about the crimes of the petty, and in its course, we find that murder is but one form of resume depravity committed. The government itself is essay, a part of the scandal, dumping water to make a few wealthy men richer. Evelyn verbalizes this corruption when she warns Gittes that Cross will not be brought to justice, saying, “He owns the police.” The film ultimately emphasizes his immorality through the sin of incest. In the context of Chinatown , society itself is dark, perverse, and cruel, echoing with the worlds in which older noir heroes had found themselves.

Visually, Chinatown does not immediately express itself as film noir . The film does give us a vintage feel, though that can be characteristic of many period films. We do see some of the characteristic low-key lighting, especially in the night shots and for realtors with the use shadow cast by the blinds in Gittes’ office. However, this is not nearly as overwhelming as the prompts rich blacks of old film noir . This could be due in part to the fact that the film is resume for realtors, shot in full color panorama, as Clarens suggest that the genre had trouble surviving the switch to essay prompts, color.(12) However, he also admits that such films as Black Widow (1954) and Slightly Scarlet (1956) “proved that the noir vision could survive CinemaScope and resume for realtors color.”(13) Furthermore, I would add that such neo- noir works as Blade Runner (1982) also portrayed this aesthetic wonderfully with modern film. However, that is not to say that Polanski does not obtain the intended effect of the stereotypical film noir aesthetic through his own visual structures. If the essay on war point of low-key lighting is to “subdivide the space, segment it in such a way as to dominate with patterns and make discerning other details more difficult,”(14) than Polanski is resume, able to puppet paper, accomplish this instead through visual symbolism and resume motif. As I have previously discusses, his use of motif and camerawork creates this same sense of essay classical conditioning ambiguity and misunderstanding. I would therefore like the assert Tuska’s claim that “what ultimately determines such films as examples of for realtors film noir , or not, is the essay on war of 1812 presence of the film noir narrative structure,”(15) and that, “in the resume for realtors best films noirs , the visual style and paper the narrative structure work hand-in-hand and for realtors constitute a consistent, unified ensemble.”(16) Chinatown ’s narrative is noir , and its visual structure supports this noir sense in its own way. Therefore, in essay on war causes looking at Chinatown , it is easy to resume, see it as a definitive work of neo- noir , and my parents one that very closely mirrors its source. The narrative is characteristically noir , and even in moments where it may seem to break convention, it rarely does so more than films noirs had done in resume the past. At most, its visuals may seem to stray from the classic aesthetic. However, closer inspection reveals that it has simply been replaced by Polanski’s powerful use of motif.

Overall, Chinatown is closer to warming essay prompts, Polanski’s attempt to create his own film noir than an attempt to complete reinvent it. It is neo- noir in its very essence. 1. Both Herbert Eagle and Dana Polan note some of these instances in their essays on resume, the film. I have noted them of my own accord, although I am generally in agreement with their comments. 2. Herbert Eagle, “Polanski,” in global essay Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Goulding, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 149. For Realtors. Eagle notes that this instance in particular is also foreboding of the incestuous relationship and the fact that she will die by having her eye blown out.

3. Because. Dana Polan, “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics,” in The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska (London: Wallflower Press, 2006), 110. 4. Polan, “Chinatown,” 117. 6. Jon Tuska, Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984), 216. 8. Eagle, “Polanski,” 149. 9. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 203. 11.

Carlos Clarens, “Shades of resume for realtors Noir,” in Crime Movies (New York: W. Essay Classical. W. Norton and resume for realtors Company, 1980), 195. 12. Puppet Research Paper. Clarens, “Shades of Noir,” 230. 14. Eagle, “Polanski,” 145. 15. Resume For Realtors. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 151.

Clarens, Carlos. “Shades of Noir.” In Crime Movies , 191-233. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1980. Eagle, Herbert. “Polanski.” In Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Warming Prompts. Goulding, 92-155. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Polan, Dana. Resume For Realtors. “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics.” In The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. Causes. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska, 108-120. London: Wallflower Press, 2006.

Tuska, John. Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective . Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984. Black Widow . Directed by Nunally Johnson. Twentieth Century Fox, 1954. Blade Runner . Directed by Ridley Scott. Warner Brothers, 1982.

Chinatown . Directed by Roman Polanski. Paramount, 1974. The Maltese Falcon . Directed by John Huston. Warner Brothers, 1941. Slightly Scarlet . Directed by Allan Dwan. RKO Radio Pictures, 1956.

As always, I ended up writing way more than the resume max page limit of 8, and had to do a fair amount of puppet paring down. I think this one suffered more than my Kurosawa paper, mainly in that I had to resume, take out a lot of the defining of film noir terms (I actually proposed at the start to have a section devoted to it, but scrapped it early on and tried to work it in to the second part, but in editing I still had to pull a lot out. Sample. I#039;m assuming my professor is well-versed enough that this will be okay). Anyway, I hope people enjoy. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I trust it will be, for that made for a fine read indeed! I#039;m sure I can#039;t provide much useful advice content-wise, but I can say it#039;s well-written and made me want to see Chinatown immediately. Well, not immediately to be fair. I#039;ll go look for it after American history class this afternoon. Thanks for posting it!

3 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-11-25 15:19. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Hmm, I will have to for realtors, track down this film. Your essay makes it sound fantastic!

4 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 16:22. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. For those who may be curious, I got 3.7 (A-), mainly because I went with a topic he had suggested rather than pursuing my own. However, it was a topic that interested me greatly! As I#039;m sure you#039;re aware, I am a fan of film noir and neo-noir.

I could#039;ve gone with my other plan of comparing Polanski#039;s adaptation of Macbeth to Kurosawa#039;s, but I opted against it because I personally find Kurosawa#039;s much better, and Polanski#039;s a little bland. Oh well. I#039;ve got the same professor next semester, and this upcoming class has an entire credit hour devoted to your own personal research project, so I think I can wow him then! Oh, and small family big family essay I got 4.0 on resume, my Kurosawa paper. I do so love his work! 5 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-03 16:28. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. 6 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 23:47.

Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. 7 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-12-04 14:41. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay.

Congratulations on the grade, Sigurjon! Oh, and wonderful news - a friend of mine owns the film, so I will watch it once my exams are over. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay essay. I was shocked (briefly) when I saw you got a 3.7, because over here, we use a 10-point system. 9 Reply by Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-05 10:06. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. No offence intended, so glad none taken!

I was an horrendously bad undergraduate student. Ironic, really.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Resume For Realtors! UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Lab Abstract! Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante. Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. For Realtors! Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence.

Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Puppet Paper! Approche fonctionnelle vs. For Realtors! approche objet^ I-A-1-a. My Parents Because Essay! La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc…).

Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. For Realtors! Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Family Big Family Essay! En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on resume for realtors, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. Sample Lab Abstract! Gnial ! I-A-1-c. Resume For Realtors! Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Warming! Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. Resume For Realtors! On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes.

Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. Essay Conditioning! Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Resume For Realtors! Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. My Parents Because Essay! La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail. Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. Resume! ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres).

Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). Research! Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Resume! Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e. Essay On War Of 1812 Causes! 1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^

Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. Resume! 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne. Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Warming Essay! Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. Resume! Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document. Because! Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. Resume For Realtors! Une telle entit s'appelle. Lab Abstract! un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom).

Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. Resume For Realtors! Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. Global Warming Essay Prompts! Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). Resume For Realtors! Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits. I-A-2. Big Family! Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. Resume For Realtors! L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Warming! L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on for realtors, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. Classical Conditioning! L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe.

Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. For Realtors! Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. Of 1812! La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Resume! L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple. Lab Abstract! L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. Resume For Realtors! Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. I Love My Parents Because! Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. Resume! L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes. I-A-2-d.

Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e. Sample Lab Abstract! L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. For Realtors! De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. Essay! Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement.

L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. For Realtors! De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. Essay On War Of 1812! De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. For Realtors! ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Classical Conditioning! ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. For Realtors! ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Small Family Big Family Essay! ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. Resume For Realtors! ) I-A-2-f. Essay Conditioning! L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. Resume For Realtors! Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Small Family! Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. Resume! De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet. L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). Puppet! Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g.

Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Resume! Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Small Essay! Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). Resume For Realtors! Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Essay Classical Conditioning! Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit. I-B. For Realtors! Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. I Love Because Essay! L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Resume For Realtors! ). Classical Conditioning! L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. For Realtors! ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose.

Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. On War Of 1812! Notation graphique riche et lisible. Resume For Realtors! OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. Essay Classical Conditioning! Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT). Resume! Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Lab Abstract! La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. For Realtors! L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Small Family! ). Resume For Realtors! UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. I Love My Parents Essay! UML est issu du terrain. Resume! UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement).

UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). Lab Abstract! Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. Resume! ). Conditioning! XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). Resume! UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Small Family Big Family! Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. Resume! De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable. Small! UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. For Realtors! La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. Sample! Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise.

UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE). For Realtors! Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. Sample! Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Resume For Realtors! Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). Paper! Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. For Realtors! Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils. Puppet Research Paper! Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. For Realtors! Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Research! UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle.

Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet. Resume For Realtors! L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Puppet Research! Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Resume! Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Essay Conditioning! ) en font un langage universel.

I-C. Resume For Realtors! Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Essay! Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. For Realtors! UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue.

Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard. Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. My Parents Because! L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. Resume! Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Essay! Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit.

Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Resume For Realtors! Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Essay! ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. Resume! Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. Because Essay! ). For Realtors! Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Global Warming! Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi. Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. For Realtors! de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1.

Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Small! Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage. Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2.

Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). Resume For Realtors! Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme). A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on of 1812 causes, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. Resume For Realtors! A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on essay, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Resume For Realtors! A chaque itration de la phase de test, on sample lab abstract, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3.

Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. For Realtors! ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Classical! Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. Resume! Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Lab Abstract! Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. For Realtors! ). Sample Lab Abstract! En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique.

L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. Resume For Realtors! Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. Paper! ). Resume! La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Research Paper! Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). For Realtors! La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances.

L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau. Classical! Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. Resume For Realtors! ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Warming Essay! Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. For Realtors! A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Sample Lab Abstract! Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. For Realtors! Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale. Global Warming Essay! Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs.

Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Resume! Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. My Parents Essay! Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. For Realtors! Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Sample! Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6. For Realtors! Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Lab Abstract! UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. Resume! ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction.

L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). I Love My Parents Because! La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage. II-B-7. Resume! Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Because! A ce niveau d'abstraction, on resume for realtors, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Small Family Big Family! Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). Resume! Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. On War Of 1812! On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Resume For Realtors! A ce stade, on global warming essay, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc.

A ce niveau, on resume for realtors, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. I Love Essay! Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. Resume For Realtors! encapsulation). Family Big Family! Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Resume! Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on essay conditioning, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs. For Realtors! Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8.

Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Classical! UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles. Resume For Realtors! Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. Sample! ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Resume! ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez.

vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Prompts! ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. For Realtors! Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes. Research Paper! Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. Resume For Realtors! Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). I Love Because! Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme).

Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. For Realtors! Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Lab Abstract! Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^ Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction.

Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. For Realtors! La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Sample! Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). Resume For Realtors! Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code. II-B-10-c. Puppet Paper! Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. For Realtors! Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques.

Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface). Small Family Big Family Essay! Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Resume! Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Conditioning! Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. Resume! Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b. Puppet Paper! Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Resume For Realtors! Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). Research! L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation.

Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. For Realtors! INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets. Warming Prompts! Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). For Realtors! Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Puppet! Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits.

Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle. De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. For Realtors! L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Warming Prompts! Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Resume! ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Research Paper! Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. For Realtors! Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Puppet Paper! collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. Resume! Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. My Parents Because Essay! L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. For Realtors! Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association. Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives).

Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on essay of 1812, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens. For Realtors! La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. Small! Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association. La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls.

Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. Resume For Realtors! Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. Global! Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). For Realtors! Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. My Parents Because! Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. For Realtors! Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Puppet Research Paper! Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Resume! UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. On War Of 1812 Causes! Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre.

A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). Resume! Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants. La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). I Love My Parents Because Essay! Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. Resume For Realtors! A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Conditioning! Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes.

II-C-5-g. Resume For Realtors! Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. On War Causes! Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on resume for realtors, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. Global Essay Prompts! proprits de la composition). Resume For Realtors! Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule.

En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Sample! Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. Resume For Realtors! Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations. Sample Lab Abstract! Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. For Realtors! Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. Puppet Research! Contrainte sur une association^

Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). Resume! Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation). Of 1812! Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. Resume For Realtors! Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Global Essay! OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. Resume! Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Classical Conditioning! Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique.

OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Resume For Realtors! OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Small Big Family! OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL. Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. For Realtors! Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. I Love Because! Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. For Realtors! Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations).

L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Essay Classical! Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. For Realtors! Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier. I Love Because! Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. Resume! ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Essay! En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. Resume! ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique. Prompts! La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Resume For Realtors! Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases).

Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of sample lab abstract, Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). Resume! Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL.

Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Lab Abstract! Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. For Realtors! Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards). II-C-6. On War Of 1812! DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. Resume For Realtors! Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants.

Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Puppet Research! Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. For Realtors! Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation. Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. Essay Causes! Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. For Realtors! Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Conditioning! Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. Resume For Realtors! Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Global Warming Essay Prompts! La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. For Realtors! Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Global Warming Prompts! Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. For Realtors! Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Global Essay! Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. For Realtors! Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Research Paper! Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. Resume! Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme.

Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme. Essay Conditioning! Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. Resume! Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Small Family! Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. For Realtors! Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer.

Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide. Lab Abstract! Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Resume! D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement.

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on essay on war of 1812 causes, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on resume, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on causes, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial. For Realtors! Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Puppet Research! Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. For Realtors! Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Classical! Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit. Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques.

Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. Resume For Realtors! Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. Essay! ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire. Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. For Realtors! Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable.

Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. Of 1812! Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. Resume! Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. Because! En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. Resume! Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss). Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Small! Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). Resume For Realtors! L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme.

Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). On War Of 1812 Causes! Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on resume for realtors, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Essay! Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique. Resume For Realtors! Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Sample! cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. Resume! sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Global Warming Essay! Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. For Realtors! iter : rcurrence du message.

Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Global Warming Prompts! Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). Resume! r : valeur de retour du message. Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. Sample! msg : nom du message. Resume For Realtors! par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. I Love My Parents Because! Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a.

Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on resume for realtors, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Of 1812! Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on for realtors, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. Essay Prompts! Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation. Resume For Realtors! L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Essay! La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Resume For Realtors! Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on global warming prompts, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. For Realtors! message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur.

L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Essay Classical! message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Resume For Realtors! Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Global Essay! message asynchrone. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. For Realtors! Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Lab Abstract! message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern.

Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on resume for realtors, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. On War! Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). Resume! Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). Essay! Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe.

Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit. Resume! L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. Causes! Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. Resume For Realtors! Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Global Warming! Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence). II-D-4-a. Resume For Realtors! Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^

Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. On War Of 1812! Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. For Realtors! Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. Essay! Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre. Resume For Realtors! Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Of 1812! En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Resume For Realtors! Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Big Family Essay! En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets).

tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. For Realtors! Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions). Sample! Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. Resume For Realtors! S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente.

Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Lab Abstract! En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. Resume! Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier). On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on my parents because, reprsente les tats. Resume! Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on on war, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on resume for realtors, survient. My Parents Essay! Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. Resume For Realtors! Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^

Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on puppet paper, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. Resume! Au dpart, l'objet dont on essay on war of 1812, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1). Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). For Realtors! Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). Global Essay! Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). For Realtors! Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Lab Abstract! Et ainsi de suite.

Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative. Resume! Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. Family Big Family! Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. For Realtors! On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. Sample! Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. For Realtors! Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Puppet! Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide.

II-D-5-a. Resume For Realtors! Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Essay Causes! Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. Resume! Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Essay On War Of 1812 Causes! Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques).

En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Resume For Realtors! On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits. My Parents! Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). For Realtors! Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. I Love! UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. Resume! Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Of 1812! Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). For Realtors! Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Global! Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. For Realtors! ). Puppet! Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. For Realtors! Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. I Love My Parents Essay! sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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This essay will argue that although change is puppet inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in for realtors, a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for i love my parents the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it.

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Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to the original version of The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. For Realtors! Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. Lab Abstract! These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to for realtors, enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . Essay! also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped.

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Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . Sample! America. He concentrates on for realtors, the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on sample lab abstract, Disrespecting an NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . For Realtors! Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages.

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Dbq 6 The War Of 1812 Essays and Research Papers. ?AP US 24 December 2014 DBQ 6 : The War of for realtors 1812 After the essay conditioning, American Revolution, the US is about to . engage in another war . Britain was being more hostile to the US than ever before. Resume! Many conflicts have taken place between Britain and the US prior to the War of 1812 . There were many forces that led to the Second War of Independence. British aggressions, land greed, and the War Hawks were all forces that led Americans to declare war on essay on war of 1812, Britain in resume for realtors 1812 . British aggressions were forces that led Americans. Declaration of war , Declaration of essay causes war by the United States , Democratic Party 1114 Words | 4 Pages. ? In 1812 , the United States declared war against Great Britain. Since the 1790s, American leaders tried to avoid getting . involved in wars between France and resume for realtors Britain. George Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality which meant that the United States would not choose sides between France and research paper Britain.

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B) but rather sort out their issues economically--because England had seized all ships that did not stop in the British port before heading to their other European destinations, Congress passed. Canada , French and Indian War , Native Americans in the United States 857 Words | 3 Pages. ? War of 1812 “The Causes of the War of 1812 ” Jennifer Herrera History 1301 Michael Mitchell . November 2, 2013 Herrera 2 Even though many of us do not know what caused the war of global essay 1812 we infer and start to resume for realtors make up stuff that didn’t actually happen. Many of us do not know until we start to do some research. Global Warming Essay Prompts! I had to study the Republicans and their policies in for realtors order to understand what the federalists where reacting to. I learned more about global essay prompts them than the Federalists. British Empire , Coventry , Federalism 567 Words | 3 Pages. The War of 1812 The eighteenth and nineteenth century was a period of constant war within North America, there was . the Seven Years War of 1754, the American Revolution of 1775 and the War of 1812 . This paper will focus on the War of resume 1812 and global prompts its impact on the North American community. The War of 1812 did not have a single winner or loser; it was a war that was fought till it ended with a peace treaty in December 1814.

This war can be simply described as a war between people still loyal to the British. British Empire , Canada , Napoleonic Wars 2235 Words | 6 Pages. The War of resume 1812 was a war between Britain and the United States fought primarily in Upper Canada. It had many . causes, few which involved British North America. The results of the war include the family big family, fact that there was no clear winner or loser among them. The only real losers in the situation were the Natives in the region. They were driven out of their lands and customs. Resume! None of the borders was changed by the war , though many attempts were made. The Treaty of essay Ghent, which ended the war , did nothing. Battle of Queenston Heights , British North America , Canada 1652 Words | 5 Pages.

Paper 1 War of 1812 The War of for realtors 1812 , also known as “Mr. Madison’s War ,” lasted . for over two years. On June 18, 1812 , President James Madison sent a message to the United States Congress to declare war on the British Empire. There were multiple reasons as to why Madison felt it necessary to declare war . During Madison’s presidential election, he argued for war against essay classical conditioning, Britain. “The War of for realtors 1812 was thus the first war sold to the American public via popular appeal. On June 1, 1812 he gave a. Francis Scott Key , Maryland , Royal Navy 1450 Words | 5 Pages. The War of 1812 : It’s Importance to America The War of 1812 is probably our most obscure . On War Of 1812 Causes! conflict. Although a great deal has been written about the war , the average American is only vaguely aware of why we fought or who the enemy was. For Realtors! Even those who know something about the sample lab abstract, contest are likely to remember only a few dramatic moments, such as the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” the burning of the nation’s capital, or the Battle of New Orleans. Why is this war so obscure? One reason.

Andrew Jackson , Native Americans in the United States , President of the United States 1129 Words | 3 Pages. War of 1812 Throughout the 19th century, America transformed from a small, developing country into a world power. Due to . Resume! events such as The Louisiana Purchase, the Mexican Cession and the addition of Alaska, Florida, Oregon, and Texas tripled the size of the United States from 890,000 sq. miles to 2.73 million sq. miles in less than 100 years. One of the events that catalyzed this expansion was the War of 1812 . The war is because, sometimes called “America’s second war for independence” because Great. British Empire , Native Americans in the United States , President of the United States 791 Words | 3 Pages. 2011 War of 1812 After the great American Revolutionary War was fought and won by the Americans, Great . Britain’s forces returned home in much defeat. Resume! What was now called the United States of essay America was on its way to become a strong independent nation separate from Great Britain’s rule. What some people nowadays overlook is the fact that Great Britain would eventually try to take another blow at the American people. This second attempt at defeating the for realtors, Americans is known as the i love essay, War of resume for realtors 1812 . It. American Revolution , Canada , Native Americans in the United States 1469 Words | 4 Pages. On June, 1st 1812 , President James Madison made arguably one of the most controversial decisions of his presidency; President Madison decided . to causes send a letter to congress recounting the American grievances against Great Britain, which ultimately ended in for realtors a congressional vote to declare war against Great Britain.

This marked the first time in American history that war was declared on another country. Challenging the country that America succeeded from seemed to be a very premature decision, but. James Madison , Native Americans in the United States , Royal Navy 1449 Words | 4 Pages. The War of 1812 is research paper, one of the resume, most misunderstood and neglected wars in American history. The war was . Puppet Paper! full of American and resume for realtors British blundering maneuvers both on conditioning, land and resume sea. It remains among the least remembered of the major wars fought in early America. Most all know details of the essay on war of 1812, American Revolution and the Civil War but the War of for realtors 1812 is sometimes called “America’s Forgotten War .” Even though many people do not know the details of global prompts this war it is one of the most important wars fought. Resume! The war not.

American Revolutionary War , Native Americans in the United States , Royal Navy 2174 Words | 6 Pages. Pearson APUSH The War of 1812 Throughout the global, course of history, the United States and Great Britain always seem to be bumping . heads with each other constantly. They can never settle on the same page as they seem to have their differences on each other’s point of view. It all started with the American Revolution when the resume, colonists demanded independence from Great Britain and now the United States find themselves going against Great Britain once again. This is known as The War of 1812 which was only.

Declaration of war , James Monroe , Native Americans in the United States 955 Words | 2 Pages. revolutionary war and sample war of resume 1812. Revolutionary War and War of small big family 1812 were fought between the United States and resume for realtors Great tBritain. The cause of the . Family Big Family Essay! Revolutionary War was due to unfair taxation of the colonies by resume the British Parliament, and without the help from the French, the United States would not have won this war . The causes of the War of 1812 were due to the French involvement with Great Britain, which lead to sample trade embargoes in Europe. Also, impressment of U.S. seamen for the British army, freedom of the for realtors, seas, British stirring. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Boston Tea Party 1361 Words | 4 Pages. ?Ferruso CHRISTOPHER JOSPEH APUSH The War of 1812 : Crash Course Review Video Questions Directions: As you watch . the video complete the questions about the War of 1812 1. What was the British policy of impressment?

Why did they carry out this policy? Impressment is the forcible enlistment of sailors. Between 1808 and 1811 Britain claimed the right to impress Englishmen on their own territory but during this time they mistook 6,000 Americans for Englishmen on ships and impressed. Napoleonic Wars , Native Americans in the United States , Royal Navy 956 Words | 3 Pages. The War of puppet paper 1812 has always been a part of American history not very exiting to learn about for most Americans.

It was a . Resume! tumultuous time for the New Republic and some of the battles of the sample lab abstract, war shamed the new nation. The War of 1812 did not have the same glorious, honorable, and just cause of the American Revolution. The British made fools of the American people and even burned the resume for realtors, Capitol and the White House, the centers of American politics, to the ground. However as shameful as the war was. American Revolution , Nationalism , Native Americans in the United States 836 Words | 3 Pages. Causes and small family essay Effects of the War of 1812. Causes and Effects of The War of 1812 The nineteenth century brought major change to The United States turning it from a . developing country into resume for realtors, a world power. The addition of lab abstract Alaska, Oregon, Texas, and Florida, the resume, Mexican Cession and The Louisiana Purchase made The United States a world power.

The War of warming 1812 catalyzed this great expansion. There were four main concerns that led to The War of 1812 . Maritime and trade issues, the resume, Embargo Act, territorial expansion, and War Hawks. Although they were. Economy of the United States , Native Americans in family essay the United States , President of the United States 1534 Words | 4 Pages. the United States during the resume for realtors, war of 1812 . Abstract This paper consists of three statements based on the causes and impacts on . British North America and the United States war in 1812 . The first section will basically be an introduction of the lab abstract, British North America and the United States war . It will cover the important dates and information’s. For instance, when it happened and where the actual battles occurred. The second section is mainly about the causes of the war where the disputes and aggravations. Canada , Native Americans in the United States , President of the United States 1424 Words | 4 Pages.

Summerize the Issues and Events of the War of 1812. Around the time of the War with 1812 the U.S was capitalizing from the resume for realtors, war between Britain and France by trading . goods to both, but swearing support for neither country. We got rich off of both nations, our trade expanded and research the economy grew while we were able to stay free of foreign entanglement. A number of things though caused the resume, War of 1812 1) Violations of the American Sovereignty by Great Britain.. a) Impressments ? Imprisonment or kidnapping of small essay U.S. Resume! citizens and merchant marines on. Great Lakes , Native Americans in the United States , Royal Navy 828 Words | 3 Pages. The War of 1812: Was the War of 1812 Justified? For America, the War of 1812 was justified. Clearly there were sufficient reasons for family big family, America to declare war with . Great Britain.

Time after time the British violated American rights and freedoms. Acts such as impressments, the for realtors, attack on sample, the USS Chesapeake, the violation of for realtors American neutral rights and waters, blockades on i love my parents because, U.S. For Realtors! ports, and my parents essay the ignoring of resume for realtors stipulations of Jay's Treaty and their Treaty of Paris all imposed threats on America. To prevent further altercation, America tried to solve the. Impressment , James Madison , Jay Treaty 1022 Words | 3 Pages. Causes of the War of 1812 The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain . from sample lab abstract June 1812 to the spring of 1815 (Findling, 15). When the war began, it was being fought by the Americans to address their grievances toward the British, though toward the resume, end, the issues eventually were unjustified and reasons manipulated. There is classical conditioning, no single cause for the War of 1812 but instead, several related causes, such the resume for realtors, influence of the War Hawks, the essay classical conditioning, impressments as well as the Embargo. Napoleonic Wars , Native Americans in the United States , Royal Navy 1830 Words | 6 Pages. Book Critique For The War Or 1812. Book Critique for The War or 1812 : A Short History by: Donald R. Hickey Alexus Guyle 11/19/14 H105-Joyce Despite being . Resume! forgotten and overlooked, the War of 1812 was a significant milestone in global warming essay prompts the development of the United States.

Hickey was accurate when he wrote, 'Although looking to the past, the war was fraught with consequences for the future, and for this reason it is worth studying today.' And there is no better place to start than with The War of 1812 , says Civil War News. Donald. R. Hickey. 2003 invasion of resume Iraq , Native Americans in the United States , President of the United States 825 Words | 4 Pages. was finally acted out essay conditioning when President Madison declared war on resume, Great Britain on June 14, 1812 , thus beginning the War . of small 1812 . The Unites States was tired of getting harassed on resume for realtors, the seas, had a strong will to expand, and felt too much pride to let Great Britain get away with everything they had done. Three causes of the War of 1812 were maritime problems, Manifest Destiny, and national pride. One of the three main causes of the War of 1812 was maritime problems between the United States and Great. Declaration of war , Nationalism , Native Americans in the United States 969 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brockhaus, 1 In the beginning on 1812 , the U.S. Research! Navy and Army were not at all up to for realtors par in order to put up a war against Great . Britain. The U.S.

Army had only 4,000 men and essay conditioning officers when Congress authorized the resume, growth to i love my parents be 30,000 officers and for realtors men. To say the least, the growth of officers did not appear to be happening monthly so they moved the authorization to a yearly process (U.S. Declares War on Great Britain, 2014). It all started on the first of June in 1812 when the president at the time, James. British Empire , Royal Navy , Thomas Jefferson 1295 Words | 6 Pages. War of 1812 Although the American’s had been “independent” from the British since the end of the Revolutionary . War , the British continued to harass and essay mettle in American affairs.

While Madison was seeking reelection the War Hawks in Congress had declared war on Britain in June 18. On paper the rag-tag American was seen as incapable of resume for realtors defeating the superior British forces for a second time. However this war would have an lab abstract, unexpected results as neither side would be the “victory”. Even the resume for realtors, United. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Royal Navy 844 Words | 3 Pages. United States and Britain and eventually led to the War of 1812 . In a similar context, the Iraq War was also a . direct response to the evidence supporting the fact that Iraq was connected to terrorist activities and the assumption that Iraq was hiding weapons of mass destruction. Big Family Essay! The US response to Russia in the Cold War is similar to the US response today and resume for realtors set the precedent for causes, the Iraq War . Conclusively, both the War of 1812 and the current war in Iraq can be justified considering that the country. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Cold War , George W. Bush 1673 Words | 5 Pages.

The War of 1812 proved to be the most serious challenge to face the United States since the country's birth. This ?Second . war of Independence' perhaps changed American history as we know it though. This essay will discuss the causes for this war assessing whether there actually were valid reasons for the United States and resume Britain going to war or whether the whole 1812 war was just born out of pointless aggression br brThe war of 1812 was a very unnecessary war . It broke out just as one of its. British Empire , Napoleonic Wars , New England 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and contrast the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War. The War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War are two wars that physically appear two opposites. The . My Parents! War of 1812 involves plenty of resume naval battles and a few major land battles, while the Mexican-American War involves numerous land battles and few, if any, naval battles. However there are numerous similarities. Warming Essay! The War of 1812 , The US saw Great Britain as a major problem because of their definition of contraband and the impressment of American sailors into the British Navy. And around this time the.

James K. Polk , Mexican–American War , Mexico 1463 Words | 5 Pages. ?Samantha Aurelio 31 March 2015 APUSH Cold War DBQ During the time period pertaining to the Cold War , the for realtors, foreign . policies and ideas established by each president remained in effect despite social and political unrest. However, United States’ involvement in the eastern hemisphere, governmental influence in the nation and in the “hot wars ”, and presidential diplomacy caused foreign policies and causes ideas to contain many similarities throughout the duration of the Cold War . Therefore, the United States experienced. Cold War , John F. Kennedy , Korean War 1160 Words | 4 Pages. War of 1812 Notes Timeline of Events 1807 – The Chesapeake Incident 1811 – Battle of Tippecanoe 1812 – U.S. . declares war . 1813 – Battle of Lake Erie 1813 – Battle of the Thames 1814 – March on resume, Washington, D.C. 1814 – Battle of essay Baltimore (Fort McHenry) 1814 – Treaty of Ghent 1815 – Battle of New Orleans The Chesapeake Incident (1807) Main facts: Britain and France at resume for realtors war Both sides forbid neutral trade w/enemy. British begin impressment of sailors (even Americans). The Chesapeake. James Madison , Royal Navy , Tecumseh 1714 Words | 6 Pages. World War 1 DBQ Prior to the start of World War 1, several countries in Europe were fixated on conditioning, being the dominant . Resume! country in Europe, seeking to hold the top position on the social hierarchy among the European nations. After the Age of Imperialism, many Europeans took great pride in conditioning their countries’ growth and prosperity.

The most powerful countries in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century were becoming wealthier due to the trade from African colonies, while other countries (without income. Belgium , England , Europe 1180 Words | 3 Pages. The war of 1812 took place in America and Canada. The Americans fought with the British and natives of the resume, land. When the US and . congress declared war on sample lab abstract, Great Britain, they may not have realized that their success seemed to be doomed to begin with. There was strong lack of support from for realtors American citizens to go to small big family war , this was because of several reasons. Divided forces from different states caused problems and didn’t want to cooperate or complete certain tasks. Ports were not being allowed for war. Army , British Empire , Napoleonic Wars 749 Words | 3 Pages. World War II DBQ After the deaths of 37,508,686 soldiers by the end of World War I, Europe was a mess. . Countries had been dissolved and rearranged, governments had fallen and been replaced, and economies were thriving then crashing, all as a result from resume for realtors World War I. One of the main goals at lab abstract the end of World War I was to prevent another tragedy like World War I from happening again. Clearly that did not happen, as World War II still happened, causing over 50 million deaths.

The repercussions. Adolf Hitler , Fascism , Germany 2347 Words | 6 Pages. The War of 1812: The Americans Were Justified. ?PAGE ? ?PAGE ?1? THE WAR OF 1812 : THE AMERICANS WERE JUSTIFIED Over the years The United States of America has forged itself . a reputation of for realtors declaring wars . Ironically, declaration of war was most justified in one of its least acknowledged conflicts, the essay, War of 1812 . The United States was justified in its attack on British North America, which was a colony of Great Britain at the time. The reasons for this justification were Great Britain's breach of Maritime rights, their support for the Natives.

British Empire , Canada , Declaration of war 1647 Words | 5 Pages. DBQ the French and Indian War The French and Indian war (1754-63) affected the relations between the colonists and . Britain in political, economic and ideological ways. For Realtors! Politically the Colonists were upset with the Britain because they were not represented in Parliament. After the war Britain had acquired so much debt it affected the economical relations, and this had the greatest effect on colonists because Britain placed taxes on research, the colonies to raise money to pay off their war debt. Also the two. American Revolution , British Empire , Canada 1095 Words | 3 Pages. ? DBQ : World War II: The Road to War Many people often wonder what it was the plunged the world into World . War II in 1939. Resume! Many of the puppet research paper, reasons that the for realtors, world could have been dragged into sample, such a war are because of the ways that many people handled their situations. If people would have handled their issues such as aggression appeasement better than the results of the war would have been much better.

If they would have handled their problems with collective security better there wouldn’t have been. Adolf Hitler , League of Nations , Nazi Germany 1045 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ the French and Indian War The French and Indian War is known as an unintentional war . sparked by a young George Washington’s actions towards the French ambassador. Both the English and French wanted to obtain control of the Ohio Valley. Each group desired to show their superiority and for realtors gain the warming, benefits of the new world. The English and French could not solve their disagreement peacefully, and war was inevitable. For Realtors! The war not only changed the lab abstract, new world forever, but also, Britains relationship. Americas , Canada , French and Indian War 769 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Before 1754, both the French and British had huge masses of land in for realtors America. Also sharing the land, was the natives, who were . exceedingly nervous about the Englishmen taking away their land.

This conflict eventually led to the French and Indian war , also known as the Seven Years war (1754-1763). The French and Indian war altered the political, economic, and research ideological relations Britain and resume it’s American colonies in classical many ways where it ultimately led to resume the American Revolution because of. American Revolution , British Empire , Colonialism 803 Words | 3 Pages. Cold War DBQ Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1 -- 14. (Some of the documents have . I Love Because Essay! been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) This question is designed to test your ability to work with and resume understand historical documents. Write an essay that: • Provides an appropriate, explicitly stated thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question and does NOT simply restate the question. • Discusses a majority of documents individually.

Berlin Wall , Cold War , Cuba 1276 Words | 6 Pages. French and Indian War DBQ Revise. In the course of years through 1754-1763 the British were engaged in a war . with their rival French. Puppet! The conflict was known as the French and Indian War . It started when the colonies could not shift west, and resume the British trying to settle in the Ohio Valley and the French did not want them to expand. Sample! It was played entirely in resume for realtors North America with the colonials on the British side. The conflicts between French and the British would cause a drastic change in essay classical the colonial-British. American Revolution , Colonialism , Colony 811 Words | 3 Pages. Jesse Aenchbacher 10/21/12 APUSH 2004 French and Indian War DBQ For many years, throughout the 1600s and early part of the resume, . 1700s, the British pursued a policy of salutary neglect toward its colonies. Britain enacted a series of Navigation Laws, but these attempts to regulate trade were minimally enforced. I Love My Parents Because! The colonists had a generally friendly attitude toward the British overall since they enjoyed the benefits of an for realtors, imperial relationship without accompanying restrictions. However, this relationship.

American Revolution , British Empire , Colonialism 1285 Words | 4 Pages. Was the Mexican War a “Justifiable” War ? The Mexican War has been an issue of contention ever since the . war was formally declared. As a result of James K. Polk getting the go ahead from Congress and then authorizing American troops to i love essay begin attacking the much weaker force just for the self betterment of America, the war earned itself the resume, nickname “The most unjust war ”. However, there were certain actions the United States government did implement before authorizing an sample, entire war . For Realtors! Polk did send John. James K. Polk , Mexican–American War , Mexico 842 Words | 3 Pages. Although events leading up to the Civil War had been going on for some years, the Civil War was not inevitable; the . war was the result of small extremism and failures in leadership of both the North and the South. Resume For Realtors! A widespread of paper political, social, and economic factors was all contributors to the splitting of the North and South. Resume For Realtors! State rights, controversy over sample lab abstract, slavery, and differences in economic systems pushed the North and South into a bloody battle. The Civil War started due to resume the differences between.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States of America 855 Words | 4 Pages. in 1933, promising the paper, country a stable economy and prevention from another Great War . This stable economy, he had hoped, would come from his . “3 R’s” theory (Relief, Recovery, and Reform), all coinciding with his New Deal programs. Resume For Realtors! For a short period of time, F.D.R’s New Deal programs affected the unemployment rate slightly, but only placed a band-aid on a broken leg. A few years later into warming essay, the Great Depression, war broke out in Europe when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Keeping true to resume for realtors our Neutrality. Adolf Hitler , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 682 Words | 2 Pages. Moses Ms.

Densley DBQ #3 12/14/12 During the early 1800's France and Britain were at war and for many years America remained . neutral. But, Great Britain began seizing American ships and through the sample lab abstract, practice of impressments made the Americans join the for realtors, British Navy. Sample Lab Abstract! Great Britain was also starting to supply the resume, Native Americans in North America with guns and, in response America finally declared war on Britain in research 1812 . The title Era of Good Feelings was used to describe the presidency of James. Americas , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 809 Words | 3 Pages. Joshua Tucker AP US History 10/4/10 DBQ : French and for realtors Indian War The French and global Indian War began in 1754 and for realtors . ended in 1763. The name “French and essay on war causes Indian War ,” was one later adopted by the Americans and the British. Relations between the American and for realtors British were substantially altered politically, economically, and i love my parents essay ideologically. The aftermath of this war was the for realtors, tipping point that catapulted the Americans to revolution. From a political standpoint, the Americans and the British did not see eye-to-eye. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1172 Words | 3 Pages.

AP US History This DBQ received a 7 Civil War DBQ . As American settlers stretched westward in the 1850’s, the ambiguity of the Constitution framed 60 years earlier increased sectional tension over the topic of slavery. Initially, the framers of the essay, constitution left the issue of slavery to be worked out in the country’s future. This in turn convinced the Southern states that their “peculiar institution” would be “respected and maintained. American Civil War , Bleeding Kansas , Compromise of 1850 888 Words | 3 Pages. Civil War DBQ Americans are a democratic society that are driven for success. During the resume, early nineteenth century the . Americans were living off the buzz of the of 1812 causes, constitution and working together to form a functioning government. As Lincoln wisely said later on A house divided against itself cannot stand.” The issue of slavery was one of for realtors such magnitude that division on such an issue would inevitably lead to big family a war , and could not have been avoided by compromise. With the Missouri Compromise. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Charles Sumner 888 Words | 3 Pages. British tyranny. Resume! Since the Parliament’s claim was that it had authority over the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”, the Americans felt threatened and had to . resist by force.

Document 6 Why was Paine unwilling to be reconciled with Britain? Paine was unwilling to be reconciled with Britain because it brought war into the land. Was Paine an objective and my parents because essay unbiased reporter? Explain. For Realtors! Paine was not an objective and unbiased reported because he was going against the king. Document 7 How does this. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , England 710 Words | 3 Pages. Soviet Union had become locked in a Cold War . The war was a dreadful time for both sides, keeping all citizens on edge.

The . war didn’t only affect the two superpowers prepared to fight though; it also affected the rest of the world. The Cold War had a large impact on developing countries like India, Cuba and Egypt. Depending on whom each country allied with, it either prevented or helped each country’s reform, development and independence. Because of the war , the US and sample lab abstract the USSR needed the for realtors, support. Cold War , Communist state , Cuba 1162 Words | 3 Pages. Are you sitting comfortably?

The constantly changing fashionable take on war of 1812 demonstrates the essay of 1812, depth of the subject. . Though war of 1812 is resume, a favourite topic of discussion amongst monarchs, presidents and dictators, war of 1812 is not given the credit if deserves for inspiring many of the worlds famous painters. Crossing many cultural barriers it still draws remarks such as 'I wouldn't touch it with a barge pole' and 'i'd rather eat wasps' from the easily lead, trapped by their infamous history. Ancient Rome , Eastern Europe , Economics 468 Words | 2 Pages. Causes of the Revolutionary War DBQ. ?Ryan Hsin 10/17/14 US History Period 2 Causes of the Revolutionary War DBQ A great things started somewhere. For a powerful, . free, and role model country like the United States of classical America started somewhere. The journey of our storied revolution and transformation to one of the world’s premier powers have its roots derived from for realtors Great Britain. Unjust colonial rules implanted by the King of England acted as the catalyst for revolution amongst the colonies.

Once a happy family, key events triggered. American Revolution , British Empire , Continental Congress 1077 Words | 3 Pages. War Of 1812 Although the War of 1812 lasted for over 2 years and ended in a stalemate, it once and . for my parents because essay, all confirmed American Independence. The main cause of the war was Britain’s dis-regard for America’s independence, and Britain’s taking advantage of America. Resume For Realtors! In the peace treaty, the specific causes of the war were not addressed, but there was peace again between the US and Britain. The short term effects helped revive commerce, and the long term effects gave America international respect, and.

Nationalism , Native Americans in the United States , Royal Navy 611 Words | 2 Pages. Prior to 1754 French Indian War , the 13 North American colonies that would eventually become the United States of small family big family essay America were at a rate of resume for realtors . rapid increase. Colonial trade with England has increased by over 360%, all colonies were reproducing successfully, with a rate of natural increase of 3%, and the population doubling every 25 years, and on lab abstract, top of that, colonial power increased with the idea of Salutary Neglect, and colonial assemblies. The French Indian War had cause a multitude of changes. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , British Empire 1635 Words | 4 Pages. John Danielo April 25, 2013 AP DBQ Essay The French and Indian War , the North American counterpart to the 7 Years . War , was a massive and costly event. Resume For Realtors! The British government sent troops to defend the interests of the colonists. The repercussions of the war were quite significant and long lasting and the escalation that resulted led all the way to the Revolutionary War . Prompts! The French and Indian War had great effect on for realtors, the politics, economics, and ideology of the American colonies.

The. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Canada 813 Words | 3 Pages. World War I between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers began in early August of 1914. Sample! Germany was quick to declare war on for realtors, . Russia and France, initiating conflict between the countries. This conflict was expressed in global warming the form of for realtors secret alliances, nationalism, etc., beginning the first few years of the twentieth century.

With hopes of preserving order, the United States declared its neutrality on August 19, 1914. Considering a lack of bias, it began that the essay classical conditioning, US would trade with the opposing nations. Allies of for realtors World War I , RMS Lusitania , United States 813 Words | 3 Pages. The French and Indian war , which lasted from essay 1754-1763, resulted in a victory for for realtors, the British over the French, which led to the French leaving . Sample! North America. It also resulted in negative political, economic and resume ideological differences between the British and the American colonies.

Politically the colonies were not happy because they could not expand further west, economically they felt oppressed by the British with all the taxes being place on them, and ideologically because of the governing of. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Canada 883 Words | 3 Pages. Causes and Effects of the War of 1812 The British and Americans had a tenuous relationship in the America’s early . years as a nation. There were still many unresolved issues after the war leading to the war of 1812 . A cause for the happening of this war was because the of 1812 causes, British continued to hassle and terrorize the American trading ships, and taking the men off their ships. This impressment was uncalled for considering that the for realtors, United States were trying to remain neutral. This act of being. President of the United States , Thomas Jefferson , United States 618 Words | 2 Pages.

to the War of 1812 . By 1811, the my parents because essay, British Royal Navy had impressed at least 6,000 mariners who claimed to for realtors be citizens of the . United States. In addition to impressments, Americans were dismayed by British agitation of the native population on the western frontier. Congress declared war on June 18, 1812 . Constitution and the War USS Constitution fought and won three major engagements during the war . Her most famous battle was against HMS Guerriere. Two months after the declaration of war , Constitution. Francis Scott Key , Isaac Hull , Royal Navy 511 Words | 2 Pages.