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Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats Essay. Pets bring happiness to proficiency resume, a person’s life. They create a special bond with their owners. This bond can help an owner and software his pet live in resume, harmony. People usually get pets to have a companion in their homes. Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of a pet is similar in henri essay, taking care of a child. Resume. Pets usually are fish, birds, mammals, and sometimes reptiles, but insects like spiders and ants are still owned by some people that consider them as pets. Dogs and cats are one of the most popular pets to have. Dogs and essays toward understanding cats make a big percentage in the world’s populations of pets, according to the Humane Society of the United States (2011) there are 78.2 million owned dog and resume 86.4 million owned cats. Essays Understanding. Dogs show that they are loyal to an owner and that are easily trained, cats on the other hand can take care of themselves better than dogs and proficiency resume can remove rat infestations from the resume house of the owner. Both dogs and cats have their pros and cons, but dogs are better pets than cats because they show more qualities of a better pet than a cat.

Dogs provide an active lifestyle for an owner. Dogs are very energetic which requires constant walks. This makes the owner and a dog have a healthier lifestyle than having a cat. Have you ever seen a person walk their cat? If someone would ever see a person walk their cat, that would be their first time seeing that sight. Cats are known as to stay at resume their home and wait for time to pass by. The energy of dissertation binding in london, a dog can also excite their owner making them play together for a certain time. Dogs also learn a variety of tricks and can learn them easier than cats. The capability of a dog in learning tricks can simply amaze a person, training a cat to proficiency, sit, rollover, or play fetch can be weird sight to see. I personally have not seen a cat do the tricks a dog can do.

If I ever see one, I do not know what would my reaction would be. While training a dog, the time spent in training can help in establishing a good relationship with their owner. Genocide Essays Understanding. A dog can also provide protection to a home. Dogs can be trained to alert owners when seeing a stranger in proficiency resume, their yard or attack on chapdelaine resume command when the owner says so. Certain breeds like German Sheperd and proficiency resume Labrador Retriever can be trained to be police dogs. These dogs help in assisting police with their work, providing them help in searching for missing people or objects or in detecting firearms or illegal substances on people. Dogs were also used for hunting purposes; their keen sense of smell has helped humans hunt their prey easily. Henri Photo. Dogs can also be trained to guide blind people to destinations.

Cats can help out in resume, rat infestations at home but they cannot help in sniffing out people with firearms or guiding people to destinations. Good For Wwi. Another reason dogs are better than cats is that dogs can understand humans better than cats. Training a dog requires hand gestures, these hand gestures when repeated over and over proficiency can be easily understood by a dog that will trigger the thesis for wwi action that the proficiency resume owner wanted. Many people think that dogs show more affection than cats. According to the journal Animal Cognition, University of London, researchers have found that dogs are more likely to approach a crying person than someone who was humming or talking, and that they normally respond to weeping with submissive behaviors.

Cats are known to have an attachment with their owners because cats know that their owners bring them food every day. Lastly, dogs provide better companionship with their owners. Every time an owner spends time with his/her dog, it develops their relationship to dissertation service, something better. Proficiency Resume. Dogs are called a man’s best friend because they are always at your side, wanting to play with you, or trying to cheer you up. The bond between a dog and their owner is similar to a parent and a child. A child knows when their parent is good thesis, around or not. The child becomes happy when they see their parents while sad and distressed when they see that they are gone.

Cats can have a bond with their owners too, but they are more adept at resume being independent on their own. Master Software. Dogs are better pets than cats but that does not mean that cats are not bad pets. Cats also have their positive sides like, independency. As mentioned earlier, cats are independent; they can feed off food that they find from the proficiency home of their owners, an henri cartier example would be rats and mice. Cats also can bathe on their own, so they do not need their owners to resume, give them a bathe regularly. The dependency of a dog can sometimes frustrate an owner, the feeding it needs regularly, the cleaning of the dog’s dirt, and the bath it needs to henri bresson, keep clean are the factors that can frustrate an owner. Cats are more silent than dogs. The barking of a dog can irritate an owner and the neighbours.

A cat’s “meow” cannot be loud enough to proficiency resume, wake people up at midnight. Genocide Essays Toward. According to Douglas (2004), dogs can vocalize their moods, meaning the loudness of proficiency resume, their bark depends on dissertation binding service in london what emotion they have at the moment. Cats on the other hand do not, if they are happy, sad, or excited they will “meow” at the same level but evidence from (McComb et al., 2009) suggests that cats are capable of purring with a frequency that has a subliminal effect similar to proficiency, that of a human baby#8217;s cry. This purr, known as the #8220;solicitation purr,#8221; is dissertation binding service, slightly different from the resume regular purr and dissertation binding service in london is used to ask for proficiency food. I have never experienced owning a cat, my family has always owned dogs. Software. From stray dog to a breeded one, it has always been dogs. The loyalty shown by proficiency, the dog, companionship to their owner, the active lifestyle given by the dog, and capability of the dog to learn tricks are the reasons why my family would own a dog than a cat.

I have never thought of having a cat, even in the future. The cats of our neighbours have helped me in making that decision. Every time we leave a door open, a cat would manage to go inside, hop on the dining table and xat previous essays get some of the food prepared. Another case would be that some cats bear their children at our garage which would make our dogs bark out loud. These cases have lead me to make the proficiency decision that dogs are better pets than cats.

Animal Cognition (May 30,2013), University of London, Arden Moore (2007), The Cat Behavior Answer Book, APPA National Pet Owners Survey (2011), The Humane Society of the United States, Douglas, K. (9 December 2009).#8221;Dogs vs. Cats: The Great Pet Showdown. New Scientist. McComb, K., Taylor, A., Wilson, C., Charlton, B. Chapdelaine. (2009). #8220;The Cry Embedded Within the Purr.#8221; Current Biology, 19(13). Retrieved 17. December 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database. Proficiency. University/College: University of henri bresson photo essay, Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on resume Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats. for henri bresson photo essay only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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history essay ,mexican american immigration 1500 words. Chicano Park and resume, the Chicano Park Murals: Barrio Logan, City of San Diego, California Author(s): Martin D. Rosen and cartier, James Fisher Source: The Public Historian, Vol. Proficiency. 23, No. 4 (Fall 2001), pp. Essays Understanding. 91-111 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the National Council on Public History Stable URL: . Accessed: 06/10/2011 13:38. Your use of the proficiency resume, JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms Conditions of Use, available at chapdelaine, . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.

For more information about JSTOR, please contact University of California Press and National Council on resume, Public History are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to master The Public Historian. The Public Historian, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 91#x2013;112 (Fall 2001). ISSN: 0272-3433 #xA9; 2001 by proficiency the Regents of the University of California and the. National Council on Public History. Dissertation Binding In London. All rights reserved. Send requests for permission to reprint to proficiency Rights and Permissions, University of. California Press, 2000 Center St., Ste.

303, Berkeley, CA 94704-1223. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals: Barrio Logan, City of bresson essay, San Diego, California. MARTIN D. ROSEN and JAMES FISHER. After the disastrous Loma Prieta and proficiency, Northridge earthquakes of 1989 and 1994, respectively, then-Governor Pete Wilson mandated that the cartier photo essay, Califor- nia Department of Transportation (Caltrans) make the highway bridges of the proficiency, state safe for the motoring public. Caltrans entered into a massive seismic strengthening program that has encompassed almost every type of master thesis software, bridge and highway-related cultural resource situation in proficiency, the state. Genocide Toward. One of. MARTIN D. ROSEN prepared the proficiency resume, Section 106 and years, PRC#xA7;5024 documentation for this project, including the Historic Property Survey Report, Historical Resources Compliance Report, and the Negative Archaeological Survey Report. He is the heritage resource coordinator and proficiency, a district archaeologist for Caltrans District 11 in San Diego. Mr.

Rosen#x2019;s education in- cludes a B.A. and M.A. in binding in london, anthropology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Proficiency Resume. He is henri cartier bresson photo essay, a Registered Professional Archaeologist, with archaeological experience in California, Nevada, New Mexico, and resume, Guatemala. He has authored some two dozen articles in his field and served as an editor of the dissertation binding service, Society for resume California Archaeology#x2019;s Proceedings for chapdelaine its first eight years, the last five of those as editorial chief. Proficiency. JAMES FISHER conducted the architectural/historical resources inventory and dissertation binding service in london, the background research for the Historical Resource Evaluation Report on Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals. Proficiency Resume. He is an architectural historian and historian with the good thesis for wwi, California Department of proficiency resume, Transportation, Environmental Program, Sacramento. Dr. Fisher#x2019;s education includes a B.A. and an M.A. in history from Sacramento State University, Sacramento, and a Ph.D. in history from State University of dissertation service in london, New York, Stony Brook. His experience includes three years as a state historian in the California Office of Historic Preservation, Department of Parks and resume, Recreation; ten years with Caltrans working in cultural resources survey and Section 106 compliance; and twenty years of teaching U.S. and California history at the University of California, Davis; Sacramento State University; and Sacramento City College. 92 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN.

the most challenging projects has involved the retrofit of the San Diego#x2013; Coronado Bay Bridge and its approach ramps. The bridge connects the cities of San Diego and Coronado across San Diego Bay (Figure 1). Years. On the east side of the bay, the bridge cuts a swath through the Barrio Logan community as it approaches Interstate 5. Within that community lies Chicano Park, located under the resume, bridge#x2019;s five approach ramps. The park is the site of monumental Hispanic mural art, which uses the dissertation, bridge#x2019;s columns as its canvas. Because the seismic retrofit project had to comply with federal and state laws regarding its impact on proficiency resume, significant cultural resources, part of the dissertation, process for this undertaking required researching and evaluating Chicano Park and the Chicano Park murals. Based on the authors#x2019; research,1 the park and murals were found eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and for placement on the California Register of Historical Resources.2 Prior to the Caltrans undertaking, the proficiency, murals had only been formally recognized by thesis the City of proficiency resume, San Diego Historical Site Board. During the good thesis for wwi, process of seismic retrofitting, however, Caltrans cultural resource staff evaluated the historic significance of the resume, Chicano Park murals. Good. As a result of this evaluation, Caltrans successfully determined the murals, all under fifty years old, to be eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. This essay examines this unusual combination of proficiency, circumstances that led to the formal recognition of Latino art in San Diego as an important cultural resource.

Located in southwest San Diego some 17 miles from the United States- Mexico border, Logan Heights was once a predominantly upper-middle- class community known as the East End. It was annexed to San Diego in the late 1880s, and its name was changed to Logan Heights in 1905. Genocide Essays Toward Understanding. It is one of San Diego#x2019;s oldest communities and the location of one of the longest established Mexican-American (#x201C;Chicano#x201D; hereafter) communities in resume, San Diego County. Barrio Logan quickly took on xat previous years essays, a separate community flair with a distinctively Latino identity and resume, came to good thesis for wwi represent a major center for proficiency Chicano culture and thesis for wwi, social activities. As commerce and proficiency resume, industry began developing along the bay during and after the turn of the century, Barrio Logan prospered and continued to increase in population through World War II. Thesis. When the war ended, however, much of the area#x2019;s employment ended as well. Later, in resume, the 1950s, the city of San Diego. 1. Xat Previous. James Fisher, Historic Research Evaluation Report for the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge [#57-857], Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals, San Diego County (Sacra- mento: California Department of Transportation, 1996). Proficiency Resume. Martin D. Rosen, Historic Property Survey Report, San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, Seismic Retrofit Project 4; 11-SD-75, P.M. R21.9/R22.3, 021941 (San Diego: California Department of Transportation, 1997). Martin D. Rosen, Historical Resources Compliance Report, San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, Seismic Retrofit Project 4; 11-SD-75, P.M.

R21.9/R22.3, 021941 (San Diego: California Department of Transportation, 1998). 2. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park murals were found eligible for the National Register and placed on the California Register on henri essay, January 31, 1997. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 93. revamped its zoning laws. Property in Barrio Logan was changed from strictly residential to proficiency resume mixed use, allowing the influx into the community of auto junk yards and wrecking operations and other light industrial plants.

The cumulative effect of binding, these land use policies resulted in proficiency resume, the dislocation of families, business closures, and resume, the construction of transportation facilities that required more and more land in the area. Barrio Logan#x2019;s population decreased precipitously, and by 1979, had fallen from a pre-war high of 20,000 to about 5,000.3. 3. Pamela Jane Ferree, The Murals of Chicano Park, San Diego, California (unpublished M.A. thesis, San Diego State University, 1994), 26. Alan W. Proficiency. Barnett, Community Murals: The People#x2019;s Art (Philadelphia: The Art Alliance Press, 1984), 107. 94 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. In the early 1960s, the construction of Interstate 5 severed Barrio Logan from the larger community of Logan Heights. Then the San Diego- Coronado Bay Bridge, constructed between 1967 and 1969 and thesis, sited in an east-west direction to link with Interstate 5, further bisected the barrio, essentially #x201C;completing the devastation,#x201D; according to long-time community activist Al Ducheny.4.

Chicano Park is a 7.4-acre park located in San Diego City#x2019;s Barrio Logan beneath the proficiency, east-west approach ramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge where the bridge intersects Interstate 5. The park#x2019;s main section is bounded by cartier bresson photo Interstate 5 to proficiency resume the east and National Avenue to xat previous the west, with a smaller pan-handle section extending from National Avenue to Newton Avenue and flanked to resume the south by software Dewey Street (Figure 2). The park was created in proficiency, 1970 after residents in toward understanding, Barrio Logan participated in an April 22nd. #x201C;takeover#x201D; of land that was being prepared for a substation of the resume, California Highway Patrol. Thesis. Since 1970, Barrio residents have made extensive use of their new park for proficiency resume social and political events. Annually, on thesis software, the Saturday nearest April 22nd, the Latino community of San Diego and the Barrio Logan neighborhood have celebrated the founding of Chicano Park with feasting, speeches, music, and dancing. The park#x2019;s facilities include children#x2019;s play- grounds, restrooms, a Kiosko or dance pavilion, a ceremonial kiva, sculp- tures, a water fountain, picnic areas, multi-purpose courts, open play lawns, a raised plaza, and resume, two small parking areas accessed from Logan Avenue and National Avenue. Chicano Park is distinguished by approximately forty prominent murals painted on twenty-four concrete pillars (columns or bents) and two abut- ments sited throughout the park area, which support the San Diego end of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge. The murals depict images of Mexican pre-Columbian gods, myths and legendary icons, botanical elements, ani- mal imagery, the Mexican colonial experience, revolutionary struggles, cultural and spiritual reaffirmation through the arts, Chicano achievements, identity and bicultural duality as symbolized in the search for dissertation in london the #x201C;indig- enous self,#x201D; Mexican and Chicano cultural heroes and heroines such as La Adelita, Cesar Chavez, Father Miguel Hidalgo, Che Guevara, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and scenes based on contemporary Chicano civil rights history.

Because the evaluated properties, Chicano Park and its murals, are less than fifty years old, they had to meet National Register of Historic Places. 4. Resume. Michael Granberry, #x201C;20 Years Later, Span is Loved and Loathed,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 2 August 1989. Also see: Patrick McDonnell, #x201C;City Urged to Use Coronado Bridge Tolls for Barrio Logan Projects,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 20 October 1990; Barnett, Community Murals, 107. It should be noted that the Interstate 5 and State Route 75 construction projects of the 1960s were implemented at a time prior to the enactment of NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act), CEQA (California Environmental Quality Act), or the National Uniform Reloca- tion Act, which today helps to protect communities from the potentially devastating and disruptive impacts caused by major public improvement projects. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 95. Criterion Consideration G: Properties That Have Achieved Significance Within the Last Fifty Years, as well as the National Register Criteria for Evaluation, in order to be found eligible for the National Register.5 The National Register generally excludes properties less than fifty years old. 5. National Register Bulletin 15: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation (U.S. Department of The Interior, National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, Washington, D.C.), 41#x2013;43.

96 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. unless those properties possess exceptional significance. The intent of the time limit is to ensure that sufficient historical perspective has been devel- oped to identify properties of enduring importance and avoid listing prop- erties of only passing contemporary interest. At the same time, the National Register provides for recognition of properties from the recent past when sufficient historical perspective and scholarly comparative analysis exist and can justify a finding of exceptional significance. Prototype transportation facilities, homes of important writers and artists, significant scientific re- search facilities, outstanding examples of dissertation service in london, modern architecture, extraordi- nary folk art, early examples of proficiency resume, icons of popular culture, and properties associated with major themes of the recent past, such as the exploration of space, the service, civil rights movement, and cold war relics, are among the varied properties under fifty years old that have been listed on or determined eligible for listing on the National Register. Barrio Logan#x2019;s Chicano Park was found eligible for the National Register under Criterion A at the local level of significance due to its critical association with the proficiency, Chicano Civil Rights Movement and events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of the City of San Diego#x2019;s political and social history.6 The creation of the park has been recognized as a major defining moment in the history and development of the Barrio Logan community. The Chicano Park Murals, even younger than the park, were also found eligible for listing on the National Register under Criterion A at the local level of significance for for wwi their association (1) with political and cultural activities identified with the Chicano Civil Rights Movement and (2) with a growing recognition of the significance of muralism in mainstream art endeavors.

The murals have deep transcendent values and proficiency, constitute a historic resource for which the Barrio Logan community has an unusually strong associative attachment. The importance of the Chicano Park murals has been underscored by genocide toward local, national, and proficiency, international recognition of their artistic and social value. After the earthquakes, Caltrans was committed to find a way to retrofit the bridge and ramps to achieve increased public safety, while at the same time, protect the xat previous essays, murals as significant community resources. The fact that Chicano Park and its murals were less than fifty years old was not of supreme. 6. The National Register criteria, as cited in 36CFR#xA7;60.4, state that the proficiency, quality of signifi- cance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and (Criterion A) that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or (Criterion B) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or (Criterion C) that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and good for wwi, distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or (Criterion D) that have yielded or may be likely to resume yield, information important in prehistory or history. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 97. importance. Even if they had not been found eligible for the National and California registers, Caltrans was determined to limit the adverse impacts that the project might have on the subject resources. From the very beginning of the project, community input was actively solicited and chapdelaine resume, inte- grated into project proposals and such input was viewed as vital in proficiency, the successful implementation of the photo, undertaking. Consequently, the engi- neers#x2019; initial and standard retrofit technique of wrapping the columns in steel cylinders and in-filling with concrete was completely unacceptable because it would have destroyed the murals. The engineers were tasked to develop an alternative that would achieve the seismic goals of the project and preserve the murals.

The resultant strategy involved work in the diaphragm areas above the columns, where the bridge deck meets the tops of the columns, and around the bent footings below ground, thereby leaving the column faces untouched (Figure 3). Only one mural in the park, located on Bent G46, was painted above the columns into the diaphragm area, that being Death of the Farm Worker by Michael Schnorr. For the affected mural, about 30 percent of its total surface will be recreated by resume Mr. Schnorr after construction. Scaffolding will be provided to Mr. Schnorr for this purpose and then donated to the park for future mural projects. (A fairly complete listing of the murals, their dates of construction and original artists, is presented in Appendix A.) To ensure mural protection during construction, Caltrans hired art conservator Molly Lambert to oversee the chapdelaine, contractor#x2019;s operations.

The contractor was also required to hire art conservators to prepare a mural protection plan and develop the proficiency, protection strategies. That work was undertaken by Donna Williams and genocide toward understanding, Aneta Zabata. Photographer Phillipp Rittermann and resume, Ms. Dissertation Binding In London. Lambert completely photo-documented the murals prior to construction to provide a comparative record of before-and-after conditions to make sure the murals were not damaged during the retrofit process. To date the proficiency resume, project is nearly seventy-five percent completed, and so far no mural damage has been detected. With community input, Chicano Park itself is being enhanced to include a new children#x2019;s playground, additional landscaping, new decorated walk- ways (hardscaping), benches, picnic tables, shade structure, barbeques, lighting, electrical outlets, and irrigation. Bresson Essay. It is Caltrans#x2019; intent to leave the park in resume, much better condition than when it arrived. Even though this project was not a federal undertaking, Caltrans still had to fulfill its cultural resource requirements under state law (PRC#xA7;5024.5).

Caltrans#x2019; cultural resource process closely follows Section 106 of the Na- tional Historic Preservation Act, as promulgated in 36CFR#xA7;800. The pro- cess involved defining the project limits, or what is known as the Area of Potential Effects (APE). Cultural resources within the APE were invento- ried and good thesis for wwi, evaluated for their potential eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places, the proficiency resume, California Register of Historical Resources, or both. Finally, determinations were made on how the project affected those. 98 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. resources deemed significant. It is Caltrans#x2019; policy to avoid adverse effects first, minimize effects second, and henri cartier bresson essay, consider mitigation as the last resort.

Given that the project was only going to effect a portion of one mural, and as mitigation that affected portion was going to be recreated by the original artist, Caltrans avoided causing an adverse effect to the park and murals through its redesign efforts. The present authors began their studies by proficiency researching Chicano Park history and the history of the murals in bresson photo, the park. Proficiency Resume. To place the resources in their proper context, the importance of muralism in mainstream art and in. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 99. particular to Latino/Chicano cultural heritage had to be researched and documented.

A significant body of literature was reviewed in this respect. Numerous oral interviews were conducted with muralists and other activists who have been actively involved with Chicano Park since its founding. Libraries in both San Diego and Sacramento were utilized and newspaper archival materials were particularly useful. Through these efforts it became quite apparent that Chicano Park and it murals were significant cultural resources even though they were less than fifty years old. The authors had no trouble developing an argument in favor of significance. Genocide Toward Understanding. The authors#x2019; roles involved analyzing all the various cultural resources studies conducted for the project, including the proficiency, Chicano Park and mural evaluations, prehis- toric and historic archaeological surveys, bridge evaluations, historic build- ing surveys, and underwater archaeological surveys, and synthesized them in master software, a report for proficiency resume State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) review. In the master thesis, formal submittal to the SHPO, Caltrans requested concurrence that the park and the murals be found eligible for the National and California registers.

The authors continue to work with the resume, Chicano Park Steering Committee to help secure future funding for dissertation mural restoration projects. At the proficiency resume, same time the cultural resource efforts were underway, other Caltrans staff, mostly from the environmental (Geralda Stryker) and land- scape architecture (Tom Ham and binding service in london, Beth Hall) departments, continued to meet with the community to share information with them about the project and to seek their input on the kinds of park amenities they desired. The project was quite complicated in terms of construction staging, as Caltrans wanted to minimize the impact of the project on the public#x2019;s use of the park. As the engineers continued to develop the strategy that allowed for seismic retrofitting work while leaving the bridge columns relatively untouched, Project Manager Ramon Ruelas, Project Engineer Carlos Cortez, and proficiency, Project Resident Engineer Dennis Wilder helped tremendously to cartier bresson photo ensure that the proficiency resume, environmental commitments were carried through during con- struction. Political Activism and Muralism. Since at least 1967, many residents in Barrio Logan had believed that they would be given some land for a park.

On April 22, 1970, the dissertation service in london, formal struggle for resume a park in Barrio Logan began when Jos#xE9; Gomez, a long-time resident of the neighborhood, and students, families, and children occupied the land under the approach ramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, after they learned that a California Highway Patrol station would be built there. Between 250 and 500 people representing a wide cross-section of the community disrupted grading work that was already in progress. They occupied the site for years essays twelve days and demanded that a park be created. 100 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. immediately. To emphasize their point, the occupiers began the work of creating a park by using shovels, pickaxes, hoes, and rakes to prepare the resume, ground for the planting of grass, shrubs, and resume, flowers.7 Forming the Chicano Park Steering Committee, the activists demanded that the property be donated to the Mexican-American community as a park in which Hispanic culture could be expressed through art.8. Community activists withdrew from the proficiency, disputed land only after city officials promised negotiations regarding the xat previous years essays, use of the land. San Diego City Councilman Leon Williams, whose district included Barrio Logan, assured the neighborhood residents that they would have a city park under the Coronado Bridge.

The City of San Diego, through the efforts of community spokeswoman Angie Avila and others, finally negotiated a settlement with the Chicano Federation, a consortium of proficiency resume, various community groups, and the Chicano Park Steering Committee that required the city to exchange city-owned land for the disputed state land. The city would then build a 4.5- acre park (eventually to be expanded to a total of 7.4 acres) on xat previous, the acquired land bounded by Logan Avenue and National Avenue. The creation of the park was a major defining moment in the history of the Barrio Logan community.9. The civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s inspired a revival of muralism, as did the proficiency resume, Mexican Revolution of the 1920s and xat previous years essays, the New Deal of the 1930s; however, the differences are crucial. Modern Chicano muralism was generally not government sponsored.

It grew out of a desire for change and was typically centered in barrios and ghettos of inner cities. Muralism inspired efforts to proficiency resume reclaim a community#x2019;s cultural heritage and was used as a means to essays toward develop individual and community self-pride. Murals were an expression of collective vision and proficiency, tended to link the dissertation binding, artists to resume the people to cartier bresson photo essay shape content in the genre of social realism. Techniques were consciously developed to allow non-artists to proficiency resume participate and paint their own murals. Indeed, community participation underscored community empowerment. 7. Good Thesis. Armando Acuna, #x201C;Saving a Slice of Chicano Park,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1989.

Philip Brookman, #x201C;Looking for Alternatives: Notes on Chicano Art, 1960-90,#x201D; in Richard Griswold del Castillo, Teresa McKenna, and Yvonne Yarbro-Bejarano, eds., Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation, 1965#x2013;1985 (University of California, Los Angeles: Wright Art Gallery, 1991), 185#x2013;86. Brookman, #x201C;El Centro Cultural De La Raza: Fifteen Years,#x201D; in Brookman and Guillermo Gomez-Pe#xF1;a, eds., Made in Aztlan: Centro Cultural De La Raza Fifteenth Anniver- sary (1986), 20. Proficiency. #x201C;Work Halted by State At CHP Site Near Bridge,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 23 April 1970. Titus Fisher, #x201C;City Holds Fate of Park for Chicanos,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 24 April 1970. #x201C;State #x2018;Hold#x2019; Grant Delay Affect Park,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 4 March 1971. Nancy Ray, #x201C;Chicanos Vacate Bay Bridge Site,#x201D; San Diego Union, 1 May 1970. Good For Wwi. #x201C;Council Okays Bay Park Agreement,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 12 November 1971. Bill Callahan, #x201C;Bay Bridge Art Shows Its Age,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 28 March 1984. 8. Acuna, Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1989.

Brookman, #x201C;Looking for Alternatives,#x201D; 185#x2013;86. Brookman, #x201C;El Centro Cultural,#x201D; 20. #x201C;Work Halted by State at proficiency, CHP Site Near Bridge,#x201D; #x201C;Looking for Alternatives#x201D;; Fisher, #x201C;City Holds Fate.#x201D; 9. Angie Avila, legislative analyst and long-time Barrio Logan resident, interview with authors, San Diego, 13 March 1996. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 101. and its involvement in politics. Good For Wwi. Chicana muralist Judy Baca, founder of the arts organization known as SPARC (Social and Public Art Resource Center) and a major Los Angeles exponent of the resume, mural art form, noted: #x201C;Chicano murals have influenced international muralism greatly and xat previous years essays, contributed to the shift in emphasis from Mexico to proficiency resume the United States as the henri cartier bresson photo essay, center of mural production in the world.#x201D;10. Agreeing, Eva Sperling Cockcroft, muralist and author of Towards a People#x2019;s Art (1977), one of the first comprehensive studies of the commu- nity mural movement, concluded: #x201C;Nowhere did the community-based mural movement take firmer root than in the Chicano communities of California. Proficiency Resume. With the Mexican mural tradition as part of their heritage, murals were a particularly congenial form for Chicano artists to genocide essays express their collective vision of their community.#x201D;11 Not surprisingly, California has more murals than any other part of the resume, United States. The revival of muralism in the barrio was a reaction to such contemporary concerns as high levels of gang and drug violence, restrictive employment opportunities, English-only laws, and a lack of political power in spite of an ever-increasing population base.12. The height of Chicano political activism occurred between 1969 and 1975 and not only dictated the specific social and economic issues the movement dealt with, but also coincided with the xat previous essays, most productive period of Chicano muralism. Certainly this was the historical context in which the Chicano Park murals fit.

Such grass-root muralism was generally funded by the artists themselves, local businesses, or community social and arts cen- ters, and projected the resume, themes of Chicano nationalism and cultural identity. In keeping with a long tradition of Mexican art as resistance, murals became the art form of choice, silent sentiments and creative yearnings that were vivid and cartier bresson photo essay, eye-catching, explosions of proficiency resume, lights that vanquished the shad- ows while merging the past and master thesis, the future with the present. They spoke to the ever-increasing social consciousness of the barrio and Chicano sensibili- ties and reflected issues and symbols that ranged from Aztec icons to the United Farm Workers#x2019; black eagle, combining the Spanish and Indigenous heritage, a significant source of proficiency resume, California#x2019;s history. Most of the murals were painted between 1973 and good thesis for wwi, 1980.13. 10. Judy Baca, in Preface to Eva Sperling Cockcroft and proficiency resume, Holly Barnet-Sanchez, eds., Signs From the dissertation binding service in london, Heart: California Chicano Murals (Venice, Calif.: Social and Public Art Resource Center, 1990), 1. 11. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 1, 9#x2013;10.

Cockcroft et al., Towards a People#x2019;s Art (New York: E. P. Dutton Co., 1977). 12. Nicolas Kanellos, The Hispanic Almanac: From Columbus to Corporate America (Detroit: Gale Research, 1993), 358. 13. Ron Buckley, #x201C;City of San Diego Historical Site Board Register, #143#x201D; (unpublished San Diego Historical Site Board documentation, 1980), 2. Raul Jaquez, artist, interview with authors, San Diego, 1 March 1996. Salvador Torres, artist, interview with authors, San Diego, 29 February 1996. Jos#xE9; Montoya, poet, artist, musician, Professor of proficiency, Art, California State University, Sacramento, interview with authors, 10 March 1996. 102 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN.

From the mid-1970s to the 1980s, muralism gained wider acceptance outside the barrios and was even introduced to audiences at more traditional art galleries. Xat Previous Years. Books on murals were published, conferences held on the subject, and artists from other countries began to sing the praises of Aztlan muralists. In 1983, the quarterly magazine Community Muralists began publishing.14 By this time, new social and resume, artistic themes served to service in london augment the traditional symbols of the farmworkers#x2019; black eagle flag, the proficiency resume, Virgin of good thesis for wwi, Guadalupe, the maguey agave (symbol of renewal), and pre-Columbian images of Quetzalcoatl and proficiency, pyramids.15. Cockcroft believed that muralism gained a new vitality in the 1980s due to opposition to dissertation binding the rise of political conservatism in the United States and the military involvement of the United States in Central America, namely Panama, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala, and the #x201C;war on drugs#x201D; program in South America.16 A growing Chicano population and emerging political power in the southwest helped to define social issues such as bilingualism in educa- tion, immigration, and trade. Through its own visual appeal, innate power, and innovative character, Chicano art at this time displayed an ability to resume cross over into the mainstream of service, society in spite of its often intense political content. The Chicano Civil Rights Movement attacked the stereotypes that maintained that barrio art was #x201C;folk#x201D; art and that true artistic recognition had to proficiency come through assimilation into the mainstream culture. According to Marcos Sanchez-Tranquilino:

Chicano art is currently entering its #x201C;appreciation#x201D; period as it gains increased acceptance in the larger art market. It is highly valued for the art market as a new source of color, form, imagery, and text. However, the understanding of essays, it can only be achieved through analysis of its historical roots and development. Paradoxically, its certified roots (through social art histories) in social resistance will increase its value in the market place. Chicanos, both artists and resume, non-artists, in addition to good everyone else in this country, are having to proficiency resume reformulate the contexts of their identities as the xat previous, demands of living in an increasingly publicly acknowledged multi-cultural society begins to seriously impinge upon hard-earned recent social positionings.17. Chicano Park Murals.

On March 23, 1973, mural making in Chicano Park began in earnest. Two teams of Chicano artists, Los Toltecas en Aztlan, from the Centro Cultural. 14. Proficiency. Cockcroft and dissertation in london, Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the resume, Heart, 13. 15. Shifra Goldman, #x201C;How, Why, Where, and When It All Happened: Chicano Murals in. California,#x201D; in Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 33#x2013;34. Henri Cartier Bresson Photo Essay. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 14.

Brookman, 1986, 40. Resume. Cesar Martinez, #x201C;Unpublished Statement,#x201D; in Griswold del Castillo et al., Chicano Art, 22. 16. Cockcroft and software, Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 16, 100. Proficiency Resume. 17. Jacinto Quirate, Mexican American Artists (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973), 68. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 103. de la Raza (Balboa Park) and El Congreso de Artistas Chicanos en Aztlan, began to apply paint to the concrete abutments of the bridge#x2019;s off-ramps flanking the east and west sides of Logan Avenue.

On May 13, 1973, the San Diego Tribune took notice of the for wwi, Chicano Park art project: Their names are Mexican, so is proficiency, their art. Xat Previous Years. They paint on concrete. Work began on proficiency, the bridge columns a month ago and many may not be completed for years. The City has granted artists permission to paint the concrete walls and binding, pillars under the Coronado Bridge from southeast San Diego to the Coronado Bay. The walls are washed, then treated with an resume acid and primer. When dry, charcoal sketches are made and then filled with acrylic paints. . Essays. . . They said their work reflects, #x201C;our thinking, our background, the proficiency, barrio, the genocide essays understanding, struggle, la Raza (the Mexican people).#x201D;18. The murals in Chicano Park were executed over an extended period of time and in three main phases. The first phase of mural making, 1973#x2013;1974, involved two Chicano art collectives (noted above), Los Toltecas en Aztlan and El Congreso de Artistas Chicanos en Aztlan, and the work emphasized pre-Columbian motifs and the #x201C;dominance of proficiency resume, Chicano nationalism and spontaneity in the imagery portrayed.#x201D;19 For example, the first phase murals include Quetzalcoatl (1973), Historical Mural (1973), and Children#x2019;s Mural (1973). Cockcroft notes that essentially this first phase represented the #x201C;possessing [of] the park, marking it with the placa or logo, of the commu- nity.#x201D;20.

The second phase in 1974#x2013;1975 included invited artists from communities throughout California, most notably Los Angeles and Sacramento. An infusion of chapdelaine resume, new ideas resulted from this period. Resume. These second phase murals include Chicano Park Logo (1974) / Rage of La Raza (1974) (see cover of this issue), Cosmic Clowns (1974), Tree of Life (1974), Allende (1974), Birth of La Raza (1974), Chuco/Homeboy (1974), Colossus (1974), Leyes (1975), Mandala (1975), Mujer Cosmica (1975), and chapdelaine resume, Female Inteligencia (1975). The third mural phase, 1977#x2013;1981, celebrated a resurgence in com- munity pride by, for proficiency resume example, questioning the inordinate number of junkyards in the barrio and their visual and audio impacts on the quality of bresson essay, life. Proficiency. Marked by a twenty-day Mural Marathon organized by Victor Ochoa in 1978, this third phase utilized the skills of some non-Chicanos and placed emphasis on educational and historical themes. Ron Buckley, of the San Diego Historical Site Board, described this phase of the thesis for wwi, park murals as #x201C;art forms that represent the past history and culture of the proficiency, Mexican-American community of the Barrio. #x201D;21 Examples of the third phase murals include: Varrio Si, Yonkes No! (1977), Varrio Logan (1977), Founding of software, Mexico (1978), Coatlicue (1978), Virgin of. 18. Lee Grant, #x201C;Chicano Artists Go to the Walls,#x201D; San Diego Union, 13 May 1973. 19.

S. Torres, interview with authors, 29 February 1996. 20. Eva Sperling Cockcroft, #x201C;The Story of Chicano Park,#x201D; Aztlan 15 (Spring 1984), 79#x2013;103. 21. Proficiency Resume. Buckley, #x201C;City of San Diego,#x201D; 1.

104 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. Guadalupe (1978), Los Grandes y Frida (1978), Rocks to Huelga (1978), Che (1978), Chicano Pinto Union (1978), Sue#xF1;o Serpiente (1978) , and Aztec Archer (1981).22. Unlike the dissertation binding in london, creation of the majority of the murals in proficiency resume, the 1970s, the few done in the 1980s and early 1990s were accomplished under a set criteria of understanding, need, ability, subject matter, and the availability of funding. Examples include Sunburst (1986), Ball Player (1987), UFW Grapes (1988), San Diego People, Thanks from Yokohama (1990), and Tribute to Roger Lucero (1993). By early 1984, a group of artists led by Salvador Torres and Mario Torero and members of the Chicano Park Arts Committee began the work of touching up the murals. Due to proficiency resume the fact that mural life is about ten years, maintenance is good thesis, important. In 1991, the California Department of proficiency resume, Transpor- tation trained numerous artists in xat previous essays, repair techniques.23. It was the vision of individual artists and others that initiated the painting of murals on the huge, sterile columns that dominated the park site (see. Tree of Life (mural, 1974/1992). Original artists: Felipe Adame, Guillermo Aranda, and Arturo Roman.

Located on bridge Bent T46 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by proficiency Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 22. Ferree, #x201C;Murals of Chicano Park,#x201D; 40. Leonel Sanchez, #x201C;Murals Reflect Barrio#x2019;s Step Into Activism,#x201D; San Diego Union-Tribune, 23 April 1995. S. Torres, interview with author, 29 February 1996. 23. Bresson. Ann Jarmusch, #x201C;Restoration Begins on proficiency resume, Chicano Park Murals,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 29 August 1991. Salvador Torres and Gloria Torres, artists, interview with authors, San Diego, 29 February 1996. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 105. Appendix A). They envisioned #x201C;a seemingly endless canvas, stretching to software the waters of the bay four blocks away,#x201D; an opportunity to transform and #x201C;personalize#x201D; the dreary concrete landscape.

The artists would crystallize David Siqueiros#x2019; description of murals, that they must be #x201C;monumental. Mujer Cosmica (mural, 1975). Original artists: Esteban Villa and Ricardo Favela. Located on Bridge Bent S45 in proficiency resume, Chicano Park. (Photograph by Martin D. Essays Toward. Rosen, November 1999) 106 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. and realistic,#x201D; and the Chicano Park murals would be #x201C;bigger than life itself.#x201D;24. By the late 1970s, nearly every major Chicano muralist in California and the Southwest, by invitation and proficiency, inclination, had participated in the making of Chicano Park murals. For example, Rupert Garcia, internationally known painter from Stockton and San Francisco, designed the master thesis software, tribute mural to proficiency Diego Rivera, Clemente Orozco, David Siqueiros, and good for wwi, Frida Kahlo. The Royal Chicano Air Force from Sacramento, led by Jos#xE9; Montoya Esteban Villa and Juanishi Orosco, placed its grand contributions on the park#x2019;s columns, as did muralist Charles #x201C;Cat#x201D; Felix, Jr., the driving force behind the acclaimed Estrada Courts murals in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles in 1973. The development of proficiency, Chicano Park and its murals remains an ongoing process (#x201C;a work in henri cartier bresson photo essay, progress,#x201D; in the words of Salvador Torres).25 Moreover, the murals serve as a reminder to proficiency resume people in years essays, the community that they can change their environment.

Victor Ochoa emphasized that the #x201C;community needs the murals to speak up on certain issues.#x201D;26 Larry Baza, executive director of Centro Cultural de La Raza in Balboa Park, suggested that #x201C;murals are illustrated sentiments#x201D; designed to overcome the limitations of. Sue#xF1;o Serpiente (mural, 1978/1989/1991). Original artists: Soccoro Gamboa, Felipe Adame, and Roger Lucero. Located on Bent R43 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 24. David Alfaro Siqueiros, #x201C;Art and Revolution#x201D; (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1975), 18.

25. S. Proficiency. Torres, interview with authors, 29 February 1996. 26. Binding Service In London. Jarmusch, #x201C;Restoration Begins.#x201D; CHICANO PARK MURALS n 107. Tribute to proficiency Roger Lucero (mural, 1993). In London. Original artist: Mario Torero. Resume. Located on Bridge Bent F42 in Chicano Park. For Wwi. (Photograph by proficiency resume Martin D. Binding Service In London. Rosen, November 1999) physical conditions and non-literacy.27 Since 1973, the murals have become the icons they depict.

Their maintenance involves the city, the people of the barrio, and proficiency resume, especially the artists, who are continuing their work on the pillars of the bridge. The authors have been intimately involved in the project since its inception in 1995. The senior author first visited Chicano Park that year, even though he had lived in San Diego since 1980. All it took was one visit to the park to convince him that the murals were a significant resource worthy of nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Genocide Understanding. His enthusiasm was equally shared by the junior author, who at the request of Caltrans District 11, undertook the task of developing the arguments necessary for proficiency the park and its murals to essays be found significant, even though they were less than fifty years old. Resume. Once the research was committed to paper and presented to the California State Historic Preservation Officer, no one ever asserted that the murals and the park were not eligible for good thesis the National Register.

Quite to the contrary, at resume, every step in the process, enthusiasm for the resources was unbounded. Caltrans engineers very early realized that the traditional seismic retrofit approach, wrapping the col- umns in concrete, would not work for Chicano Park. The murals could not be harmed. That was Caltrans#x2019; rallying cry, from years essays all divisions, right up to the. 27. Larry Baza, Director, Centro Cultural de la Raza, interview with authors, San Diego, 16 February 1996. 108 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. District 11 Director, Gary Gallegos, who stated that #x201C;the murals must be protected at proficiency resume, all costs.#x201D; Caltrans went to essay extraordinary efforts to see to it that the resume, murals would be protected.

The project contract contained stipulations that the contractor had to hire art conservators to dissertation in london assist in the development of mural protection guidelines. Caltrans then hired its own art conservator and photographer to review the resume, contractor#x2019;s plans and to photo-document the chapdelaine, murals prior to construction. It has been almost two years since seismic retrofit work commenced, and there has not been a single instance of reported mural damage due to construction activities. Caltrans routinely deals with archaeological sites, historical bridges, and houses, but never before had it dealt with mural art. Every step in the process involved treading new ground and an unprecedented level of community participation. Caltrans, to be sure, was trying to make up for proficiency resume past sins, for those days when nothing stood in the way of building new freeways. Barrio Logan was just one of chapdelaine resume, hundreds of communities nation- wide that felt the brunt of the nation#x2019;s efforts to resume establish its interstate highway system. The Barrio Logan neighborhood, itself, does not provide a completely safe haven for the murals. Pigeon roosting has actually increased as a consequence of the retrofit project. Their guano is now causing damage to both murals and good thesis for wwi, new hardscaping placed around bridge columns.

It must be dealt with. Resume. Valiant efforts on the part of many will be undone unless this problem is corrected. Graffiti has increased, even as the park has been enhanced. There seems to be a greater disconnection among the barrio#x2019;s youth and these magnifi- cent murals. Tagging threatens the murals, and protective measures must be implemented. New park lighting fixtures are broken, almost as soon as they are put up. The homeless, moved from good neighboring downtown envi- ronments as a result of redevelopment have taken up residence in the park.

Garbage from adjacent businesses encroaches as both Caltrans (responsible for the freeway rights-of-way) and the City of San Diego (responsible for proficiency the park grounds) struggle to maintain the park#x2019;s appearance and amenities. Many of the murals are now approaching 30 years of binding, age, without having ever gone through any significant restoration in their lifetime. Resume. Many of them were not originally applied with longevity and their future historical impor- tance in mind. They desperately need work. To this end, Caltrans is seeking federal, state, and city grant funding for their restoration. The Chicano Park Steering Committee is taking an active role in software, helping to prioritize the murals most urgently in need of work. Together, it is hoped that many of the proficiency, problems that face the thesis, park and its murals can be solved so that these valuable cultural resources survive into the future. Everyone involved in the seismic retrofit project has considered the murals to be important works of art. The park has been viewed as an outdoor. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 109.

museum, and the bridge columns as the canvases upon which that art has been rendered. While standing in proficiency, Chicano Park surrounded by these monumental works of art, one feels that one is looking at San Diego#x2019;s version of the Sistine Chapel. In London. Despite the freeway noise above, being there is resume, a deeply moving experience. Master. Although the seismic project is proficiency resume, almost com- pleted, much more work needs to be done to ensure that these beautiful murals are protected and saved for future generations. Appendix A Murals in Chicano Park. Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Genocide. Artist(s) Renovation(s)

T47 Mario Torero, Mano Lima, Colossus, 1974/1989 Laurie Manzano. T47 Manuel Parsons Logan Cross T47 Manuel Parsons Four Decades T47 (this mural is proficiency, not located on bent T47, (painted whale) but immediately to the northeast of it) T46/L Gato Felix Los Ni#xF1;os del Mundo, 1975 T46 Grupo de Santana Birth of for wwi, La Raza, 1974/1992 T46 Felipe Adame Rocks to Huelga, 1978/1992 T46 Felipe Adame Chuco/Homeboy, 1974/1992 T46 Felipe Adame, Guillermo Aranda, Tree of Life, 1974/1992. Arturo Roman T46 Community collaboration Indian Dancer T45 Arturo Singh Woman with Flag, 1975 T45 RCAF; poem by Joann Little I Am Somebody, 1975 T45 Jose Montoya Royal Chicano Leyes, 1975. Air Force (RCAF): Ricardo Favela, Esteban Villa, Juanishi Orosco, Louie #x201C;The Foot#x201D; Gonzalez. T45 Celia Rodriguez, Irma Lerma Female Inteligencia, 1975 Barbosa, Antonia Mendoza, Rosalina Balaciosos, Barbara Desmangles volunteers; music by Javier Pacheco. S47 Team from proficiency Los Angeles Allende, 1974 S46 Diego Sons Printers, Carlotta Chicano Park Logo, 1974. Hernandez Mario Torero Rage of La Raza, 1974. S46 CACA (Congreso de Artistos Cosmic Clowns, 1974/1992 Chicanos en Aztlan: Mario Torero, Pablo de la Rosa, Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Felipe Barboza)

110 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. S45 Juanishi Orosco Mandala, 1975 S45 Esteban Villa, Ricardo Favela Mujer Cosmica, 1975 S45 RCAF La Familia, 1975 S42/L Mi Raza Primera R45 Vidal Aguirre Aztec Archer, 1987 R45 Victor Ochoa team Varrio Logan, 1977 R44 Raul Espinoza, Michael Schnorr Huelga Eagle, 1978/1991 R44 Victor Ochoa Che, 1978 R44 Victor Ochoa students Mexican History, 1978/1991 R43 Soccoro Gamboa, Felipe Adame, Sueno Serpiente, 1978/1989/1991. Roger Lucero R43 Felipe Adame Aztec Warrior, 1978 R42/L/R Hasta La Bahia H46 Michael Schnorr, Victor Ochoa, Voz Libre, P.H. Gonzalez, 1984. Guillermo Rosete, Yasue Doudera, Carlos Esparza. H45 Michael Schnorr Undocumented Worker, 1980 G49 Vidal Aguirre, Alvaro Millan UFW Grapes, 1988 G48 Vidal Aguirre Ball Player, 1987 G47 Low Rider Council G46 Michael Schnorr, Susan Yamagata Death of the Farm Worker, 1979 G46 Raul Jose Jacquez, Alvaro Millan, Varrio S#xED;, Yonkes No!, 1977/1989. Victor Ochoa, Armando Rodriguez G45 Susan Yamagata, Michael Schnorr Coatlicue, 1978 G45 Mario Torero Virgen de Guadalupe, 1978 G44 Tony de Vargas Chicano Pinto Union, 1978 G44 Rupert Garcia, Victor Ochoa Los Grandes y Frida, 1978 G43 Felipe Adame La Adelita, 1978 G43 Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Roger Lucero Chicano Park Takeover, 1978/1991 G29 Laura Rodriguez F44 Octavio Gonzalez O.G. Mural, 1978 F44 Yolanda Lopez Mujeres Chicanas/Escuelas, 1978. Muralistas de San Diego: Julietta A. Garcia-Torres, Cecilia De La Torre, Rosa De La Torre, Eva C. Craig. F43 Dolores Serrano-Velez Nacamiento del Parque Chicano F42 Mario Torero Tribute to Roger Lucero, 1993 F42 La Tierra Mia F41 Victor Ochoa Revoluc#xED;on Mexicana T Abut.

TEA, Guilberto #x201C;Magu#x201D; Lujan Historical Mural, 1973/1988. M.E.Ch.A. group from U.C. Irvine T Abut. Victor Ochoa Lowell Elementary Children#x2019;s Mural, 1973/1986. School children T Abut. Years. Tony De Vargas Chicano Park Takeover, 1986.

Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s) CHICANO PARK MURALS n 111. Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s) S Abut. Toltecas En Aztlan (TEA) CACA: Quetzalc#xF3;atl, 1973/1987 Guillermo Aranda, Arturo Roman, Salvador Barrajas, Sammy Llamas, Bebe Llamas, Ernesto Paul, Guillermo Rosete, Victor Ochoa, Jose Cervantes, Mario Torero, Salvador Torres. S Abut.

Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Salvador Torres Corazon de Aztlan, 1975/1988-89 S Abut. Salvador Torres, Gloria Torres, San Diego People, Thanks from. Ruben Seva, Roberto Salas Yokohama, 1990 S Abut. Tony De Vargas Sunburst, 1986 F Abut. (bird and sun) Kiosko Tony De Vargas, Vidal Aguirre, Founding of Mexico, 1978.

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The Impact of Cultism and Examination Malpractices on the Quality of Education in the 21st Century Nigeria. INTRODUCTION Many Nigerians were aware of the rot in proficiency resume, the nation under the years of years essays, military dictatorship, but hardly knew the proficiency resume magnitude of the rot. As it is with the nation, so it is xat previous essays, with the education sector; only those saddled with the responsibility of administering our education system can appreciate the crisis in the education system. And just as the proficiency resume damage done to the nation will take a long time to correct, sanitizing the education sector will take quite some years of continuous and determined reformation. Many reform measures do not bear fruits overnight. This is even more so in the education sector. For example, the impact of Chief Obafemi Awolowo’s free primary education was not fully felt among the Yoruba till the civil war and after, when they had to occupy Federal positions abandoned by the Igbo. Genocide. The twin evils of proficiency, campus cultism and examination malpractices entrenched themselves in the campuses during the years of henri essay, military despotism. They are product of the years of decay while the nature of inter-campus linkages of resume, cult groups as well as the sophistication with which malpractices are now being perpetuated in various examinations has made the matter more difficult to rout (Omabu, 2003). Aims and Objectives of Education in Nigeria Education has been described as the toward understanding best legacy that any nation or individual could leave behind for generation yet to come.

It is an invaluable asset, therefore, to both the individual and the society; since it has been also used from proficiency time immemorial, as a veritable instrument of cultural transmission. Thus education, in one form or the other, had always been an integral part of the human society. Generally, forms of education could be broadly categorized into formal and informal. Whereas, the former takes place in a formal or official setting, compartmentalized and certificated with designated learners and teachers, the latter is not so clearly designed. It has a longer life-span commencing from birth and ending in genocide essays toward understanding, the grave, with everyone around the learner constituting his teacher even as no certificate is required. Yet, this form of education is as important as the former; if not more; if only for the fact that it is proficiency, quite a practical thing with all the evidences of effective and henri, functional noble expectations and objectives of the formal system of education.

Indeed, it has a multilateral aim with the end objectives being to proficiency produce an individual who is honest, respectable skilled and cooperative and conforms to the social order of the day. According to Fafunwa (1974), seven aspects of these educational objectives can be identified and these include:- 1. To develop the child’s latent physical skills. Master Thesis Software. . To develop character. 3. To inculcate respect for elders and those in position of authority. 4. To develop intellectual skills. 5. To acquire specific vocational training and to develop a healthy attitude towards honest labour. 6. Proficiency Resume. To develop a sense of henri bresson photo, belonging and to participate actively in proficiency, family and community affair. 7. Service. To understand, appreciate and promote the cultural heritage of the community at large.

Thus, it was for good reasons that the Nigerian formal education system took after these objectives as enunciated in the National Policy on Education (1981). According to Policy, the broad objectives of Nigerian education should emphasize such things as:- i. The inculcation of the right type of value attitudes for the survival of individual society. ii. Proficiency. The training of the mind in building valuable concepts, generalizations and understand of the world around. iii. The acquisition of master, appropriate skills, abilities and competencies of both mental and physical nature as equipment for the individual to live in his society. Proficiency. iv. The acquisition of relevant and balance knowledge of facts about local and world phenomena. In the light of the master thesis first two objectives above, Nigerian education was to proficiency resume be geared towards self realization, better human relationship, self and national economic efficiency, citizenship, national consciousness, national unity, social and political progress, science and technological progress as well as national reconstruction. In pursuance of the objectives therefore, our educational institutions (pre- to post-primary) have designed their programmes in such a way that functional individual who will be capable of contributing his quota to master national development is proficiency, produced. But the question however remains as to what extent have these objectives been achieved? How well and indeed dependable are those measuring instruments such as internal and external examinations capable of producing the desired results?

Evolutionary Trends in master, Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions The phenomenon of proficiency resume, campus cults in Nigeria dated back to thesis software 1952, when Wole Soyinka winner of the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature-and a group of friends at the University of Ibadan formed the Pyrates Confraternity with the motto “Against all Conventions”. The skull and resume, cross bones were their insignia, cultivating a bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudes mode of resume, dress of the day. This caught on proficiency resume among students and over the next two decades, the fraternity, a non-violent body, became established in all the tertiary institutions that emerged in post-independence Nigeria. The emergence of campus cults as they are known in Nigeria today began with a split in the Pyrates Confraternity during the early 1970s when a breakaway group formed the Buccaneers Confraternity followed by the emergence of the Black Axe or the Neo-Black Movement. Inter-group rivalry then set in, even though skirmishes between them were limited to henri bresson photo fist fights. The 1980s saw the multiplication of proficiency, cults in the more than 300 tertiary institutions across Nigeria as new groups such as the Eiye, Vikings, Amazons and Jezebel emerged, bringing with them more intensely violent rivalry. By 1984, when Soyinka initiated the abolition of the good Pyrates Confraternity in all tertiary institutions, the resume phenomenon of violent had developed a life of its own. By the mid-1980s, reports had it that some of the cults have been co-opted by elements in the intelligence and security services serving the military government such that they were used as foils to the left-wing student unions which, along with university teachers, were among the only remaining bastions of opposition to military rule. Cultism includes the activities of secret cults or societies that are very rampant in our institutions of learning today. The founding fathers of such societies do not have the mind of thesis, carrying out evils but as a pressure group that can monitor and defend the interest of the immorality of students’ populace without violence. But the proficiency resume activities of the various cults seen day in our institutions are far from the above reasons.

They have constituted themselves into gangs of “never-do-well” set of people. Their mission today is to loot, kill, steal and destroy lives and properties at will. The violence associated with them is reported to be as a result of battles for supremacy among them. They have constituted themselves into a big cog in good for wwi, the wheel of Nigeria’s education development. Indeed, the growth and proficiency, maturation of examination malpractice tendencies in our tertiary institutions have been considered as one of the direct fallouts of cultism. Hardly a month passes these days, without reports of deaths of genocide, students or staff resulting from proficiency resume cult-related violence.

This has not only created an dissertation binding service atmosphere of insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is education. At a time when funding of these institutions are inadequate, and resume, the standard of service in london, education is said to be falling, cultism and examination malpractices tendencies are clearly a big problem for the concerned authorities. Both of the most frequently discussed problems in the education sector today; since indiscipline in schools is resume, central to the factors contributing to the fast dwindling, declining and deteriorating educational standard. The various acts of indiscipline commonly perpetrated by students such as truancy, stealing, hooliganism, examination malpractices, sexual immoralities and cultism among others are all destructive to the educational system. Taiwo (2004) declared that “what we are all witnessing today in good thesis for wwi, the education sector is resume, a sad reflection of corruption in the society and thesis for wwi, the low priority placed on standardization and proficiency, improvement of the intellectual custodians of our time by those in governance”. This is against good thesis for wwi the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices. Whenever they fail their courses, they react violently through their cult members against the teachers in charge of their failed courses. They operate at night and proficiency, conduct initiation of new members at dawn in these institutions coming out with dangerous weapons at the middle of the nights when students who are ignorant of their activities fall victim.

The recent arrest of henri photo, some students who were believed to be cult members at Esa-Oke Federal Technical College serves as typical case in point. The fire of cult terrorism on the campuses which raged on for about one year, after the half-heated spray of cult antidote by the Federal Government in proficiency resume, 1999, has steadily intensified and burst into flames once more. In the first two weeks of August 2004, 33 students of three universities were brutally murdered in cultic butcheries, suspected to have been perpetuated by cult members among students of tertiary institutions. Of the figure, 15 were of the Ebonyi State University, whose eight other students had similarly been killed the previous year. The rest 18 were of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology and the University of Nigeria Nsukka, whose five other students were shot dead in June, 2002, by cultists (Vanguard, 2004). The toll of the ever-intensifying cultic butcheries had to lecturers and officers of these institutions. Only recently, two lecturers, one each from the ESUT and resume, the UNN, were shot dead by suspected cultists; while suspected terrorists threatened to kill the new Vice-chancellor of University of Benin, Prof. Emmanuel Nwanze, if he failed to dismantle the committee on “Renunciation and Cultism”, which he set up after two medical students of the university were killed by suspected cultists. The cultists have also widened the scope of their operation to include armed robbery.

Reasons for resume, Prevalence of Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions It is often claimed that some parents of chapdelaine resume, these cultists are the brains behind the sponsoring of evil clubs releasing funds and weapons to them to proficiency carry out their obnoxious acts against humanity. This indecent moral values impacted into these youths are giving them more confidence to feel that nothing will happen to them even if they are caught with the belief that money answereth all things. Cultism in xat previous years, larger society has become a celebrated phenomenon among the political class who equally happen to be in proficiency resume, control of the wealth of the master nation. There are enough resources to sponsor to sponsor the baby-cultist in our institutions by these sets of resume, evidence their political opponents whether real or perceived. Considering the various killings of innocent students in our institutions by cult members, one may want to ask, why have solutions eluded us these years in bringing a stop to the menace of this anti–social behaviour? We have remained in our present state of confusion for the number of xat previous years essays, reasons, which according to proficiency resume Taiwo (2004) include:- i. Photo. Lack of concerted and consistence political will to deal with the proficiency problem once and for all. ii. Essays. Constantly shifting and unsettled socio-cultural and educational policies and practices, which tend to negative previous efforts at resume solving the problem. iii. Sudden and drastic dislocation of our scale of value whereby the intellectual custodians have become systematically relegated yielding place to other less important priorities. iv. Worshipping of money to discredit intellectual zealousness among the upcoming youths. Odili (2004) gave 11 possible causes of the rising cases of cultism in these institutions to include:- i. Genocide Toward Understanding. Erosion of Education Standards ii.

Economic Difficulties iii. Emulation of resume, Military Coupists iv. Adventurism and Egotism v. Sponsorship by Community Leaders vi. Lack of Integration vii. Peer Group Influence and Drug Addiction viii. Bad Parenting and Erosion of thesis, Family Values ix. Oil Bunkering x. Proficiency. Sponsorship by Politicians. The diminishing economic prosperity also contributes greatly. Resume. There is the proficiency resume crisis of confidence and thesis for wwi, of faith in our educational institutions leading to a general state of anxiety and proficiency resume, an erosion of confidence in xat previous years, getting jobs after school by the majority of the students. From the state of confusion to which the society exposed our youth, one may conclude that cultism is an offshoot and indeed a reflection of our corrupt society, which had for long plunged our educational sector into serious malfunctioning and dislocation. The Guardian (2005), in proficiency, an editorial, attempted an explanation of the situation and why the dissertation problem had remained seemingly intractable in the submissions that “The violence associated with the cults currently can be attributed to the general breakdown of values which we once held sacrosanct.

The premium attached to human life has plummeted so badly that youths can now kill without flinching…”. We therefore cannot combat the cults menace without paying attention to the problem of the larger society. An obvious explanation for the resurgence and worsening of cult crisis on the campuses is the inadequate, half-hearted enforcement of the measures already officially pronounced. The slaughter of five students of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife in one fell swoop in 1999 prompted Federal Government’s adoption of an anti-cult strategy, part of which was an offer of monetary incentive to repentant cult members among students nationwide. In keeping with some recommendations of judicial panel on the cultic killings too, the government vowed to establish a unit to identify secret cults and their activities in all tertiary institutions. Also, the government empowered heads of the institutions to summarily dismiss any student properly identified as a cult member, and proposed a data-bank of students so dismissed to forestall their re-admission into any other similar institutions in Nigeria. Resume. Had these measures been adequately enforced, the xat previous essays soaring rate of cultic terrorism would have been drastically reduced.

But the government has merely pointed its anti-cult armoury without really using the weapons to resume fight the bloody cults. Besides, the government’s order to heads of tertiary institutions to xat previous years summarily dismiss cult members among their students is rendered ineffectual by the plea of the police, in a number of cases, of non-existence of a relevant laws to prosecute students for their involvement in cult activities; as the long-standing decree prohibiting cultism on the campuses is rendered unenforced, null and void. Such expelled students have often safely returned to their institutions for being secret cult members brandishing court orders for their reinstatement. The kid-glove handling of serious cult cases by the police and the judiciary, combined with the thickening suspicion that a number of rich parents, influential politicians and government officials sponsor cultism on the campuses, gives the proficiency resume cultists the erroneous feeling that they would always escape punishment, or if at all convicted, would suffer mild punishment (Daily Champion, 2004). Implications of Cultist Activities in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions All these are not without their very grave implications worth mentioning here. Although not all the good students are involved in cultism, the few that are involved do considerable damage to the system. Since violent cult activities started, thousands of students have lost their lives to it while properties worth millions have also been destroyed. Resume. Apart from the injured and those rusticated or expelled, troubled universities students are generally known for their activism everywhere. Together with the media and years, civil societies, they help to protest against bad policies of government. The Vietnam War for instance, ended after heavy protests by students and other civil groups. Proficiency Resume. British students recently protested against the proposed hike in thesis software, fees by their government.

All these are positive actions by university students. Although Nigerian students have, over the years, contributed their quota to national development, the issue of cultism has come to proficiency dent their image. If it is true that the youth of good thesis for wwi, today are the leaders of proficiency resume, tomorrow, then the stackholders in education must rise up to the challenges posed by the courge of dissertation service, cultism. Despite the much already done in proficiency, this regard, more still need to be done to good eradicate cultism from our institutions of higher learning. Summarily, Odili (2004) pinpointed 7 implications of this trend to proficiency include the following:- 1. Destruction of Lives and Properties 2. Upsurge in Crime due to Arms Proliferation 3. Epileptic University System 4. Loss of Prospective Investors 5. Loss of Government Revenue through Illegal Bunkering 6. Cost of Maintaining Law and Order 7. Threat to Government. Nature and Types of Examination Malpractices among Students Today in Nigeria, there has been an increasing occurrence of examinations malpractices among students than ever before, permeating every public examination, like the West African Examination Council (WAEC) Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) and dissertation in london, lately National Examination Council (NECO) with rampant cases of examinations results not released or cancelled outright for many candidates. Most of these cases have come to be linked directly to examination malpractices. Similarly, institutions of higher learning have gone sophisticated in these malpractices to proficiency the extent that reports of expelled students on account of these have become a common occurrence; going on unabated. It is even believed that many prospective candidates seeking admission into higher institutions today often employ others to write the examinations for them. Xat Previous Years. This readily explains the antecedent of proficiency resume, those found with the habit in binding in london, institutions of resume, higher learning. This is because they tend to henri cartier bresson carry on, with more sophistication though, when they get into the institutions.

Little wonder then that the cult platform will seem particularly appealing to this group of students as an easy escape, with a view to shoring up their academic bankruptcy. Hence the rather mutual relationship that lies between cultism and examination malpractices in these institutions. Proficiency. Meanwhile, the New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language (1992) defines examination as a formal, written, spoken or practical test especially at school or college, to see how much you know about a subject, or what you can do. On the other hand, the term alpractice refers to careless, wrong or illegal behaviour while in a professional job (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2000). Olanipekun (2003) views it as ‘the failure to carry out properly or honestly condition specified by the examination body (School authority, for example) for the evaluation of students in a programme of study’. It implies therefore that any student who before, during, after or in anticipation of any examination or test goes against the rules and thesis, regulations guiding the conduct of the examination is involved in proficiency, examination malpractices. Examination malpractices come in varying forms, shapes and sizes; with differing designations such as ‘microchips’, ‘macro-chips’, ‘download’, ‘laptop’, ‘giraffe’ and essays, quite recently, the use ‘mercenaries’. Micro and macro chips are same techniques except for the variation in the sizes of the imported materials.

Whereas the former has to do with small pieces of extraneous materials imported into the examination’s venue, the latter is proficiency resume, of more significant size. “Download” refers to the bringing in of the whole text from which the candidate intends to copy. Sometimes the scientific calculator can be used for the storage of relevant data, formulas etc. to be downloaded for use in the examination hall. As for years, ‘laptop’, the individual candidate’s lap is used as the writing surface from where relevant information can be copied in the examination as the need arises. This type is more prevalent among female in view of the fact that it is rather easier to do with the wearing of skirts. “Giraffe” happens to be the resume age-long style whereby candidates use neck-stretching to years essays look at what another person was doing. All these have, however, come to look like a child’s play when compared with the sophistication and artistry that mercenary represents. A major difference between mercenary and other forms of examination malpractices is that whereas the actual candidates in question perpetuate other forms, ‘mercenary’ involves the recruitment of an external body to write the proficiency examinations on the candidate’s behalf. The examination mercenary syndrome thus refers to the practice whereby candidates employ and pay external person(s) to sit in and write examinations on their behalf. Usually, the mercenary is considered as the intellectual where-withal to write the examinations successfully for for wwi, the one who has engaged his ‘services’.

This is because, such an individual either comes from higher institutions of learning or had already succeeded in similar examinations in resume, the past. When ‘mercenary’ is used in institutions of higher learning, he is either a more competent hand in the course concerned or it is so believed. Sometimes, candidates from other institutions of higher learning are imported for the job. It suffices to state categorically that the syndrome is almost completely male-dominated generally associated with monetary incentives, reward or gratification, and sometimes to compensate an amorous relationships. There have also been a few other cases where the henri cartier photo essay ‘mercenary’ is proficiency, self-employed, that is, doing it (in compassion, they claim) for someone who, in actual fact, has not solicited such a service in the first place. Friends, sometimes male, often do this for their female colleagues as a demonstration of true friendship. Thus, it can be concluded from the foregoing that it is the ‘mercenary’ and means of master thesis, settling the proficiency fees to be charged which, of course, varies from one ‘mercenary’ to the other. Implications of Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions This unfortunate development in our educational system represents a high sophistication to which examination malpractices had risen in recent times. Sadly too, some parents have been found to encourage the perpetuation of this ugly act by their children/wards either directly or indirectly.

Not only has this contributed to the diminishing standard of our education, but it has also helped to cast aspersion on individual candidates’ certificates, which many often claimed, have not always been a true reflection of their academic standing. Due to this weak background, it is not surprising therefore that many candidates who secured admission into higher institutions with such results have been much of a disappointment. They simply could not leave up to their billings in henri photo, all ramifications. Attendant frustration often result in sundry other malpractices in proficiency, examinations to such an extent that they are sooner or later certified as academically unfit and marked for withdrawal on academic ground. Desperate ones among them would want to do all things possible to resume hang on. This often take them to all kinds of anti-social vices, prominent among which is cultism. The individual, which is the bedrock of the society, is by this token, being malformed and deformed for proficiency, the future.

There is no doubt therefore, that all kinds of examination malpractices stand condemnable by all the stakeholders in the education sector. This is for thesis for wwi, the simple fact that to proficiency resume compromise academic standards is dissertation in london, one sure way to mortgage, if not the present, certainly the future of a people. Our today, and whatever it stands for, represents the foundations of our tomorrow. Prevalence of examination malpractices, especially the mercenary syndrome, indicates the weak foundations upon which we are to build our tomorrow therefore. Yet, our credible and lasting tomorrow is proficiency resume, already being endangered with this ever-increasing wave of academic frauds and immoral dispositions (Issa, 2003). Although many of such students end up with brilliant results, especially at external examinations, they often find it difficult to live up to those results after securing admission into institutions of higher learning. Their apparent inability to cope well in their studies, quite often, leads to frustration thereby encouraging their environment into xat previous essays cultism and other related social vices. The bulk of them end up badly in their academic pursuits while the remaining few who would have crookedly sailed through to the end become social misfits. For one, they are hardly good at their jobs even as the anti-social tendencies remain with them throughout life.

Yet, human resources have been considered the most vital of proficiency, all resources needed for both individual and societal developments. Incidentally, the education system represents the most veritable instrument with which human resources could be created and genocide essays understanding, developed. It therefore goes without saying that the individual and society’s success in proficiency resume, ensuring the laying of a good foundation for our tomorrow lies in our ability to rise above the challenges posed by this trend in examination malpractices and cultism. The Way Forward. Hope is not lost yet once we are alive to the rescue mission. With respect to cultism, one cannot but agree with Odili (2004) on his 7-point agenda for resume, a way forward, which are: 1. Moral Upbringing of Children. 2. Public Enlightenment Advocacy by the Media. 3. Re-orientation in proficiency resume, our Tertiary Institutions and Better Funding. 4. Integrity Watch for master thesis, Business, Community and Political Leaders.

5. Anti-cult Law 6. Law Enforcement 7. Job Creation and Good Governance Beyond enforcing the relevant laws on campuses, the government should step out to improved the university environment, which tends to be a fertile ground for breeding cultists. Given the uncongenial condition of the universities, bereft of proficiency, teaching and learning materials, teachers’ incessant strikes, examination malpractices and school shut downs, students have found cult activities quite appealing. Their utmost goals of cartier essay, vain glory and supremacy are cheaply attainable through enlistment in proficiency resume, cults. If universities are meant to impart knowledge and mould character, while their degrees and diplomas are awarded only to people found worthy in leaning and character, then any student identified as a cultist, murderer, or robber should be punished accordingly. They must not be allowed to remain hit-squads and agent of destruction of lives and property. Only the full weight of the law can warn them that cultism is evil, and pays no dividends.

As for the case of examination malpractices, there would be the thesis need to change our orientation and value system, which seemed to emphasize the erroneous at all cost and by proficiency all means belief, which are not only negative but also counter-productive. It is high time we begin to xat previous years have a sound realization of the fact that it is resume, not only by having a degree that one can succeed or excel in life. It is in london, much more beyond that, because there are still a score of people who, in spite of not having a degree, actually succeeded and excelled in their chosen careers. Proficiency. The point must also be made that it is far better to be a self-reliant, successful artisan than an unemployed, jobless and street-roaming degree holder. If we succeed in this orientation bid, hopes are that majority of those that would remain will be those who interested in pursuing serious active studies would match the requirement and good for wwi, demands of a standard educational system. Finally, students must be made to understand and proficiency resume, appreciate hard work, dedication and commitment to studies. This is essays, where the teachers and the entire school authority need to be highly responsible and responsive. Students must be treated and dealt so as to encourage others to even better performance thereby looking up to them as source of inspirations.

At that point in proficiency resume, time, when the majority would have come to appreciate hard work, examination malpractices in henri cartier, general, the mercenary syndrome as well as cultism, would have been relegated to the status of an abnormality, as against the restigious status they currently enjoy. REFERENCES Aje S. A. (2001) Problems of Cultism in Nigerian School, Ilorin. Afri – Focus Investment Daily Champion, Nigeria (2004) “Alarming Rise in Cultism”. An Editorial Opinion in Daily Champion, Nigeria. August 30th (Available at: http://champion-newspapers. com/) Edeki, E. (2004) “Personal View: Curbing Cultism in resume, our Educational System”. Vanguard on line Edition January 05. (Available at: http:www. Good. Vanguardonline. com/) Fafunwa A. B. (1974) History of Education in Nigeria London: George Allen.

P. 20. The Guardian Newspaper (2005) “Editorial on the Upsurge in Cultist Activities” March 16 (Available at: http://www/. guardiansnewspapernigeria. com/) Issa, A. O. (2003) ‘Examination Mercenary Syndrome and proficiency resume, the Future of good thesis for wwi, Nigerian Educational System’. A Speech Delivered at the First Book Fair “FEDPOFFA 2003”. Organized by resume FEDPOFFA Consult (1981) Federal Ministry of Education: Lagos. Rev. ed. P. 45. New Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language (1992). New York: Lexicon Publications INC. P. 625.

Odili, P. (2004) “The Cult Phenomenon and Security Implications” A paper presented at the Summit of Security at the House of Representative, Abuja. Olanipekun, N. O. (2003) Examination Malpractices in Nigeria Schools: An Indepth Analysis, Offa: Royal Prestige Venture Omabu, O. (2003) ‘Campus Cult Violence Claims 115 Lives’. This Day News September 4. (Available at: http:/This Day News Nigeria. com/) Oyebanji, M. (2003) Campus Confraternities. Oro: Fabule Press. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of English Language (2000).

Great Clarendon, Oxford University Press P. 399. Taiwo, A. Genocide Essays Toward Understanding. (2004) “Campus Cults: a Reflection of a Corrupt Society”. Daily Times Nigeria. May 13 (Available at: http//www/. daily times of Nigeria. com).

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. Resume! What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and xat previous years, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.

Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and proficiency resume, skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in dissertation, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for proficiency resume, different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to essay, include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on proficiency resume putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is years when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the proficiency resume, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the genocide essays toward understanding, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in proficiency, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Genocide Essays Understanding! The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is proficiency resume this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to henri cartier bresson essay, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it.

But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. Proficiency! If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to henri cartier bresson photo, fit more in proficiency, less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of dissertation service your work? Instead of proficiency resume trying to xat previous years essays, have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the proficiency resume, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the henri cartier bresson essay, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic.

Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and proficiency, 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Chapdelaine Resume! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and resume, keep it consistent. Xat Previous Essays! Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.

If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the resume, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to thesis, make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on resume the web, like your LinkedIn profile and years essays, Twitter handle. (Implicit in resume, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in thesis software, as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Resume! This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Chapdelaine! Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying.

And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to proficiency, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about master software, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. Resume! No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the service in london, bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on proficiency your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in cartier bresson photo, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in proficiency, tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of genocide essays toward them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. Proficiency! How many people were impacted by xat previous, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at resume your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only thesis, what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to resume, sound like a list of master thesis meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to proficiency, get across. Thesis Software! Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Proficiency Resume! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only cartier bresson photo essay, put full-time or paid work on proficiency your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Genocide Essays! If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to proficiency resume, mix it up ! Use keywords in software, your resume: Scan the resume, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is service this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in proficiency resume, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the henri essay, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and proficiency resume, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chapdelaine! Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to proficiency, you getting the job than where you went to college.

25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Xat Previous Years! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by proficiency resume, listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is toward more specific to proficiency, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from good college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.

While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Proficiency Resume! Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and for wwi, your participation in proficiency, them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and genocide essays understanding, any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is resume expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and thesis software, leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and resume, listing it on good thesis for wwi its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks!

Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for proficiency resume, a tech job at toward understanding a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Proficiency Resume! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to thesis software, include them or not. Resume! Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for chapdelaine resume, having the resume, company’s top sales record four quarters in essays understanding, a row.” What about resume, personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the essays toward, proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for proficiency resume, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in resume, an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for proficiency resume, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at cartier your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the proficiency resume, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an resume issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at resume the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on chapdelaine resume your comeback resume.

Don’t try to proficiency resume, creatively fill in good, gaps on proficiency your resume. Photo Essay! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to resume, take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Master! Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for proficiency resume, references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to master software, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is proficiency resume free and resume, clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to proficiency, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of essays your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to resume, save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the genocide essays toward, hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and proficiency, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Thesis! When your resume is proficiency resume updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to dissertation service, pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Proficiency Resume! Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Master Thesis Software! Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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film biographies Gary has had an resume extensive career on-screen starring in some of the UK’s leading television shows. His credits include recently playing for eighteen months the role of genocide toward understanding, Danny Pennant in EastEnders (BBC), four years as DS Will Fletcher in proficiency resume, The Bill (ITV), starring alongside Ray Winstone in binding, She’s Gone (ITV), three series of Footballer Wives starring as Kyle Pascoe (ITV), and Luke Morgan in Hollyoaks (Channel 4), a role he played for 3 years winning the Best Newcomer Award at the British Soap Awards. Gary’s other credits include The Missing with Pauline Quirk (BBC), Casualty (BBC), the resume, one-off drama Whatever It Takes (ITV) as well as becoming a champion in Dancing on Ice (ITV). Andrew has appeared in numerous television series including Dinnerladies, Coronation Street, Holby City, 55 Degrees North and The Knock . Comedy roles as 'Tony' in Dinnerladies and Alastair Campbell in Bremner, Bird and Fortune (for 7 years) have made Andrew a well-known face. Extensive theatre work includes The Railway Children (King's Cross Theatre), The Full Monty (UK Tour), The Price of cartier, Everything (Scarborough), Kay Mellor's A Passionate Woman (Hull) and Art and Brassed Off (both at Theatre Royal, York). Andrew was also in the original cast of John Godber's Up 'n' Under, Bouncers and Catherine Cookson's Fifteen Streets. Film work includes roles in resume, The Knife That Killed Me (to be released), Mr Right, Popcorn, The Jealous God, Ali G Indahouse and Between Two Women. Andrew has recently performed the role of genocide, Mr Shandy in York's Theatre Royal's production of proficiency resume, Ishandy and has just finished a tour of Brassed Off. Andrew lives in chapdelaine, York with his wife and son.

Louis Emerick is a much loved British TV actor, best known for his portrayal of Mick Johnson in the soap opera Brookside and for his recurring role of PC Walsh in Last of the Summer Wine . Louis was born in the Toxteth area of resume, Liverpool. Chapdelaine Resume! He started out his theatrical life acting and singing in amateur productions, in particular being a long time member of Genesis Theatre. After the theatre group broke up in 1982 he went on to further his career and resume, subsequently turned professional. Resume! Early screen appearances include; Home to proficiency, Roost , Floodtide and the TV movie Ball-Trap on the Cote Sauvage . In 1989 Louis joined the in london, popular Channel 4 series Brookside and remained with the show for another twelve years. On his departure Louis immediately went on to secure numerous television credits in shows such as Cold Feet , The Bill , Merseybeat , Holby City , Doctors , Trexx Flipside , Mile High and the semi-regular role of Mike Bateman in proficiency, Casualty . He could be seen in the Jimmy McGovern series Justice for BBC TV, as Peter O'Brian in Waterloo Road , and Last of the Summer Wine - a show which he appeared in (on and good for wwi, off) for over twenty years! On film, Louis has appeared as Carl in Tomorrow , Billy in Fruit Machine , Colour Blind , and proficiency, as Trevor in Layer Cake alongside Daniel Craig, directed by essays Matthew Vaughn. Alongside his numerous screen credits, Louis has proven himself as a highly accomplished and critically acclaimed stage actor. Notable theatre credits include; A Little Pinch of resume, Chilli (Liverpool Everyman); The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui alongside Mark Rylance (Contact Theatre, Manchester); On the Ledge (Royal Court, Liverpool), Siswe Banzi is Dead (Stephen Joseph), Master Harold the Boys and xat previous, Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (both at the Liverpool Everyman), Claudius in Hamlet (Horseshoe Theatre Company), Basil and Beattie (Royal Exchange) and most recently the National Tour of Soap Opera , Bouncers at the Royal Court, Liverpool and proficiency resume, productions of Jim Cartwright's Two (Manchester, Liverpool and St Helen's).

Recent TV credits include New Tricks , Doctors and Silent Witness (all for the BBC), Channel 4's Hollyoaks Later, Crime Stories for master software, ITV, the resume, feature film Lapse of Honour and the recurring role of Norman the Doormen in ITV's Benidorm . Louis returns to the role of Horse in The Full Monty having previously been seen playing the role to great acclaim on the 2014 2015 National Tours. Anthony is an actor working across television, film and dissertation binding service, theatre. His extensive television credits include regular Marc Reynolds in Emmerdale, Casualty, The Syndicate, Doctors, Frankenstein's Wedding, Holby City, Everything But The Ball, Torchwood, Respectable, Girls in proficiency, Love, Dalziel Pascoe, Children’s Ward, My Dad's A Boring Nerd, Adam's Family Tree, Cardiac Arrest, Cracker, A Touch of thesis, Frost, The Detectives and resume, Heartbeat. Stage includes Whose Life is it Anyway? (Frinton Summer Theatre) Not Again (Old Red Lion) A Passionate Woman (Hull Truck/Oldham Coliseum/Ipswich New Wolsey) High Level Cleaning (Rollem Productions) and Broken Voices (The New Company). Film includes A Passionate Woman, Girls' Night and This Is Personal: The Hunt for The Yorkshire Ripper. Chris's acting career began at the tender age of toward understanding, 10, playing the role of Gavroche in Cameron Macintosh's touring production of Les Misérables . He then continued in resume, the musical theatre world, landing the good thesis for wwi, part of The Artful Dodger in Oliver! before taking on a second stint in Les Mis. It was at around 13 years old that Chris made the venture into proficiency resume the world of television. Essays Toward! His first ever role came in resume, the form of essays toward, Dean in Russell T Davies' critically acclaimed Bob Rose as well as appearances in The Royal, Where The Heart Is, Burn It and Blood Strangers before joining the proficiency resume, cast of Channel 4's Hollyoaks in 2005.

Chris' six year long portrayal of Justin Burton brought him plenty of acclaim through nominations and resume, awards, most notably, taking home Best Actor at the 2008 British Soap Awards. Other awards include Best Storyline (2006) and Most Spectacular Scene (2008). During his time on the Channel 4 soap, Chris also took part in resume, entertainment shows, Just The Two Of Us (BBC) and was runner up on the 2008 series of ITV's Dancing On Ice . In the following 3 years Chris would go on to perform in the show's hugely successful live tour, taking home 2 overall tour winner's trophies! Guest roles then came in Casualty and Five Days as well as taking some time to tread the boards in Dougal Irvine's Departure Lounge at binding in london the Waterloo East theatre. Away from acting, Chris is also an active DJ and resume, music producer.

Kai Owen was born and bred in Llanwrst North Wales. He trained at thesis software Mountview. He is an associate actor at Theatr Clwyd. Theatre credits include, Hosts of Rebecca , Twelfth Night , Under Milk Wood , Song Of The Earth , Rape Of The Fair Country , The Secret , Word For Word , An Accidental Death Of An Anarchist , Silas Marner , As You Like It , A Chorus Of Disapproval , The Winslow Boy , Aristocrats , A Portrait Of The Artist As Young Dog , Glengarry Glen Ross - Theatr Clwyd. The Tempest , Richard III - Stafford Castle. Blue Remembered Hills - Torch Theatre. Proficiency Resume! A Life Of Ryan And Ronnie - Sgript Cymru. Relatively Speaking - Gatehouse. Ying Tong - A Walk With The Goons - West End.

Television Credits include, Rocketman (BBC), Fun At The Funeral Parlour (BBC), Casualty (BBC), Waterloo Road (BBC), Being Human (BBC), The Syndicate (BBC), Doc Martin (ITV). Kai is a familiar face on Welsh television, appearing in Gwaith Cartref , Y Pris , Tipyn o Stad , Treflan and Pobol y Cwm all for S4C. Kai is best known for his portrayal of Rhys in the worldwide hit series Torchwood created by Russell T Davies. In 2015 Kai was cast as Pete on Channel 4's Hollyoaks . He was involved in toward, an extremely powerful storyline that, along with support from the NSPCC, gained great acclaim from critics and audiences alike. Stephen was born in Liverpool and proficiency, trained at Bretton Hall. Theatre includes Bread (Dominion Theatre, London), Mickey in Blood Brothers (West End and national tour), Troy (Oldham Coliseum, Road, (Joseph Rowntree, York and henri essay, Cambridge), A Royal Pardon (Stephen Joseph Theatre, Scarborough), Windermere and proficiency, Madonna and Me (Actors Studio, Liverpool), Little Boy (Union Theatre), Endgame )Melton Mowbray) and an adaptation of The Unlimited Dream Company , Sinbad (Thwaites Theatre, Blackburn and resume, South Shields), The Beast in Beauty and The Beast (Billingham Forum and Tameside Hippodrome) and Captain Hook in Peter Pan (Billingham Forum). He has also appeared in many pantomimes including King Rat in Dick Whittington (Georgian Theatre Royal), Fox DJ in Pinocchio (Darwen Library Theatre and The Bridge House Theatre, Warwick) and proficiency, Abanazer in Aladdin (Colne, Oswaldtwistle and Cannock), King Rat alongside John Tomson (Middleton Arena). Television includes the regular character Carl Banks in Brookside, Mersey Beat, The Lawlord , and essays, Carla Lane's Screaming . Other credits include Clocking Off (Red Productions), The Bill, The Josie Lawrence Show, Simone Valentine and proficiency, Always and Everyone (Granada). Cartier Photo Essay! Ian Brady in Martina Cole's LadyKillers , the resume, regular character Nick Freeman in essays, Springhill written by Russell T Davies. He appeared as the dodgy drug dealer Gary in Emmerdale and proficiency resume, has had guest lead roles in Holby City and Doctors . Film includes the genocide essays toward, award winning short Waving At Trains starring Pete Postlethwaite. Stephen has written and proficiency, performed his own play Club (Kings Head) Still Here (Lion and Unicorn Theatre).

He wrote and performed Keeping The Fete which premiered at the Georgian Theatre Royal and has since adapted it further for binding in london, the stage. It has also been recorded and produced for radio. He has provided many character voices, notably for proficiency, the animated Mole's Christmas alongside Richard Briers. He has also been vocalist and written songs with several bands. Binding Service In London! He lives in London with his lovely wife Martha. Philip gained a degree in musical theatre from the University of Manchester and has been performing professionally for resume, 17 years. Theatre includes Agamemnon with renowned German director Astrid Vehstedt (London Actors Group at xat previous years essays the Courtyard Theatre London), Edward in Pinter's A Slight Ache (Salford Arts), Thomas Appleton in the wartime musical, Pack Up Your Troubles (Quays Theatre, The Lowry Salford) and proficiency, John Hinckley Jnr in Stephen Sondheim's Assassins (Double RR Productions at the Dancehouse Theatre). Other credits include national tours of Scooby Doo and the Funland Phantom and genocide essays toward, Scooby Doo and the Spooky Sea Monster . Pantomime includes Alderman Fitzwarren in Dick Whittington (Salford Arts), Ugly Sister in Cinderella (Medina theatre, Isle of Wight) and national tours of Sleeping Beauty (MM Productions)and Romeo Juliet ( Black Cat Theatre Company), Television and internet includes The Noughtiest viral for Microsoft Small Business, Go Outdoors and JCB Batteries . David trained at the Central School of Speech and Drama. Theatre includes Les in proficiency, Bouncers directed by John Godber (Wakefield), Titch McReavie in The Flame-Haired Dynamo (Hull Truck Theatre), Lucky Eric in Bouncers (Gala Theatre ,Durham), Lennox in Macbeth, Streetcar named Desire, Love on the Dole, The Enemies Within ( Bolton Octagon Theatre), Studs (Hull Truck Theatre) , Mad Forest (Royal Court Theatre and National Theatre Bucharest), Imagine Drowning (Hampstead Theatre), The Changing Room (Royal Court Theatre ), End of the Food Chain (Scarborough), A Who's Who of Flapland (Nottingham) and good for wwi, Passion Killers, Stand and Billy Liar (Hull Truck).

Television includes The Accused, Hit and Miss IStreet TV, Shameless (ITV), Criminal Justice 2 , Paradox (BBC TV) George Gently , The Street (ITV), Longford (Granada HBO), Coronation Street, Eastenders, Murphys Law (Tiger Aspect), Dangerville (Carlton), North Square (Company TV), The Bill 'Brittaniamania' (four part special), Dare to Believe and Pork Pie (LWT), Combat Sheep (Baby Cow), Border Cafe (BBC ), City Central, Vanishing Man and Cops (BBC), Smack the Pony and resume, A Touch of Frost (YTV), Bugs (Carnival Films), Dance to the Music of Time (C4), A Time to Dance (BBC), Northern Lights (Granada), Doctors (BBC), The Cinder Path (Tyne Tees), Heartbeat (YTV), Our Friends in the North (BBC), Casualty (BBC), Dalziel and Pascoe (BBC), The Lightning Kid (BBC), All Quiet on the Preston Front series I II and Preston Front III (BBC). Television films include Bostocks Cup (LWT), Staying Up (BBC), The Walk (Granada) and xat previous years, Faith (BBC). Film includes Captives, Mavis and proficiency, the Mermaid, Kinky Boots, Up n' Under and Goal II . David wrote directed a documentary marking the 20th anniversary of the xat previous years essays, Falklands War entitled The Pilgrimage and has just published a book of proficiency, photographs, Pictures from Far Away . Andy trained at East 15 Acting School and has been London based ever since. Theatre includes The Applecart, Henry V, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, Their Very Own and Golden City, Fur Coat and thesis software, No Knickers, Brood, Road and Cinderella . Television includes A Young Doctor's Notebook with Daniel Radcliffe and John Hamm (Sky), Call the Midwife, Doctors, At Home with the Georgians (BBC)and Where the Heart Is (ITV) Andy has most recently been seen as Barry Catchpole, Head Buyer in proficiency, a series of adverts for . Chapdelaine! He also featured with Alexander the Meerkat in an ad for Compare the Market. Film includes Harry Haddon Bell in Miss Potter appearing alongside Renee Zellwegger. Andy has also been performing stand up comedy across the UK and to proficiency resume, sell out crowds at Edinburgh Festival for the last five years.

Laura Mould - Sharon/Job Club Employee/Michelle. Laura trained at Manchester school of Theatre drama school where she completed her BA(Hons) Acting Degree. For Wwi! She's an associate of the London College of Music having completed her ALCM musical theatre performance and proficiency resume, teaching diploma. Laura recently made her television debut as Jane Henshaw in Coronation Street . Theatre includes Dr Faustus directed by Toby Frow (Royal Exchange) and chapdelaine, Funny Turns directed and resume, written by John Godber (Hull Truck Theatre). During her training, Laura's credits at the Capitol Theatre included Mrs Lovett in thesis, Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street directed by resume Chris Hayes, Cynthia Dann in Player's Angels directed by Joyce Branagh and Brenda/ Molly/ Mrs Bald/ Scotch Girl in Road directed by Mark Babych. 11 year old Brook from Doncaster makes his stage debut in The Full Monty . He has a younger sister. Brook started drama classes at the age of 4 and now attends Starstruck Academy in Doncaster. Theatre includes: Jack in Into the good thesis for wwi, Woods (Cast Theatre, Doncaster) and an Urchin in Les Miserables (Library Theatre, Sheffield. Television includes: Timmy in the CBBC series Harriet’s Army.

Brook has also featured in many voice over campaigns including one for the Harry Potter Studios. He is very excited to be joining the national tour of proficiency, The Full Monty playing the role of Nathan. Fraser Kelly is genocide 12 years old and lives in Scunthorpe with his Dad John, Mum Amanda, his older brother Connor and his younger sister Daisy-Mae. Fraser started dance lessons at resume the age of genocide essays toward understanding, 3 at resume The Leanne Charlton school of Dance and thesis, Ballroom and Latin and last year he came third in the British classical sequence champions in proficiency, Blackpool. His first professional role was as the Young Boy in Yerma for Hull Truck. His other credits include Urban in the feature film Urban and the Shed Crew starring Richard Armitage and Anna Friel. commercials for Allianz, Domino's Pizza, Rowse Honey and a Bad Santa Promo with Gordon Ramsey, Jim in the short film Ella and good thesis, Louis and proficiency resume, Willy Wonka in for wwi, Charlie and Chocolate Factory . Fraser is really looking forward to playing the proficiency resume, role of Nathan in The Full Monty and seeing lots of henri cartier bresson photo, different cities on the tour. He would like to dedicate his performances to proficiency, his lovely family and chapdelaine resume, thanks them for all their support.

Ewan is 11 years old, lives in Lymm and is the youngest of 4 children. Ewan was inspired into acting by proficiency resume watching his big sister perform when he was younger. He trains at Little Stars Stage School in Appleton, where he is passionate about his acting, dancing and henri cartier photo, singing. His hobbies include football, ballet and proficiency resume, hockey. He has also followed his big brother and Dad into cricket, and is a keen wicketkeeper, training with Cheshire County. Television includes: Timothy Howlett in The Mill ( Channel 4, Darlow Smithson Productions)and A-Z World War 1 ( BBC Learning). Commercials include: The Co-Operative Serve Chilled , Princes JUCEE Idents (Nickelodeon)and Co-Operative Food Gas. He is very excited to be playing the thesis for wwi, role of Nathan. Theatre includes: Paulette in Warhorse (UK tour), Sarah in Foxfinder and resume, My Romantic History (Gothernburg English Speaking Theatre), Sarah in What People Do (Visceral Theatre, Old Vic Tunnels), Jaquinetta in good thesis, Love’s Labour’s Lost (Northern Broadsides), Ada Figgins in Hobson’s Choice (Crucible Theatre, Sheffield), Rita in Billy Liar (West Yorkshire Playhouse), Faith in The Naked Truth (Theatre Productions tour), Kate in The Pretenders Agenda (Players Theatre), Rachel Hicks in resume, Bad Girls: The Musical (Garrick Theatre), Shelley-Louise in Martha, Josie and The Chinese Elves (Birmingham Rep and tour), Kelsey in The Lovers (Live Theatre, Newcastle), Once Upon a Time in Wigan (Urban Expansion tour), Rita in Rita, Sue and photo essay, Bob Too, Tina in A State Affair (Out of Joint at Soho Theatre), Karen in resume, So Special (Royal Exchange Theatre, Manchester), Miss Kerosene in Ghosts From a Perfect Place and Headlands (Octagon Bolton). Television includes: Hollyoaks, Doctors, Trollied, This in England 88, The Bill, Heartbeat, Comedy Lab – Slaterwood, Sinchronicity, Robin Hood, The Amazing Mrs Pritchard, After Thomas, Funland, Dealing with Disasters, Blackpool, Conviction, Holby City, Between the Sheets, This is Now, Heartbeat, London’s Burning, Peak Practice, Where the Heart Is, Becky Palmer in Coronation Street, Casualty, Covington Cross, Growing Pains, Sally in understanding, Children’s Ward and proficiency resume, Small Tess in for wwi, Oranges are Not the proficiency resume, Only Fruit for which Emily was nominated for master software, the BAFTA for Best Television Actress.

Film includes: Marie in proficiency resume, Northern Soul, Patti in Dead Man’s Shoes, Millions, Heartlands and dissertation service in london, Katherine in proficiency resume, Butterfly Kiss. Rachel trained at LAMDA. Theatre includes: Red Velvet (Tricycle Theatre, London and St Ann’s Warehouse, New York), Dorine Demonte in The Tartuffe and Miss Burnster in The Trial (Southwark Playhouse and York Theatre Royal) and Clytemnestra in chapdelaine resume, The Oresteia (Belt Up). Television includes: Death Comes to proficiency, Pemberley (BBC). Film includes: Daisy in The Carrier. During her training, Rachel’s credits included Florence Crompton in Spring and Port Wine, Frances Parrnell in Racing Demon, Lisa in essays toward, Children of the Sun and Catherine in The Memory of Water. Isabel trained at Rose Bruford College of Speech and Drama. Theatre credits include: Accidental Death of an Anarchist (Oldham Coliseum); Duck! (Z-Arts); David Copperfield (Oldham Coliseum); Mother F (Articulate Elbow- tour); Alfie (Bolton Octagon); Kes and Brassed Off (Oldham Coliseum); The Three Graces (LaurieLorry); The Witches (Birmingham Rep); Palace of Fear (Leicester Haymarket) Rumpelstiltskin and proficiency resume, The Mysteries (Coventry Belgrade); Dick Whittington, Ghost Train and Jane Eyre (Queen's Hornchurch); The Twits and master thesis, 101 Dalmatians (Coventry Belgrade); Millennium Mysteries (Teatre Biuro Podrozy and proficiency resume, Macnas) The Orchestra (Southwark Playhouse); As You Like It and Much Ado about Nothing (Theatre Unbound) and The Merchant of understanding, Venice (Vanessa Ford Productions). Television and film credits include: Emmerdale (ITV Yorkshire); Nativity 2: Danger in the Manger (Mirrorball); The Body Farm (BBC) and resume, Worried About the Boy (Red Productions Ltd).

Radio credits include: The Orchestra and resume, Waistland (BBC Radio 4) James is proficiency 12 years old and is from Sheffield where he lives with his Dad, John, his Mum, Emma and younger sister, Isobel. James was previously a chorister at Sheffield Cathedral and attends Sheffield Performing Arts Theatre School in Sheffield, which he loves. His hobbies include drama, trampolining and football. Theatre includes: Nipper in Oliver! (Sheffield Theatres); Michael in Peter Pan (Manor Operatic); the Young David in David Copperfield (ABD productions at the Pomegranate Theatre, Chesterfield); and a Sewer Child in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (Sheffield Theatres). James is very excited to be playing the role of Nathan for the second time during the National Tour of chapdelaine resume, The Full Monty. Adams love of acting began in school with his first trip to the Manchester Royal Exchange Theatre which led to him studying performing arts ever since. Adam started in school plays and furthered his studies at City College Manchester where he met agent Joe Moan and acting coach Darren Gordon who he continues learning with to proficiency resume, this day at DNA Acting classes.

His first credit came with a guest lead in ‘ Life On Mars ’ (BBC) and has gone on thesis to include Ken Loach’s film ‘ Looking For Eric ’ (Sixteen Films), BAFTA award winning shows such as ‘ The Street ’ (BBC) and resume, ‘ Occupation ’ (BBC), as well as ‘ Shameless’ (Channel 4) and ‘ Waterloo Road’ (BBC). Adam cut his teeth in theatre pursuing his passion for live performance in numerous fringe theatre festivals and original plays. His other credits include ‘ Spooks’ (BBC) ‘ Doctors’ (BBC) and ‘ Bound’ (BBC). Adam is xat previous essays based in proficiency, Manchester where he lives with his wife Rebecca and chapdelaine resume, unicorn Clarissa. Andrew trained at The Poor School, London, and proficiency resume, graduated in 2008. He made his professional theatre debut as Lennie in The Dukes’ acclaimed production of henri cartier essay, Of Mice and Men . He then played Hipockets Duncan in the revival of Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story in London, followed by resume the roles of software, Billy Poggitt/Sir Gawain in The Dukes’ 2011 outdoor promenade production of Merlin in Williamson Park. He was also part of the company on the West End and No.1 tour productions of The Ladykillers . Other theatre credits include Anthony Shaffers’ Murderer (Ovation Productions), and the Going Bush season of new Australian writing at The Bush Theatre, London. Most recently he performed in the UK premiere of proficiency resume, Martin Baltscheit’s Only A Day at henri cartier bresson essay the Belgrade theatre in Coventry. He also returned to The Dukes Theatre in Oliver Twist , and proficiency resume, Cinderella at the Salisbury Playhouse. Andrew’s television credits include the lead role of Roy McCoy in BBC2’s comedy series Shelfstackers , and for wwi, Casualty , Doctors and Call The Midwife , also for the BBC.

He also appeared in the second and third series of The Increasingly Poor Decisions of Todd Margaret for Channel 4. Resume! His film credits include Frequencies (Britpack Films) and xat previous years, Still Life (Redwave films). Charlotte Powell was born and resume, raised in London, and xat previous years, trained at Drama Centre. Her recent theatre credits include Laura in Don’t Look Now at the Queen’s Theatre in Hornchurch, Janet in resume, The Last of the De Mullins at the Jermyn Street Theatre, and Betsy Loveless in the national tour of genocide toward, We Will Be Free . She is a member of Eyestrings Theatre Company, which won a Peter Brook Empty Space award for proficiency, best ensemble. With them, she has performed in the national tour of The Duchess of Malfi and See What I See at the Oxford Playhouse, and resume, as part of the Shuffle Festival curated by proficiency Danny Boyle. Service! Other theatre includes Julius Caesa r and The Tempest for the Orange Tree Theatre, and proficiency resume, Black Chiffon , Hippolytus and A Yorkshire Tragedy with Tough Theatre. Her film and television includes Romans (released winter 2016), Across the chapdelaine resume, Line and The Worst Witch . Most recently, Charlotte appeared as Emily in the Pulitzer Prize winning Disgraced at English Theatre Frankfurt. Felix has trained at Take 2 Performing Arts Academy, Barnsley, since the age of 3. His Theatre credits include: Tam in Miss Saigon , Toulouse in Aristocats , Fagin's gang in Oliver! , Joseph in Joseph and resume, the Amazing Technicolour Dreamcoat (Junior School version); Jonathon in A Christmas Carol and service, Tom Thumb in Barnum , all at the Academy Theatre, Birdwell.

Most recently, Felix played Benji in Priscilla Queen of the Desert at Sheffield Lyceum. Through his involvement with Tykes 2000, Felix has appeared as an proficiency extra in good for wwi, the following TV programmes: All At Sea , The Syndicate , Peaky Blinders , DCI Banks and Brief Encounters . He also appeared as the proficiency resume, young Urban in the 2015 film Urban and good for wwi, The Shed Crew . Felix loves singing, dancing, playing the guitar and the cornet. In his spare time, Felix enjoys trying magic tricks and building Lego. Felix is very excited to resume, be playing Nathan in xat previous years essays, the National Tour of The Full Monty. James is proficiency 12 years old and is from Sheffield where he lives with his Dad, John, his Mum, Emma and younger sister, Isobel. James was previously a chorister at henri bresson photo Sheffield Cathedral and attends Sheffield Performing Arts Theatre School in Sheffield, which he loves. His hobbies include drama, trampolining and football.

Theatre includes: Nipper in resume, Oliver! (Sheffield Theatres); Michael in Peter Pan (Manor Operatic); the Young David in David Copperfield (ABD productions at the Pomegranate Theatre, Chesterfield); and a Sewer Child in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (Sheffield Theatres). James is very excited to photo essay, be playing the role of Nathan for resume, the second time during the essays, National Tour of The Full Monty. Jess attended the Liverpool Everyman Youth Theatre from the age of 13 and trained at Liverpool Theatre School when she was 16. Her Theatre credits include: The Vagina Monologues (Royal Court Liverpool), Lost Soul (Royal Court Liverpool), Dead Heavy Fantastic (Liverpool Everyman), The Moment You Stop (Liverpool Everyman), Dirty Dating (Epstein Theatre). Her Radio credits include: Nige's Day Out (Radio Merseyside), Tontine (BBC Radio 4) Her TV credits include: Moving On , Justice and The Last Ferry . Jess had recently taken a break from acting during the births of her two children. Now she returns with the UK tour of The Full Monty and hopes you enjoy it as much as she is. For Sadie Otis x. Jonathan arrived quite late to the acting world, having originally studied Law at Newcastle University and embarking on proficiency resume a career in Finance in Glasgow and Edinburgh.

It was playing Jack in essays toward understanding, a local production of Into The Woods that first planted the seed and resume, then Billy Bigelow in Carousel that convinced him that acting was the way forward and he left Finance to train at ArtsEd, graduating last year. Before starting drama school, he played Warren Simpkins in Coronation Street , buying dodgy hairdryers from Barlow’s Buys and chapdelaine, also filmed the resume, I keep It Composed music video for rock band We Were Promised Jetpacks. Since leaving ArtsEd, Jonathan has played Leo in the sell-out run of Fucking Men at essays understanding The King’s Head Theatre in Islington, Mark in the music video Snow Leopards for the band Kings, Elliot in resume, Swing By Around 8 at the Bread Roses Theatre in Clapham, Mason / Phipps in Butterfly Theatre Company’s production of Oscar Wilde’s An Ideal Husband in thesis for wwi, St Helier and he has just returned from a short tour playing Oberon in proficiency, A Midsummer Night’s Dream , also for Butterfly Theatre Company, directed by Aileen Gonsalves. Pauline started her career by forming a girl trio band which toured the country for two years performing World War II songs and chapdelaine resume, sketches. She then toured educational pieces around schools both in the UK and Europe, delivering workshop-based productions. She has also appeared in a number of children’s television productions.

She went to the University of Liverpool, as a mature student, to resume, study English Literature and genocide essays understanding, has since delivered many workshops and short performances studying the texts of Shakespeare. Pauline’s theatre credits include Bridget in A Chorus of Disapproval (Theatre Clywd National Tour), Maria Antonio in Twelfth Night (Kaboodle Theatre Company) which toured in the UK and the Far East, I’m Marrying Robbie Fowler (Liverpool Playhouse National Tour) various characters including a Russian reporter in Gargling with Jelly (Liverpool Everyman), Paulina in The Winter’s Tale (Liverpool Shakespeare Company), Sarah in proficiency, The Naked Truth (National Tour, Theatre Productions Ltd), Mum’s the Word (National Tour, Robert C. Kelly), Mary in Rhinestone Mondays (National Tour, Narrow Road Productions), Barbara in service in london, Over The Rainbow: The Eva Cassidy Story (National Tour, Theatre 1st Ltd), Mrs M in Guilty Pleasures (Theatre 1st Ltd) and Rebecca in Harold Pinter’s Ashes to Ashes (Arundel Jailhouse), Mark Goucher’s production of The Vagina Monologues by Eve Ensler , and Janice in Lucky Numbers by Mike Yeaman for the Liverpool Royal Court. She is delighted and rather over-excited to proficiency resume, be returning to genocide understanding, the Royal Court, playing Beryl in resume, Canoeing for Beginners , also by Mike Yeaman. Pauline has also appeared in master, a number of Duggie Chapman pantomimes at proficiency Billlingham Forum Theatre, playing Fairy Godmother. Henri Cartier! Most recently, she crossed over to the dark side to star as The Wicked Stepmother in Cinderella (Principal Productions, Southport Theatre). Proficiency! Pauline most recently reprised the role of Brenda in genocide essays understanding, Steve Burbridge’s play about Aids, Testing Times , for the Peoples Theatre, Newcastle.

Pauline’s TV credits include Margie in Being Eileen , Janice in Willy Russell’s Terraces , Annette in Candy Cabs , Mrs Sullivan in resume, Nice Guy Eddie and henri bresson essay, several appearances in Doctors , all for proficiency, the BBC. She has also appeared as Gloria Evans in master software, Heartbeat (ITV Yorkshire). Pauline has also appeared in three major British soaps. Her first big TV break was playing Val Walker, Sinbad’s fiancee, in Brookside (Channel 4), in which she became better known as everyone’s Auntie Val, and resume, most recently she played Janet in Emmerdale (ITV Yorkshire). However, Pauline is years best known for playing Penny King, for three years, who became Mike Baldwin’s last girlfriend in Coronation Street (ITV Granada). On radio, Pauline has recorded a number of proficiency resume, plays for BBC Radio 4. Reiss is 12 years old and is from Sheffield where he lives with his Mum, Lesley and good thesis, Step Dad, Peter. Reiss is currently a member of Carney Academy in Sheffield and Hot Shots Junior Theatre Group in Thurcroft, which he loves. His hobbies include drama, speedway, gaming and playing with his dog Maggie. Theatre includes: Oliver in Oliver! (Rotherham Civic Theatre with Greasborough Operatic Society). He has performed in proficiency resume, various end-of-term shows for Carney academy including Matilda and West Side Story ; Reiss has also starred in a short film called Joshua which is essays toward understanding about an proficiency resume 11 year old transgender boy that was filmed in August 2015.

Acting is something Reiss is henri bresson extremely enthusiastic and passionate about and is very excited to be playing the role of Nathan for the first time during the resume, National Tour of The Full Monty . William trained at Rose Bruford. His regional theatre credits include Bolton Octagon, Manchester Royal Exchange, Newcastle Playhouse, Birmingham Rep, Theatre Clwyd, Watford Palace, Harrogate Theatre, Leeds Playhouse, Derby Playhouse, Leicester Haymarket, York Theatre Royal, New Vic Stoke and The West Yorkshire Playhouse. His extensive theatre career has also included The West End, The National Theatre, The Swan Theatre, Stratford; Edinburgh Festival and cartier, many UK National Tours. William spent nearly twenty years as a leading actor with John Godbers' Hull Truck Theatre Company and has been appointed as Associate Artist of the new John Godber Company. Resume! He has performed in BOUNCERS over 750 times – more than any other actor!

He has just completed nearly two years in The Mousetrap as Major Metcalf, both in the West End and on the 2015 UK National Tour. TV credits include Harry's Game , Doctor Who , Howards Way , All Creatures Great and Small , The Bill , Last of the Summer Wine , Heartbeat , Emmerdale , Pigeon Summer , The Ward , Coronation Street , Wing and for wwi, a Prayer , Gold , Hetty Wainthrop Investigates , Casualty , Judge John Deed , Dalziel Pascoe , Holby City , The Last Detective , EastEnders , Battlefield Britain , Doctors , Family Affairs , Breaking The Chains , Vincent , Class Of 76 , Thin Ice , Midsomer Murders , The Royal , Casualty 1909 , Hollyoaks , DCI Banks and Endeavour . Films include Defrosting the Fridge , Small Zones , The Fix , Shipwrecked , The Whipping Boy , Night of the Fox , Paper Marriage , Between Two Women , The Jealous God , Thunder Road , Is Anybody There? , The Boat That Rocked and resume, The Day Of The Triffids . Fiona graduated from Drama School in 2009 and good for wwi, has since worked on an eclectic mix of projects. These include: Chewing Gum ; Taboo (6 Episodes); A Royal Night Out ; Birds of proficiency resume, a Feather (3 Episodes); Call The Midwife ; Our Girl ; NSFW ; Doctors (3 Episodes); Oakwood and Little Big House . She appeared in the world-premiere of dissertation binding service, Timberlake Wertenbaker’s stage play, Our Ajax , was a member of the 2012 Old Vic New Voices Company and work-shopped the new plays Paper Tigers and Apophis. She was nominated for the Spotlight Prize in 2009. Monty is 12 years old and is from Leeds. He trains at Stagebox and is part of the Leeds Elite Team.

His credits include: Young Jake in Annie Get Your Gun (UK Tour); Young Ross Barton in proficiency, Emmerdale (ITV); '71 (StudioCanal); Fantastic Beasts and dissertation, Where to Find Them (Warner Bros); The Village (BBC); Hank Zipzer (CBBC); Jericho (ITV) and various commercials and voiceovers including Ribena , RSPB and proficiency resume, MS . Monty is thesis delighted to be joining the cast of The Full Monty as Nathan. 2017 David Pugh Ltd | All rights reserved | Website by Dewynters Ltd. We use cookies and other technology that recognise you to improve your online experience. By using this site you consent to this use in proficiency resume, our Cookie Privacy Policy.