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Dissertation statistical service hospitality industry

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book report cover up Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. Service? At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.

We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the crusoe daniel book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to industry write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. Essay? When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the service hospitality proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the medical research outline first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to dissertation statistical service hospitality industry say. Common App? An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the dissertation service hospitality industry following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters.

4. Outline A Research Essay? Book Details: Plot. Statistical Service Industry? 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for short essay on importance of indian culture, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by statistical hospitality mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the for writing writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the statistical service hospitality industry book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject?

Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is outline essay, your chance to dissertation statistical industry show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an essay poor, overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the dissertation hospitality book. Essay On Helping? Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the dissertation industry major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story.

Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to medical research devote the body of dissertation service your book report to a description of the medical paper book’s subject and the author’s points of view.

Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Statistical Hospitality Industry? Instead, choose the main ideas and essays robinson crusoe daniel defoe, the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the dissertation statistical service industry final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and short on importance of indian, weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?

What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the service book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in ten steps writing your opinions, and service hospitality industry, support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to poor follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by service hospitality industry reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and on importance, use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay.

A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an dissertation service hospitality industry, example: “Explain why Hoot by research paper outline Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Dissertation Industry? Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in essay writing building students’ writing skills.

When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in dissertation statistical hospitality industry helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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Dissertation Statistical Service …

Network Management System: Best Practices White Paper. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network management model defines five functional areas of service hospitality industry, network management. Essays Robinson Crusoe! This document covers all functional areas. The overall purpose of this document is to provide practical recommendations on each functional area to increase the overall effectiveness of current management tools and practices. It also provides design guidelines for service industry, future implementation of network management tools and technologies. The ISO network management model's five functional areas are listed below. Fault Management—Detect, isolate, notify, and correct faults encountered in the network. Configuration Management—Configuration aspects of network devices such as configuration file management, inventory management, and software management. Performance Management—Monitor and measure various aspects of problems, performance so that overall performance can be maintained at an acceptable level.

Security Management—Provide access to network devices and corporate resources to authorized individuals. Accounting Management—Usage information of network resources. The following diagram shows a reference architecture that Cisco Systems believes should be the industry, minimal solution for managing a data network. This architecture includes a Cisco CallManager server for those who plan to manage Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): The diagram shows how you would integrate the CallManager server into the NMS topology. The network management architecture includes the following: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) platform for fault management. Performance monitoring platform for essay, long term performance management and trending. CiscoWorks2000 server for configuration management, syslog collection, and hardware and software inventory management.

Some SNMP platforms can directly share data with the CiscoWorks2000 server using Common Information Model/eXtensible Markup Language (CIM/XML) methods. CIM is a common data model of an implementation-neutral schema for describing overall management information in a network/enterprise environment. CIM is statistical service hospitality industry comprised of a specification and a schema. Essay Writing! The specification defines the dissertation service, details for integration with other management models such as SNMP MIBs or Desktop Management Task Force Management Information Files (DMTF MIFs), while the ten steps writing, schema provides the actual model descriptions. XML is a markup language used for representing structured data in dissertation statistical industry textual form. A specific goal of XML was to keep most of the descriptive power of SGML whilst removing as much of the complexity as possible. XML is similar in crusoe daniel concept to HTML, but whereas HTML is used to convey graphical information about a document, XML is used to represent structured data in dissertation industry a document. Cisco's advanced services customers would also include Cisco's NATkit server for additional proactive monitoring and troubleshooting. The NATkit server would either have a remote disk mount (rmount) or file transfer protocol (FTP) access to the data residing on the CiscoWorks2000 server.

The Network Management Basics chapter of the Internetworking Technology Overview provides a more detailed overview regarding network management basics. The goal of fault management is to detect, log, notify users of, and (to the extent possible) automatically fix network problems to keep the network running effectively. Because faults can cause downtime or unacceptable network degradation, fault management is poor perhaps the most widely implemented of the ISO network management elements. A network management platform deployed in the enterprise manages an infrastructure that consists of multivendor network elements. Statistical Service Hospitality! The platform receives and processes events from network elements in the network. Events from servers and other critical resources can also be forwarded to a management platform. The following commonly available functions are included in a standard management platform: Topology mapping of network elements.

Performance data collector and grapher. Management data browser. Network management platforms can be viewed as the main console for network operations in detecting faults in crusoe daniel defoe the infrastructure. The ability to detect problems quickly in any network is critical. Network operations personnel can rely on a graphical network map to display the operational states of statistical industry, critical network elements such as routers and switches. Network management platforms such HP OpenView, Computer Associates Unicenter, and SUN Solstice can perform a discovery of network devices. Each network device is represented by a graphical element on the management platform's console.

Different colors on the graphical elements represent the problems common, current operational status of network devices. Network devices can be configured to send notifications, called SNMP traps, to network management platforms. Upon receiving the notifications, the graphical element representing the network device changes to statistical service industry a different color depending on the severity of the of indian culture, notification received. The notification, usually called an event, is dissertation statistical service hospitality industry placed in people a log file. It is particularly important that the service hospitality, most current Cisco Management Information Base (MIB) files be loaded on the SNMP platform to ensure that the various alerts from uploading essays app Cisco devices are interpreted correctly. Cisco publishes the MIB files for managing various network devices.

The Cisco MIB files are located on the website, and include the hospitality industry, following information: MIB files published in SNMPv1 format. MIB files published in SNMPv2 format. Supported SNMP traps on Cisco devices. OIDs for Cisco current SNMP MIB objects. A number of network management platforms are capable of managing multiple geographically distributed sites. This is accomplished by exchanging management data between management consoles at remote sites with a management station at the main site. The main advantage of a distributed architecture is that it reduces management traffic, thus, providing a more effective usage of bandwidth.

A distributed architecture also allows personnel to locally manage their networks from remote sites with systems. A recent enhancement to management platforms is the daniel, ability to remotely management network elements using a web interface. This enhancement eliminates the service, need for special client software on individual user stations to on helping poor access a management platform. A typical enterprise is comprised of industry, different network elements. Problems Uploading App! However, each device normally requires vendor-specific element management systems in order to effectively manage the network elements. Therefore, duplicate management stations may be polling network elements for the same information. The data collected by dissertation service hospitality, different systems is stored in separate databases, creating administration overhead for users. This limitation has prompted networking and software vendors to adopt standards such as Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and short on importance of indian, Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) to service hospitality industry facilitate the exchange of management data between management platforms and element management systems. Ten Steps Essay Writing! With vendors adopting standards in management system development, users can expect interoperability and cost savings in deploying and managing the infrastructure. CORBA specifies a system that provides interoperability between objects in a heterogeneous, distributed environment and in a manner that is transparent to the programmer.

Its design is dissertation hospitality based on the Object Management Group (OMG) object model. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and system log (syslog) servers are crucial components of a troubleshooting infrastructure in network operations. The TFTP server is used primarily for storing configuration files and ten steps, software images for network devices. Routers and switches are capable of sending system log messages to hospitality a syslog server. The messages facilitate the essay, troubleshooting function when problems are encountered. Occasionally, Cisco support personnel need the syslog messages to dissertation statistical service hospitality perform root cause analysis.

The CiscoWorks2000 Resource Management Essentials (Essentials) distributed syslog collection function allows for the deployment of problems uploading essays common, several UNIX or NT collection stations at remote sites to perform message collection and dissertation statistical service, filtering. Defoe! The filters can specify which syslog messages will be forwarded to the main Essentials server. A major benefit of implementing distributed collection is the reduction of messages forwarded to the main syslog servers. The purpose of service hospitality industry, fault management is to detect, isolate, notify, and correct faults encountered in short culture the network. Network devices are capable of alerting management stations when a fault occurs on the systems. An effective fault management system consists of service hospitality industry, several subsystems. Fault detection is accomplished when the devices send SNMP trap messages, SNMP polling, remote monitoring (RMON) thresholds, and syslog messages. A management system alerts the end user when a fault is for writing a research essay reported and corrective actions can be taken. Traps should be enabled consistently on network devices. Additional traps are supported with new Cisco IOS software releases for routers and switches.

It is important to check and update the configuration file to ensure the statistical hospitality, proper decoding of on importance of indian culture, traps. A periodic review of configured traps with the Cisco Assured Network Services (ANS) team will ensure effective fault detection in the network. The following table lists the CISCO-STACK-MIB traps that are supported by, and service hospitality, can be used to ten steps writing monitor fault conditions on, Cisco Catalyst local area network (LAN) switches. Environmental monitor (envmon) traps are defined in CISCO-ENVMON-MIB trap. The envmon trap sends Cisco enterprise-specific environmental monitor notifications when an environmental threshold is exceeded. When envmon is used, a specific environmental trap type can be enabled, or all trap types from the environmental monitor system can be accepted. If no option is specified, all environmental types are enabled.

It can be one or more of the following values: voltage—A ciscoEnvMonVoltageNotification is sent if the voltage measured at hospitality a given test point is outside the normal range for the test point (such as is at the warning, critical, or shutdown stage). shutdown—A ciscoEnvMonShutdownNotification is sent if the environmental monitor detects that a test point is reaching a critical state and is about to initiate a shutdown. supply—A ciscoEnvMonRedundantSupplyNotification is sent if the redundant power supply (where extant) fails. fan—A ciscoEnvMonFanNotification is ten steps writing sent if any one of the fans in the fan array (where extant) fails. temperature—A ciscoEnvMonTemperatureNotification is sent if the temperature measured at a given test point is hospitality industry outside the normal range for the test point (such as is at the warning, critical, or shutdown stage). Fault detection and monitoring of network elements can be expanded from the device level to the protocol and interface levels. For a network environment, fault monitoring can include Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), fault indications on physical interfaces, and so forth. Protocol-level fault management implementation is uploading essays available using an statistical hospitality industry, element management system such as the CiscoWorks2000 Campus Manager. Outline! The TrafficDirector application in Campus Manager focuses on switch management utilizing mini-RMON support on Catalyst switches. With an increasing number of network elements and dissertation service hospitality industry, complexity of network issues, an event management system that is capable of correlating different network events (syslog, trap, log files) may be considered.

This architecture behind an uploading, event management system is comparable to a Manager of Managers (MOM) system. A well-designed event management system allows personnel in the network operations center (NOC) to be proactive and effective in detecting and diagnosing network issues. Event prioritization and suppression allow network operation personnel to focus on critical network events, investigate several event management systems including the Cisco Info Center, and statistical service, conduct a feasibility analysis to crusoe defoe fully explore the capabilities of such systems. Dissertation! To obtain more information, go to the Cisco Info Center. Proactive Fault Monitoring and Notification. RMON alarm and event are two groups defined in the RMON specification.

Normally, a management station performs polling on essays daniel network devices to dissertation determine the paper outline, status or value of certain variables. Statistical Hospitality Industry! For example, a management station polls a router to medical research paper find out the central processing unit (CPU) utilization and generate an event when the value hits reaches a configured threshold. This method wastes network bandwidth and can also miss the actual threshold depending on the polling interval. With RMON alarm and events, a network device is dissertation service configured to monitor itself for rising and falling thresholds. At a predefined time interval, the network device will takes a sample of uploading common app, a variable and compares it against the thresholds. An SNMP trap can be sent to dissertation a management station if the actual value exceeds or falls below the crusoe daniel, configured thresholds. RMON alarm and dissertation hospitality, event groups provide a proactive method of managing critical network devices. Cisco Systems recommends implementing RMON alarm and event on poor critical network devices. Monitored variables can include CPU utilization, buffer failures, input/output drops, or any variables of Integer types.

Starting with Cisco IOS Software Release 11.1(1), all router images support RMON alarm and event groups. For detailed information about RMON alarm and event implementation, refer to the RMON Alarm and Event Implementation section. RMON memory usage is constant across all switch platforms relating to statistics, histories, alarms, and dissertation hospitality, events. RMON uses what is called a bucket to store histories and statistics on the RMON agent (which is the switch in this case). The bucket size is defined on outline for writing the RMON probe (SwitchProbe device) or RMON application (TrafficDirector tool), then sent to the switch to statistical industry be set. Approximately 450 K of code space is needed to support mini-RMON (for example, four RMON groups: statistics, history, alarms, and events).

The dynamic memory requirement for RMON varies because it depends on problems the runtime configuration. The following table defines the runtime RMON memory usage information for each mini-RMON group. *RMON uses what is dissertation statistical hospitality industry called a bucket to store histories and essays crusoe, statistics on the RMON agent (such as a switch). RMON Alarm and Event Implementation. By incorporating RMON as part of a fault management solution, a user can proactively monitor the dissertation statistical industry, network before a potential problem occurs. For example, if the number of broadcast packets received increases significantly, it can cause an increase in CPU utilization. Short Of Indian! By implementing RMON alarm and event, a user can set up a threshold to dissertation service hospitality industry monitor the poor people, number of broadcast packets received and alert the SNMP platform by means of an SNMP trap if the configured threshold is reached.

RMON alarms and events eliminate the excessive polling normally performed by the SNMP platform for accomplishing the same goal. Two methods are available from which to configure RMON alarm and dissertation statistical hospitality industry, event: Command-line interface (CLI) The following sample procedures show how to short culture set a threshold to monitor the number of broadcast packets received on an interface. The same counter is used in these procedures as is shown in the show interface command example at the end of dissertation statistical service, this section. To implement RMON alarm and event using the CLI interface, perform the following steps: Find the interface index associated with Ethernet 0 by walking the essay writing, ifTable MIB. Obtain the OID associated with the CLI field to be monitored. For this example, the OID for 'broadcasts' is The Cisco OIDs for specific MIB variables are available from the website. Determine the following parameters for setting up thresholds and dissertation statistical service hospitality, events.

rising and essay writing, falling thresholds. sampling type (absolute or delta) action when threshold is reached. For the purpose of this example, a threshold is being set up to monitor the number of broadcast packets received on Ethernet 0. A trap will be generated if the number of broadcast packets received is dissertation hospitality greater than 500 between 60-second samples. The threshold will be reactivated when the number of input broadcasts does not increase between samples taken. Note: For detailed about problems essays app these command parameters, check the Cisco Connection Online (CCO) documentation for RMON alarm and event commands for your particular Cisco IOS version. Specify the trap sent (RMON event) when the threshold is reached using the following CLI commands (The Cisco IOS commands are displayed in bold): rmon event 1 trap gateway description High Broadcast on Ethernet 0 owner cisco.

rmon event 2 log description normal broadcast received on ethernet 0 owner cisco. Specify the dissertation, thresholds and relevant parameters (RMON alarm) using the following CLI commands: rmon alarm 1 ifEntry.12.1 60 delta rising-threshold 500 1. falling-threshold 0 2 owner cisco. Use SNMP to poll these tables to essay verify that the eventTable entries were made on dissertation hospitality industry the device. Use SNMP to poll these tables to verify that the alarmTable entries were set. In order to implement RMON alarm and event with the poor people, SNMP SET operation, complete these steps: Specify the trap sent (RMON event) when the threshold is reached using the following SNMP SET operations:

Specify the thresholds and dissertation industry, relevant parameters (RMON alarm) using the following SNMP SET operations: Poll these tables to verify that the eventTable entries were made on the device. Poll these tables to verify that the alarmTable entries were set. This example is a result of the research, show interface command. gateway show interface ethernet 0. The goal of configuration management is to monitor network and dissertation hospitality industry, system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of various versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed. With an increasing number of network devices deployed, it is critical to be able to accurately identify the location of a network device.

This location information should provide a detailed description meaningful to those tasked with dispatching resources when a network problem occurs. To expedite a resolution if a network problem occurs, make certain to have available contact information of the person or department responsible for the devices. Contact information should include telephone number and the name of the person or department. Naming conventions for network devices, starting from device name to individual interface, should be planned and implemented as part of the configuration standard. A well defined naming convention provides personnel with the ability to provide accurate information when troubleshooting network problems. The naming convention for devices can use geographical location, building name, floor, and so forth. For the interface naming convention, it can include the segment to which a port is for writing a research essay connected, name of connecting hub, and so forth.

On serial interfaces, it should include actual bandwidth, local data link connection identifier (DLCI) number (if Frame Relay), destination, and statistical service industry, the circuit ID or information provided by the carrier. When you add new configuration commands on existing network devices needs, you must verify the commands for integrity before actual implementation takes place. An improperly configured network device can have a disastrous effect on network connectivity and performance. Configuration command parameters must be checked to problems app avoid mismatches or incompatibility issues. It is advisable to schedule a thorough review of statistical hospitality, configurations with Cisco engineers on a regular basis. A fully functional CiscoWorks2000 Essentials allows for backing up configuration files on routers and outline for writing a research essay, Cisco Catalyst switches automatically. The security feature of Essentials can be used to dissertation statistical hospitality perform authentication on configuration changes. A change audit log is available to track changes and the user name of outline for writing essay, individuals issuing changes. For configuration changes on multiple devices, two options are available: the web-based NetConfig in the current version of CiscoWorks2000 Essentials or the cwconfig script. Configuration files can be downloaded and industry, uploaded using CiscoWorks2000 Essentials utilizing the predefined or user-defined templates.

These functions can be accomplished with the configuration management tools in CiscoWorks2000 Essentials: Push configuration files from the problems uploading essays app, Essentials configuration archive to a device or multiple devices. Pull the configuration from the device to the Essentials archive. Extract the latest configuration from the archive and write it to a file. Import configuration from a file and push the configuration to devices. Compare the last two configurations in dissertation industry the Essentials archive. Delete configurations older than a specified date or version from the archive. Copy the startup configuration to the running configuration. The discovery function of most network management platforms is intended to provide a dynamic listing of essay on helping people, devices found in the network.

Discovery engines such as those implemented in network management platforms should be utilized. An inventory database provides detailed configuration information on network devices. Common information includes models of hardware, installed modules, software images, microcode levels, and industry, so on. All these pieces of information are crucial in completing tasks such as software and hardware maintenance. The up-to-date listing of network devices collected by the discovery process can be used as a master list to collect inventory information using SNMP or scripting. A device list may be imported from CiscoWorks2000 Campus Manager into the inventory database of CiscoWorks2000 Essentials to obtain an robinson defoe, up-to-date inventory of Cisco Catalyst switches. A successful upgrade of Cisco IOS images on network devices requires a detailed analysis of the requirements such as memory, boot ROM, microcode level, and statistical industry, so on. The requirements are normally documented and available on Cisco's web site in the form of release notes and installation guides. The process of upgrading a network device running Cisco IOS includes downloading a correct image from CCO, backing up the current image, making sure all hardware requirements are met, and then loading the new image into ten steps essay the device.

The upgrade window to complete device maintenance is fairly limited for some organizations. Dissertation Service Hospitality! In a large network environment with limited resources, it might be necessary to outline for writing schedule and automate software upgrades after business hours. The procedure can be completed either using scripting language such as Expect or an application written specifically to perform such a task. Changes to software in dissertation statistical hospitality industry network devices such as Cisco IOS images and microcode versions should be tracked to assist in the analysis phase when another software maintenance is required. With a modification history report readily available, the person performing the upgrade can minimize the risk of loading incompatible images or microcode into network devices. A service level agreement (SLA) is a written agreement between a service provider and their customers on the expected performance level of network services. The SLA consists of metrics agreed upon ten steps between the provider and its customers.

The values set for the metrics must be realistic, meaningful, and measurable for dissertation statistical industry, both parties. Various interface statistics can be collected from uploading network devices to measure the performance level. Dissertation Statistical! These statistics can be included as metrics in the SLA. Paper Outline! Statistics such as input queue drops, output queue drops, and statistical, ignored packets are useful for diagnosing performance-related problems. At the device level, performance metrics can include CPU utilization, buffer allocation (big buffer, medium buffer, misses, hit ratio), and memory allocation.

The performance of certain network protocols is directly related to essays common app buffer availability in network devices. Measuring device-level performance statistics are critical in optimizing the performance of higher-level protocols. Network devices such as routers support various higher-layer protocols such as Data Link Switching Workgroup (DLSW), Remote Source Route Bridging (RSRB), AppleTalk, and so forth. Dissertation Hospitality Industry! Performance statistics of wide-area network (WAN) technologies including Frame Relay, ATM, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and others can be monitored and collected. Performance Monitoring, Measurement, and Reporting.

Different performance metrics at the interface, device, and protocol levels should be collected on a regular basis using SNMP. For Writing A Research! The polling engine in a network management system can be utilized for data collection purposes. Most network management systems are capable of collecting, storing, and presenting polled data. Various solutions are available in the marketplace to statistical industry address the needs of ten steps writing, performance management for enterprise environments. These systems are capable of collecting, storing, and presenting data from network devices and statistical industry, servers. The web-based interface on most products makes the essays robinson daniel, performance data accessible from anywhere in the enterprise. Some of the commonly deployed performance management solutions include: An evaluation of the above products will determine if they meet the statistical, requirements of different users.

Some vendors support integration with network management and system management platforms. Robinson! For example, InfoVista supports the BMC Patrol Agent to provide key performance statistics from application servers. Each product has a different pricing model and capabilities with the base offering. Support for performance management features for Cisco's devices such as NetFlow, RMON, and Cisco IOS Service Assurance Agent/Response Time Reporter (RTR/SAA CSAA/RTR) is available on some solutions. Concord has recently added support for Cisco's WAN switches that can be used to collect and service hospitality industry, view performance data. The CSAA/RTR Service Assurance Agent (SAA)/Response Time Reporter (RTR) feature in ten steps writing Cisco IOS can be utilized for measuring the response time between IP devices.

A source router configured with CSAA configured is capable of measuring the response time to a destination IP device that can be a router or an IP device. The response time can be measured between the source and the destination or for dissertation statistical hospitality, each hop along the path. SNMP traps can be configured to alert management consoles if the response time exceeds the predefined thresholds. Recent enhancements to Cisco IOS extends the capabilities of CSAA to measure the following: HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) service performance. Domain name system (DNS) lookup. Transmission control protocol (TCP) connect. HTTP transaction time. Interpacket delay variance (jitter) of Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic. Response time between end points for a specific quality of service (QoS) IP type of service (ToS) bits.

Packet loss using CSAA generated packets. Configuring the CSAA feature on routers can be accomplished using the Cisco Internetwork Performance Monitor (IPM) application. The CSAA/RTR is imbedded in many but not all feature sets of the problems essays common app, Cisco IOS software. A release of the Cisco IOS software release that supports CSAA/RTR must be installed on statistical hospitality industry the device that IPM uses to collect performance statistics. For a summary of Cisco IOS versions that support CSAA/RTR/IPM, refer to the IPM Frequently Asked Questions website. Additional information regarding IPM includes: User traffic has increased significantly and has placed a higher demand on network resources. Network managers typically have a limited view on the types of traffic running in the network. User and application traffic profiling provides a detailed view of the traffic in the network. Two technologies, RMON probes and NetFlow, provide the ability to collect traffic profiles. The RMON standards are designed to be deployed in a distributed architecture where agents (either embedded or in standalone probes) communicate with a central station (the management console) via SNMP.

The RFC 1757 RMON standard organizes monitoring functions into nine groups to support Ethernet topologies, and short essay culture, adds a tenth group in RFC 1513 for Token Ring-unique parameters. Fast Ethernet link monitoring is provided in the framework of the RFC 1757 standard, and Fiber-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) ring monitoring is dissertation statistical industry provided in the framework of both RFC 1757 and essay on helping poor people, RFC 1513. The emerging RFC 2021 RMON specification drives remote monitoring standards beyond the Media Access Control (MAC) layer to hospitality the network and application layers. Research Paper! This setup enables administrators to analyze and statistical service hospitality industry, troubleshoot networked applications such as Web traffic, NetWare, Notes, e-mail, database access, Network File System (NFS), and others. RMON alarms, statistics, history, and host/conversation groups can now be used to proactively monitor and maintain network availability based on application-layer traffic-the most critical traffic in the network. RMON2 enables network administrators to continue their deployment of standards-based monitoring solutions to support mission-critical, server-based applications.

The following tables list the paper outline, functions of the RMON groups. The Cisco NetFlow feature allows detailed statistics of traffic flows to industry be collected for capacity planning, billing, and troubleshooting functions. NetFlow can be configured on individual interfaces, providing information on for writing traffic passing through those interfaces. The following types of statistical service hospitality, information are part of the detailed traffic statistics: Source and destination IP addresses. Input and output interface numbers. TCP/UDP source port and uploading essays app, destination ports. Number of hospitality, bytes and packets in short essay of indian culture the flow. Source and destination autonomous system numbers. IP type of service (ToS)

NetFlow data gathered on network devices is exported to a collector machine. Dissertation Statistical Hospitality Industry! The collector performs functions such as reducing the volume of crusoe daniel defoe, data (filtering and aggregation), hierarchical data storage, and file system management. Cisco provides NetFlow Collector and NetFlow Analyzer applications for gathering and analyzing data from service routers and Cisco Catalyst switches. There are also shareware tools such as cflowd that can collect Cisco NetFlow user datagram protocol (UDP) records. NetFlow data is transported using UDP packets in three different formats: Version 1—The original format supported in ten steps essay writing the initial NetFlow releases. Version 5—A later enhancement that added Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) autonomous system information and flow sequence numbers.

Version 7—A still later enhancement that added NetFlow switching support for dissertation service industry, Cisco Catalyst 5000 series switches equipped with a NetFlow feature card (NFFC). Versions 2 through 4 and Version 6 were either not released or are not supported by FlowCollector. In all three versions, the datagram consists of a header and one or more flow records. For more information, refer to essay on helping the NetFlow Services Solutions Guide white paper. The following table outlines supported Cisco IOS versions for gathering NetFlow data from dissertation statistical service hospitality industry routers and Catalyst switches.

* Support for NetFlow Export V1, V5, and V8 on Cisco 1600 and 2500 platforms is targeted for Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(T). Essays Robinson Daniel! NetFlow support for these platforms is dissertation statistical not available in the Cisco IOS 12.0 mainline release. ** Support for NetFlow V1, V5, and paper, V8 on the AS5300 platform is targeted for hospitality industry, Cisco IOS Software Release 12.06(T). *** MLS and NetFlow data export is supported in essay Catalyst 5000 series supervisor engine software release 4.1(1) or later. The goal of security management is to control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged (intentionally or unintentionally). A security management subsystem, for example, can monitor users logging on statistical hospitality industry to a network resource, refusing access to outline for writing those who enter inappropriate access codes. Security management is a very broad subject; therefore this area of the document only covers security as related to SNMP and basic device access security. Detailed information on advanced security include: A good security management implementation starts with sound security policies and procedures in place. Dissertation Service! It is important to create a platform-specific minimum configuration standard for all routers and switches that follow industry best practices for security and common, performance. There are various methods of controlling access on Cisco routers and catalyst switches.

Some of these methods include: Access Control Lists (ACL) User IDs and passwords local to the device. Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) TACACS is an dissertation statistical industry, Internet Engineering Task Force (RFC 1492) standard security protocol that runs between client devices on essay on importance a network and against dissertation service hospitality industry a TACACS server. TACACS is an daniel defoe, authentication mechanism that is used to authenticate the identity of a device seeking remote access to a privileged database. Variations of TACACS include TACACS+, the AAA architecture that separates authentication, authorization, and accounting functions. TACACS+ is used by Cisco to allow a finer control over who can access the Cisco device in non-privileged and privileged mode.

Multiple TACACS+ servers can be configured for service hospitality industry, fault tolerance. With TACACS+ enabled, the short of indian culture, router and switch prompts the dissertation service hospitality industry, user for a user name and password. Authentication can be configured for login control or to authenticate individual commands. Authentication is the process of identifying users, including login and password dialog, challenge and response, and short essay culture, messaging support. Authentication is the way a user is identified prior to being allowed access to the router or switch.

There is a fundamental relationship between authentication and authorization. The more authorization privileges a user receives, the service, stronger the authentication should be. Authorization provides remote access control, including one-time authorization and essay, authorization for each service that is requested by the user. Dissertation Hospitality! On a Cisco router, the short on importance of indian, authorization level range for users is 0 to 15 with 0 being the lowest level and 15 the highest. Accounting allows for the collecting and statistical service, sending of security information used for billing, auditing, and reporting, such as user identities, start and stop times, and executed commands. Accounting enables network managers to track the services that users are accessing as well as the amount of on helping people, network resources they are consuming.

The following table lists basic sample commands for using TACACS+, authentication, authorization, and accounting on a Cisco router and statistical service, a Catalyst switch. Refer to writing the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting Commands document for more in-depth commands. For more information on how to statistical hospitality industry configure AAA to monitor and control access to essay the command-line interface on the Catalyst enterprise LAN switches, refer to the Controlling Access to the Switch Using Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting document. The SNMP protocol can be used to make configuration changes on routers and Catalyst switches similar to those issued from the CLI. Proper security measures should be configured on network devices to dissertation statistical prevent unauthorized access and change via SNMP. Community strings should follow the standard password guidelines for length, characters, and difficulty of essay on helping people, guessing. It is important to change the community strings from their public and dissertation statistical industry, private defaults. All SNMP management host(s) should have a static IP address and be explicitly granted SNMP communication rights with the network device by that predefined by IP address and Access Control List (ACL).

Cisco IOS and Cisco Catalyst software provides security features that ensure that only authorized management stations are allowed to perform changes on network devices. SNMP Privilege Level. This feature limits the types of operations that a management station can have on a router. There are two types of privilege level on outline for writing essay routers: Read-Only (RO) and Read-Write (RW). The RO level only allows a management station to query the router data. It does not allow for dissertation statistical hospitality, configuration commands such as rebooting a router and shutting down interfaces to be performed. Only the essay, RW privilege level can be used to dissertation hospitality perform such operations.

SNMP Access Control List (ACL) The SNMP ACL feature can be used in conjunction with the SNMP privilege feature to limit specific management stations from requesting management information from routers. This feature limits specific information that can be retrieved from routers by management stations. It can be used with the SNMP privilege level and paper, ACL features to enforce restricted access of data by management consoles. For configuration samples of SNMP View, go to snmp-server view. SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) provides secure exchanges of dissertation hospitality industry, management data between network devices and management stations. The encryption and authentication features in robinson crusoe daniel defoe SNMPv3 ensure high security in transporting packets to a management console. SNMPv3 is supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(3)T and later. Dissertation Hospitality! For a technical overview of SNMPv3, go to SNMPv3 documentation. Access Control List (ACL) on Interfaces. The ACL feature provides security measures in preventing attacks such as IP spoofing.

The ACL can be applied on incoming or outgoing interfaces on routers. Catalyst LAN Switch Security Feature. The IP Permit List feature restricts inbound Telnet and on helping, SNMP access to the switch from unauthorized source IP addresses. Syslog messages and dissertation service hospitality industry, SNMP traps are supported to notify a management system when a violation or unauthorized access occurs. A combination of the Cisco IOS security features can be used to manage routers and Catalyst switches. A security policy needs to be established that limits the number of management stations capable of accessing the problems uploading, switches and routers.

For more information on how to increase security on IP networks, go to Increasing Security on IP Networks. Accounting management is the process used to dissertation measure network utilization parameters so that individual or group users on problems uploading essays common app the network can be regulated appropriately for the purposes of accounting or chargeback. Service Hospitality! Similar to performance management, the first step toward appropriate accounting management is to measure the utilization of medical research paper outline, all important network resources. Network resource utilization can be measured using the Cisco NetFlow and dissertation statistical industry, Cisco IP Accounting features. A Research! Analysis of the data gathered through these methods provides insight into current usage patterns. A usage-based accounting and billing system is an essential part of any service level agreement (SLA). It provides both a practical way of defining obligations under an SLA and clear consequences for service hospitality industry, behavior outside the terms of the SLA. The data can be collected via probes or Cisco NetFlow. Cisco provides NetFlow Collector and research outline, NetFlow Analyzer applications for gathering and analyzing data from routers and Catalyst switches. Shareware applications such as cflowd are also used to service industry gather NetFlow data. Ten Steps Essay! An ongoing measurement of resource use can yield billing information, as well as information assess continued fair and optimal resources.

Some commonly deployed accounting management solutions include: NetFlow Activation and Data Collection Strategy. NetFlow (network flow) is an input side-measurement technology that allows for capturing the data required for network planning, monitoring, and accounting applications. NetFlow should be deployed on edge/aggregation router interfaces for service providers or WAN access router interfaces for Enterprise customers. Cisco Systems recommends a carefully planned NetFlow deployment with NetFlow services activated on these strategically located routers. NetFlow can be deployed incrementally (interface by interface) and strategically (on well chosen routers), rather than deploying NetFlow on every router on the network.

Cisco personnel will work with customers to determine on which key routers and key interfaces NetFlow should be activated based on the customer's traffic flow patterns, network topology, and architecture. Key deployment considerations include: NetFlow services should be utilized as an edge metering and dissertation statistical industry, access list performance acceleration tool and should not be activated on hot core/backbone routers or routers running at very high CPU utilization rates. Understand application-driven data collection requirements. Accounting applications may only essay on importance of indian culture, require originating and industry, terminating router flow information whereas monitoring applications may require a more comprehensive (data intensive) end-to-end view. Understand the ten steps writing, impact of network topology and routing policy on flow collection strategy. For example, avoid collecting duplicate flows by activating NetFlow on key aggregation routers where traffic originates or terminates and dissertation hospitality, not on backbone routers or intermediate routers which would provide duplicate views of the same flow information. Service providers in the transit carrier business (carrying traffic neither originating nor terminating on their network) may utilize NetFlow Export data for measuring transit traffic usage of essay on importance, network resources for accounting and billing purposes.

Cisco IP accounting support provides basic IP accounting functions. By enabling IP accounting, users can see the number of bytes and packets switched through the Cisco IOS software on dissertation a source and research paper, destination IP address basis. Only transit IP traffic is measured and dissertation hospitality, only on an outbound basis. Traffic generated by the software or terminating in the software is not included in crusoe defoe the accounting statistics. To maintain accurate accounting totals, the software maintains two accounting databases: an active and a check-pointed database. Cisco IP accounting support also provides information that identifies IP traffic that fails IP access lists. Identifying IP source addresses that violate IP access lists signals possible attempts to breach security. The data also indicates that IP access list configurations should be verified.

To make this feature available to users, enable IP accounting of access list violations using the ip accounting access-violations command. Users can then display the number of bytes and dissertation service, packets from a single source that attempted to breach security against outline the access list for service, the source destination pair. By default, IP accounting displays the number of packets that have passed access lists and were routed. To enable IP accounting, use one of the following commands for essay on helping, each interface in hospitality industry interface configuration mode: To configure other IP accounting functions, use one or more of the following commands in of indian culture global configuration mode: Was this document helpful? Yes No. Thank you for your feedback.

Related Cisco Support Community Discussions. The Cisco Support Community is service industry a forum for you to ask and answer questions, share suggestions, and collaborate with your peers. Refer to Cisco Technical Tips Conventions for information on conventions used in this document.

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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into hospitality industry, the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and for writing a research, culture. Long before the dissertation service industry institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy :–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an on importance culture, institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry.

The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for statistical service hospitality, satisfaction of these urges.

The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of research outline family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of statistical service human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses.

It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. Daniel Defoe! It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M.

Johnson, “Marriage is statistical service hospitality a stable relationship in which a man and on helping people, a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to service hospitality have children”. Ira L. Robinson Crusoe! Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of dissertation statistical service hospitality marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage.

There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is problems essays common considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. Dissertation Statistical Service! People enter into matrimonial alliances for research paper, the sake of seeking personal happiness.

If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and dissertation statistical service, regulations differ from one culture to short culture another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and dissertation service hospitality industry, one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and daniel, father and mother.

(7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to statistical industry conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of ten steps essay adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Statistical Service Hospitality! Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable.

The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and essay on helping poor, kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of statistical service one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the medical research paper unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of service societies towards the institution of marriage.

Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of outline marriage vary from dissertation statistical service industry, society to society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of research outline marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands.

This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the dissertation hospitality required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and essays robinson crusoe, remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the statistical service hospitality first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and crusoe, women have to adjust with one partner only. Statistical Hospitality! In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy:

If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of uploading common app which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely.

There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Statistical Service! Equal Status to Woman: In this form of uploading marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the service industry house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life.

Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of essays robinson crusoe daniel defoe one wife children in the family will be limited.

8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to dissertation statistical industry live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness.

10. Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and writing, there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is statistical hospitality industry more stable form of marriage. A Research Essay! There is better division of property after the death of parents.

Monogamy is dissertation statistical service a marriage between one husband and outline essay, one wife. So if the statistical hospitality industry partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is short essay on importance monopoly.” Wherever there is service monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. Research Paper Outline! They have to suffer from statistical service hospitality, childlessness.

4. Medical Paper! Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. Dissertation Hospitality Industry! If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of problems common marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. Dissertation Hospitality! This also leads to the problem of prostitution.

Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in short essay on importance culture which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of industry both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage.

Let us now discuss forms of people polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at statistical service a time. In other words it is a form of robinson marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at industry a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. For Writing A Research Essay! In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Service Hospitality Industry! Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights.

2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and essays defoe, live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the dissertation statistical service wives are sisters.

Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in writing the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in statistical service hospitality number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is outline for writing a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Dissertation Statistical Hospitality! Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for outline essay, male Child: Among the hospitality industry primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children.

In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the outline for writing a research leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. Dissertation Statistical Hospitality Industry! So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny.

The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by of indian novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of service hospitality industry pregnancy and while she was feeding the child. Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10.

Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to outline a research essay have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is statistical hospitality industry given to males and male member is the head of the essay poor family.

(1) Better status of industry children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of research outline Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is dissertation statistical service almost zero, for poor, those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of dissertation statistical hospitality industry Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by research outline several wives. (4) Division of dissertation statistical Work:

In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of essay Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of dissertation statistical industry sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of problems uploading essays Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of hospitality a wife to ten steps essay produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in dissertation service industry the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands.

They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to problems uploading essays be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to dissertation service hospitality industry inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Short On Importance! Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property:

In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is dissertation service hospitality divided and income per people capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and dissertation statistical service hospitality industry, development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. Medical Research! As such families have large number of members. Service Hospitality Industry! They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. Robinson Crusoe Daniel! This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of dissertation service hospitality marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M.

Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and crusoe, Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the dissertation statistical service industry wife of all brothers. All the medical research paper outline brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. Statistical Service Hospitality Industry! The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of ten steps essay writing marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers.

They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of dissertation hospitality Kerala. 1. Problems Uploading Common! Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to statistical service hospitality industry Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Medical Paper! Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to service hospitality a group of brothers and polyandry exists.

3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them.

6. Division of Property: To check the division of short of indian ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of hospitality industry property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in essay poor some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the service male members of the family share one wife.

As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the robinson defoe family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security:

With large number of statistical service hospitality males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is for writing a research held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and statistical, thus enjoys a good status in the family. Uploading App! She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs. When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to be there.

Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for dissertation hospitality industry, themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the for writing a research essay Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the statistical industry same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to on importance of indian culture extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status.

They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in service hospitality which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of poor people every woman of female group.

Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of dissertation service hospitality industry marriage is found among some tribes of robinson crusoe daniel New Guinea and Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and service hospitality industry, may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in for writing the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and dissertation service hospitality industry, sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on outline for writing a research, record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations.

Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is dissertation service hospitality called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife.

Sororate is again divided into a research, two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of statistical hospitality industry his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in paper the society.

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Custom Music of industry Latin America essay paper. Music is an important component not only in enhancing entertainment, but also as means of promoting unity by incorporating styles and information that addresses problems affecting people. Crusoe! In most cases, the production and dissertation service dissemination of music locally, regionally or internationally has been based on the historical, geographical, and cultural factors. Uploading! These factors normally contribute to the originality of the music being composed and its introduction into the market. Therefore, producing world music that captures all these factors is essential especially in addressing social, political, cultural, religious, and service economic problems that affects people. Latin American Music has impacted different on people’s culture, lifestyle, belief, politics, immigration, and identity thus making it a world music that requires global recognition and understanding. This paper, thus discusses the historical, geographical, and cultural context of Latin American music.

It highlights how the medical paper music has impacted on dissertation statistical service every day life, worship and problems uploading essays common belief, migration, dance, politics and dissertation service identity of people. According to Rahkonen (2006), world music normally means different things to different people thereby making it be described with what actually it is not. Medical Research Paper! He notes that the world music is neither Western art music, nor a mainstream of Western folk and popular music, but rather a traditional, popular or art music that incorporate either ethnic or foreign elements. In other words, world music cannot be characterized as our music, but can be assimilated to belong to someone else. Additionally, Rahkonen (2006) notes that world music is considered as any plain music that has a huge number of fans in the world, and therefore it affects people’s culture and true expression especially in its dances and the music itself. As pointed out by industry Scaruffi (2006), Latin America music include all countries in the South America, Central America, and Caribbean region that have embraced and are practicing music that effectively relate to their cultural and ethnic components.

He notes that these Latin Americans have produced various musical genres that emulate not only the European folk music but also both the African music and the native traditional music. Essay Poor People! Scaruffi (2006) adds that in dissertation industry, Latin America, local musical genre inherit both the cultural and ethnic factors based on a region or a particular group rather than emanating from political framework and essays crusoe defoe boundaries. This is to ensure that both the political and social factors do not erase the common cultural heritage especially when a conflict arises. According to him, this is why the statistical hospitality industry cultures shared among the Latin Americans have survived for problems uploading essays app long irrespective of the growth in music. The impact of hospitality Latin American Music on their culture, lifestyle, belief, politics, immigration, and identity makes it to be a world music that requires global recognition and understanding. Uploading App! This paper, thus discusses the historical, geographical, and cultural context of Latin American music. It highlights how the music has impacted on every day life, worship and dissertation statistical hospitality industry belief, migration, dance, politics and essay poor people identity of people.

Historical, Cultural and Geographical Context of Latin American Music. According to Hampson Maria (2008), music was used in Latin America not only as a link between the dissertation service hospitality white and the black, but as a folk tradition that was developing into an art of traditional music. They points out common app that with the intertwinement of the indigenous and European musical roots, rich and diversify music were produced that were distinctive and illustrated the cultural and beliefs of dissertation statistical Latin Americans. Ten Steps Essay Writing! In this respect, both hymns and work songs were produced. These forms of hospitality industry music depicted that interminglement between European and essay poor African sounds rich of traditions and culture. Additionally, they note that Latin American music is dissertation statistical hospitality normally produced based on musical style being used, geographical set up, and the language of the composer.

As pointed out by Olsen Sheehy (2008), during the colonial, revolutionary, and federal period in the sixteenth and eighteenth century, most of the Amerindian population who occupied South America was decimated by the presence of European, Iberian, and African slaves. They note that this led to the destruction of Amerindian musical culture especially by the dominating Iberian. For instance, hymn tunes, theater songs, and ballads were not only imported from England, but were modeled in English musical genre (Scaruffi, 2006). Additionally, he notes that Latin American had been polarized by social, cultural, and economic factors that affected the evolution of music in the region. Problems Essays Common App! Therefore, the Latin Americans resorted to service industry, locally use their music in ten steps essay, enhancing the cultural norms and beliefs. This limited the faster and widespread growth of the music. Scaruffi (2006) notes that, before the dissertation Spanish conquest, the Amerindian population which comprised of medical research paper outline Mayan, Aztec, and Olmec among others, used music for sacrifices or rituals in enhancing their culture and service hospitality industry beliefs. However, he points out that post contemporary movements in for writing, Latin America, for example the statistical Hispanic revolution in Mexico, helped revolutionize the Latin America music. This came about as a result of the promotion of a perfect blend of both European and local music.

As the revolutionary movements became more active, people begun to feel their influence in the field of music as this enabled the musicians to come up with a regional based folk music. According to him, Mariachi, a famous regional musical genre used by revolutionary movements, and poor which became popular during the time, incorporated both the narrative and folk music. Dissertation Service Hospitality Industry! This was partly a strategy by the revolutionary movements to enable them participate in determining their country’s involvement in current affairs pertaining to war and politics as well as those of the poor people larger society. According to Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009), rock music was not a popular music in Latin America during early ages. Dissertation Hospitality! But, they point out that, just like the white people stole the pop music from the black Americans, the Latin Americans did so from the medical research paper outline white Americans. They note that in the late 50s, Latin Americans had not mastered the English language, and therefore sung the dissertation statistical service hospitality covers of the pop music in Spanish. Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009) add that this led to the establishment of notable rock and roll bands such as Los Rebeldes del Rock and Los Locos del Ritmo in Mexico.

These bands largely performed and produced rock n roll music in the urban areas such as in the Mexico City. Scaruffi (2006) on the other hands notes that popular rock artists such as Carlos Santana incorporated the rock n roll music with other musical styles such as blues. Of Indian Culture! This enabled such artists to blend their music with social problems and cultural issues without the music losing its humor. This was to improve their cultural heritage. Moreover, Scaruffi (2006) points out that the evolution of internet and the establishment of Northern America Free Trade Agreement brought together most of the industry world music in ten steps essay writing, Latin America.

This also acted as a catalyst to their musical composition. For instance, he note that the 90’s prominent Mexican rock bands, Caf and dissertation service hospitality Tacuba, composed their music from a mixture of regional folk and rock music. Scaruffi (2006) adds that evolution of technology has enabled most of the short on importance Latin American artist to electronically mix mariachi, banda, regional folk songs, with popular rhythms in adapting to current world music. It is thus clear that it was the geographical and cultural contexts which were the main factors that contribute to the kind of music that was being written, recorded, and produced in Latin America. According to Stienstra, Nigro Clemente (2011), Spanish music and statistical hospitality Latin rhythms are the basic musical styles that describe the type of music that comes from broadcasting stations in the region. They note that most bands were regional and therefore did not cater for the immigrant minorities.

This was clearly evident as music being played was selected based on the majority population. For instance, the essay on helping poor people Argentinean chacareras is insignificantly played where the majority of population composed of Mexicans (Stienstra, Nigro Clemente, 2011). Latin America Music Styles and Dances. As pointed out by Stienstra, Nigro Clemente (2011), the insurgence of Iberian and African populations in Latin America adversely affected the musical style of the region. For instance, they note that the Mesoamerica Indians in service hospitality, the regions now produce their music by playing harps, guitars, and essays robinson crusoe fiddles that emanate from Spanish model.

Some have also started to play Marimbas which is of African origin. According to Scaruffi (2006), the effect of this was also widely experienced in dissertation statistical service hospitality industry, 1890s. This was when the Argentinean working class, Boca, invented a musical rhythm known as tango; the name which was derived from the uploading common app drums of the African slaves. Campbell (2012) notes that the style of the tango music and choreography normally aroused pessimistic mood and sorrow that was enhanced by the melancholy sound of the traditional bandoneon. He points out that the choreography of the music originated from an obscene scene of dissertation statistical industry mimicry which depicted a disjoint in relationship between a prostitute, her bodily gestures, and her male rival. Accompanied by suggestive Argentina dance that involves a series of steps that melancholy the tango beats, people would dance to paper, the tune of the music (Scaruffi, 2006). He adds that it is such choreographic characteristics of the tango music, in addressing the incoherency in daily human social activities that, the enabled it to become a popular dance in Europe and U.S. Similarly, most of the Latin American music developed out of immigration practices such as slavery and even religious outstanding. For instance, mambo and rumba musical form and dances styles best captured the daily activities and religious beliefs that characterized the Latin America society. According to Truly (2009), mambo music was a Cuban musical rhythm whose name derived from the language of African slaves who were being imported to Caribbean denoting a conversation with gods. He notes that the music was a fusion of rumba rhythm and jazz music which created a new musical genre for the working classes during the colonial era in Latin America.

For instance, Perez Prado smoothly introduced jazz sound accompanied by rumba tunes that created an dissertation statistical hospitality, appealing mambo dance which was dynamic with compelling styles of pelvis swinging that were in unison with the Latin music (Truly, 2009). According to Drake (2011), rumba music was another type of music and outline a research dance that was developed in the Latin America. She notes that the medium to fast polyrhythmic music was first adopted by Cuban popular musician as a fusion of both the Spanish music and African rhythms. She points out that the term rumba refers to various Afro-Cuban musical and dancing styles in the United States during the dissertation early 30’s and 40’s. Writing! She notes that rumba music improvised a call to dissertation statistical service hospitality, response. Ten Steps Essay Writing! This was especially so with the musical verses that were repetitive and combined both the European harmonic musical instruments with the African percussion. Drake (2011) adds that the industry rumba music such as guaracha and essays crusoe daniel defoe son of Cuba, were widely performed to people of dissertation statistical hospitality upper class. Therefore, it acted as an identity that separated the poor from their rich colonial bosses. Additionally, Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009) identified calypso as another important music that was developed in Latin America.

They note that the music was developed at Trinidad in Caribbean. Essays Daniel Defoe! It deployed witty and humorous styles that highlighted people’s attitudes regarding the social, political, and economic issues they were faced with. They point out that calypso music was very important to Africa slaves as they were only allowed to communicate to each other through such music. Dissertation Service! According to Drake (2011), calypso music was used to counter the colonial forces by creating a sense of community among the enslaved African society. The rhythm of the music was normally developed from steel band instruments made out of oil drum tops accompanied by ballroom dance similar to rumba. The musicians would thus provide carnival performance based on outline for writing a research essay African religions and taboo in order to enhance their identity in countering colonial forces. Another popular music and dance style that is performed across the Latin America is salsa. As pointed out by Quintero (2011), salsa music depicts one of the Iberian influences to the Latin America especially by incorporating shoe tapping and scarf waving music style to Latin music. She notes that salsa incorporates multiple musical and dancing styles that are diverse and inhibit Spanish Caribbean genre. According Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009), salsa was formed to dissertation statistical service industry, fight the predominance social classes in Latin America that were seen to essay on importance, undermine the rights of other people.

Therefore, following the establishment of salsa music and dissertation hospitality dance by Cuban immigrants and short on importance of indian Puerto Rican migrants in late 60’s, the world started emulating and performing the service music and on helping poor dance. Quintero (2011) notes that this was evident by hospitality industry New York based musician; Ruben Blades blended who blended his salsa music with rock n roll musical style. He also incorporated political issues in 1978. His music was thus able to trigger some level of agitation for the need of political stability. She adds that this album which was called Buscando America was one of the poor people best selling salsa music that gave him popularity.

Records have shown that he almost won it in dissertation statistical, 1994 as Panama president. In conclusion, Latin America music is thus a fundamental factor that has contributed to the region’s political, cultural and religious beliefs. It has been established that most of the essays robinson crusoe world music and dissertation statistical dances such as salsa and rumba originated from robinson daniel Latin America as a result of historical colonial ruling that had undermined democracy. Industry! The study has thus pointed out the need for artists and musicians to develop music and dances that addresses their daily human activities and encounters in promoting not only their identities, but also culture.