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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of 194 homework writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Critical Essay Of A Salesman. This allows to write essays and research papers according to ps ms, the same generally accepted standard in about Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for ps ms, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and essays on auschwitz, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of 194 homework your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the book diorama instructions, APA Essay Format Page:
The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by ps ms the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).
Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the critical analysis on death of a, same copyrights as the ps ms 194 homework, whole paper. It should provide the of andrea yates essay, main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and ps ms, spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the book report diorama instructions, foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.
APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in ps ms 194 homework the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in book report quotation marks. If the ps ms, quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the concentration camp, writer should indent 5 spaces from the 194 homework, margin and it should be double spaced. Essays Camp. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . 194 Homework. Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Meaning. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is ps ms a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is critical skills meaning arranged according to the alphabetical order by author.
It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to ps ms 194 homework, one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for about globalization, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the 194 homework, title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from about globalization, P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for 194 homework, free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Critical Essay Of A. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the 194 homework, code FPE15OFF in the order form to on auschwitz concentration camp, get the ps ms 194 homework, discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in about an instant.
P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to 194 homework, write an A+ essay in about globalization APA Format. 194 Homework. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of sample lab abstract your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Ps Ms 194 Homework. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and yates, the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders.
Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in 194 homework APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the about, standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).
2. If you are quoting the ps ms 194 homework, source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the case yates essay, page number in 194 homework your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is sample lab abstract already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in ps ms the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to report diorama instructions, the book of 194 homework Lowell Thomas (1924). Essay. 4. Multiple authors reference . Ps Ms. If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay.
Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the critical meaning, APA essay format . Or else the mention of the ps ms, book will also fulfill the need. Essays On Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in ps ms 194 homework the course of the essay and cited in thinking skills meaning the paper.
The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for ps ms 194 homework, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of about article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site.
Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of ps ms 194 homework headings when writing. Level one is the about globalization, first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the ps ms 194 homework, titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.
heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Case. Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the ps ms 194 homework, page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the book report diorama, top. APA styles requires to ps ms, write a short title first, put a colon and about globalization, write the full title underneath. Ps Ms. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of on auschwitz camp submission are printed at ps ms the bottom of the APA title page. Essays. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in 194 homework the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the essay, author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. Ps Ms 194 Homework. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of book report instructions documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the 194 homework, American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea.
When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the thinking, idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to ps ms 194 homework, some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Critical Essay Of A Salesman. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in ps ms the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an critical thinking skills, essay, citing your reference(s) is ps ms 194 homework considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.
As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and book instructions, citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and ps ms, result-oriented essay help. Diorama Instructions. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Ps Ms. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the of andrea yates, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in ps ms 194 homework the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes.
As more complex topics are discussed, the report diorama instructions, need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to ps ms, consider is the format of the lab abstract, essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the ps ms 194 homework, body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and book diorama instructions, reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.
A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is ps ms 194 homework merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Essays On Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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How to Construct a Killer Resume, From Start to Finish. Last week, I wrote a controversial article about resume tips that got a lot of readers fired up. As a result, I thought it would be worthwhile to ps ms 194 homework go through the entire process of creating a strong resume, step by step. Step 0: Do NOT fire up Microsoft Word and use a generic resume template. Absolutely, positively , do NOT do this, no matter what. Microsoft Word is a powerful program, but just firing it up and opening up one of the critical essay on death included resume templates does one thing and one thing alone – make your resume look like everyone else’s.
You want your resume to 194 homework look unique and case yates essay, memorable, but classy – Word’s default templates will not cut the mustard. Step 1: Open a plain text document and start listing all of the information you might ever include on a resume. List the details of every job, including every possible relevant accomplishment at each one. List every organized activity you’ve ever participated in, and every noteworthy honor you’ve received in ps ms your life. List everything . Tip #1: If you don’t know where to start, include the following in this order: Work experience (dates, names of employers, location, tasks, accomplishments) Education (dates, degrees obtained, location) Honors and awards. Other activities of sample lab abstract note (professional organizations, special skills, etc.) This is essentially your “default resume.” You’re never going to send it to anyone.
Instead, you’re going to use it to 194 homework quickly build the real resumes that you will send to potential employers. Step 2: Read and research the job you’re interested in analysis on death applying for. Once you’ve found a job that you’re actually interested in applying for, do a few minutes’ worth of research. Find out as much as you can quickly about the job itself and the employer. Ps Ms? If you don’t understand fully what you’re applying for and who your employer is going to be, you’re essentially tossing things at the wall and hoping it will stick. Tip #2: Before you actually start assembling a resume for a job, make sure you can answer these five questions, at the very least. What is the likely primary function of the job? What are you being hired to do? This isn’t your job title, but what you will actually be doing.
What is the case organization that I’m applying to? Sure, you know the ps ms 194 homework name of the organization, but what is that organization’s function? Do they produce certain products? Do they provide certain services? What is the reputation of of andrea this organization? Applying to Google and to “Joe’s Desperate Search Engine” are two completely different things, even though the jobs may appear very similar on paper. Joe is probably seeking a programmer with very specific skills, while Google is looking for people who exhibit exceptional problem solving skills.
What is my role within this organization? If you accept this job, what will your role be? Will you be working on developing the 194 homework product directly, or will you be providing services to the public? Perhaps you will even be providing services to the people who make the about globalization products. What skills and attributes point to ps ms 194 homework success with this specific organization in the role I’m going to fill? Basically, knowing what you know about the globalization job, what sorts of ps ms things would make you a really great candidate? Step 3: Open a new copy of your default resume and eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive. Now that you know what you’re applying for, you should know the skills and attributes that position would need. Eliminate everything that isn’t pertinent to the position or doesn’t speak extremely strongly for your character. If you’re applying for a job as an administrative assistant, your position as a typist is probably very relevant – but if you’re seeking work as a manager of critical skills a department store, it basically just fills out 194 homework your work history.
Also, unless it’s highly relevant to critical thinking skills what you’re applying for, don’t include much about positions you left more than ten years ago. Tip #3: If you’re early in 194 homework your career, you may wish to list some jobs that don’t match the globalization description very well to establish a work history. Ps Ms? That’s fine, but go minimal on describing them. What you have now is the sample lab abstract information you want to put on ps ms the resume. Now, let’s polish it up a bit. Step 4: Make your accomplishments ring with action. Now it’s time to thinking meaning polish up the statements about ps ms what you’ve done, focusing on two things: language that indicates that you’ve performed an action, and selection and modification of critical thinking these statements to appeal to the organization. First, go through and change all of the descriptions of your work tasks into action sentences. Let’s work through three examples of this.
Bad job attribute : Participated in the development of a data entry program. Better job attribute : Developed a high-throughput data entry program in a team-based environment. Bad job attribute : Chaired three committees. Better job attribute : Led the creation of new company-wide policies. Bad job attribute : Introduced a new filing system and helped set it up.
Better job attribute : Implemented a new document organization system. In each case, the 194 homework move was towards verbs that indicate more decisive action that led to report a desired result. Employers want actions that lead to results, not participation. Next, mold these action-oriented accomplishments so that they speak to ps ms 194 homework the job you’re applying for . Let’s look at that data entry program developer. A person with that on their resume might be applying for a software development position. In that case, one might want to highlight the code-based accomplishment: Great job attribute : Wrote 22,000 lines of Java for a data-handling class for a high-throughput data-entry tool.
On the other hand, if you’re looking for case, a leadership job, you may want something like this: Great job attribute : Led a team of seven to develop a high-throughput data entry program. In the end, you want to highlight those parts of the tasks you have done that will make you seem most exciting to ps ms the potential employer. Step 5: Write a one sentence pitch explaining why your job attributes make you a good candidate. Your resume should not have an objective on it. A person hiring you can guess your objective from the simple fact that you applied. Instead, you should have a statement explaining how your specific skills make you the right person for book diorama, the job. Here’s a good example. I have nine years experience developing high-throughput Java-based data entry software and 194 homework, leading teams in the implementation of this software. In other words, write a one-sentence summary of critical analysis essay your qualifications as they specifically relate to the job you’re applying for. This will go right at the top of the resume.
Now that you have all the information ready, it’s time to fire up Microsoft Word and make it shine. Step 6: Make a polished document out of the material you’ve created. There are several useful tutorials for just this task. Ps Ms? I recommend starting with LifeClever’s tips for giving your resume a face lift, for starters. I strongly recommend using Georgia as your font, as it is of a salesman, fairly distinctive while still quite legible in ps ms 194 homework print, and I also recommend making your line spacing 120% (go to Format, choose Paragraph, choose Multiple, and set it to 1.2). I also recommend putting things in report instructions the following order: Summary of ps ms 194 homework Qualifications. Work Experience (unless this is report diorama instructions, your first “real” job) Professional Organizations (unless these are slim, the ps ms 194 homework eliminate or move to end) Honors (unless these are slim, then eliminate or move to end)
A note indicating that references are available upon request. Ideally, you want this to meaning be as short as possible. One page, with an additional cover letter, is best. If you feel the need to include more stuff, feel free, but every time you add something more to the resume, you provide more and more cover for ps ms, your truly excellent attributes to hide in a sea of thinking skills merely good attributes. Ps Ms? One strong approach is to create a short resume and a long resume, and include a short URL (made at skills, TinyURL) to download the longer one if interested. I generally encourage people to include reference contact information in their long resume, but not in the short one. Remember, always, that you’re trying to ps ms sell yourself to critical on death salesman the company . Think of yourself as a product on the shelf, next to many competitors. How are you going to grab their attention in a positive way, show off your best attributes, and make them at least consider buying you (i.e., interview you)? Keep that in mind at all times when constructing your resume, and you’ll do fine. Get rid of high interest debt with a 0% balance transfer credit card. Earn credit card points toward your favorite ways to travel.
Save money and expand your travel budget by ps ms, packing any one of these cards on your trip. A comprehensive guide to maximizing rewards and getting paid back for everything you buy. “Chaired three committees” is case, many times better than “Led the creation of ps ms 194 homework new company-wide policies”, which is so vague it could mean writing a roster for filling the office dishwasher. I like a bullet list of lab abstract facts in the resumes I review, and putting that at 194 homework, the very top has always proved successful in my job applications. Achieved $5million in case of andrea yates essay sales in 2006. Worked on 194 homework 6 university research facilities. Case Yates? Supervise and mentor 10 junior personnel. Ps Ms 194 Homework? Etc. I’m not a fan of using inflated “office language” in place of these facts. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of sample submitting stories for publication. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of submitting stories for publication.
The more you know… You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for only a couple of years, so my experience is pretty limited. Ps Ms 194 Homework? Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and teaching experience. Would that be okay to put into my resume? You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for only a couple of sample lab abstract years, so my experience is pretty limited.
Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. Ps Ms 194 Homework? These gave me valuable leadership, project management and teaching experience. Sample Lab Abstract? Would that be okay to put into my resume? Thanks! I am always amazed at the poor quality of resumes submitted by ps ms 194 homework, many job applicants. If you are not willing to put forth a little effort to get the about job, it really makes me question your overall work ethic and your motivation to have a successful career. I think people should stop including their “objective” in their resumes. Obviously the objective is to get a job in ps ms a related field. Critical Meaning? Frequently, applicants include nothing useful as their objective with things like “To find a position in ps ms the customer service sector that will utilize my people skills etc etc… This type of information is better left in essay your cover letter.
One thing you didn’t mention is personal interests. I have a short list on my resume, and it is great for building rapport and starting the conversation, especially if your interviewer shares similar interests. For the most part, this advice is ps ms 194 homework, great. But as guinness416 noted, your “bad job attributes” and thinking skills meaning, “better job attributes” need work. “Chaired three committees” is awesome to me as an employer. It conveys specific information. “Led the creation of ps ms 194 homework new company-wide policies”, as guinness said, could mean anything. Your advice about including a pitch instead of an objective statement are spot-on. Objective statements are a waste of space. I have no idea who is yates, perpetuating the idea that they’re a good idea, but they’re not. I’ve lurked here for ps ms 194 homework, quite a while now and thought i’d throw in the opinion of essays camp a HR professional.
In terms of the ps ms 194 homework “bad attributes and good attributes” a better thing would be to mesh the two together; “Chaired three committes leading to the creation of critical thinking meaning new company-wide policies” I agree with Money that objective statements are becoming a thing of the past. @Rita, In terms of the religios nature of your awards/affiliations, it is up to you. However, you should be ready to have comments made about this (of course it would depend on the industry you are in) If I eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive, I’d be down to almost nothing! I have had two low-wage dead-end jobs over the last 25 years. What’s impressive about that? I can SAY I have certain skills, but if those wkills have never been relevant to ps ms my employment, how are employers going to receive that claim?
There are non-employment attributes I could include (e.g. About Essay? I was on the board of my neighborhood association and ps ms 194 homework, a local food co-op) but wouldn’t that be excessive reaching in the context of scant job achievement? (Yes, “excessive reaching” itself is excessive reaching. Irony intended.) Any opinions to book diorama instructions the idea that pitch and/or objective statements are both unneeded? The pitch is ps ms, how you should begin your cover letter. I agree the about globalization resume should be tailored to the job opening, but I am no fan of any opening paragraphs. Ps Ms 194 Homework? I do list my most relevant abilities on the top depending on the job, which could be seen as a bulleted form of a pitch. Good stuff, Trent. Especially original (and after my own heart) is starting in a text editor…not letting someone else’s (poor) cookie cutter form dictate your personal marketing document. One thing that bears repeating and sample, CANNOT be stressed enough: tailor your resume individually for each and every job opportunity you’re applying for.
Unless you’re applying to manager of cereal branding at ps ms, General Mills and want to impress people with your mass marketing skills, no hiring manager will waste time with your resume unless ever inch of it sings your praises for the one job you’re being considered for. Book Report Diorama? If you really want the job, take the time to figure out ps ms which of your strengths are appropriate for of andrea yates essay, THAT job, and move them to the very top of your resume and eliminate everything that’s not relevant or interesting to the hiring manager. Despite my firm belief in the philosophy of the Purple Cow, my instinct is to ps ms 194 homework save the personal interests for sample, the interview. Resumes are screened by computers and/or HR people for keyword richness, not your hobbies, and you can really only turn people off at the scanning stage. “Trent juggles? Oh no, the hiring manager’s mom was killed by a juggler. Pass.” Wait until you get the interview, look around the 194 homework manager’s office for “no juggling” signs or voodoo dolls of clowns, then bring up your interests that make you remarkable and memorable. I would refuse to hire you on sample lab abstract the grounds that “throughput” is not a real word, and I wouldn’t want to have to work with someone who uses abstruse business-speak instead of real words. Throughput is for sure a real world, usually used in context of computers, processors… How much data can be put through how quickly.
Funny you should bring this up. I came across an interesting resume format the ps ms 194 homework other night. I recognize the book report instructions shameless blog plug, but it’s located on ps ms my site at entry titled “Resumes Suck. On Auschwitz? (Until Now)”. Rick Turoczy of the More Than a Living blog has an awesome format. Great post. For those of 194 homework us who are recent graduates and haven’t had much experience putting a resume together, firing up Word or downloading a resume format is usually the critical analysis essay of a first step. Ps Ms 194 Homework? It’s usually a fear of the formality of the document and critical thinking skills, not having a solid grasp of 194 homework what to include in it.
I like how the essay of a personal interests were actually not mentioned. Some interests are frankly lame, and a resume can only ‘describe’ so much of you. Ps Ms 194 Homework? An interview is essays, a much better way to show how interesting of a person you are. I?d further reccomend that people, Trent included, that are interested in ps ms 194 homework this to check out the Manager Tools podcast and website. They have a podcast titled “Your resume stinks!” and critical salesman, I believe they know it. The hosts have worked in corporate recruiting for many years, specifically in technical jobs.
Minimum wage, having a steady job history looks good, no matter what the job. It looks especially good for entry-level jobs where employers experience a lot of problems with absenteeism and tardiness–just showing up and actually doing your work impresses them. And absolutely, positively include any actual experience related to the jobs you want. Just because you didn’t get paid, doesn’t mean it’s not work experience. In fact, if you can get volunteer gigs that require the skills you want to use in ps ms 194 homework your next job, that’s a good plan. Did you accomplish anything impressive on these boards? If not, can you now, now that you know how things are currently done and have a better idea of the lab abstract big picture?
Another approach is to get an entry-level job in a company that also hires people for the kind of ps ms 194 homework job you want. I’ve even heard of people crossing the essay invisible barriers–I know an assembly line worker who got a job as an engineer in the same firm just by speaking up at ps ms 194 homework, a meeting once (in addition to doing awesome work). Another approach is to lab abstract join the professional associations that people who have the job you want next belong to and do committee work so that you can meet people and get good advice on ps ms 194 homework what to do next. Thanks for report diorama instructions, a great post! Any resume advice is greatly appreciated!
Good tips, though I don’t agree with step #5. Ps Ms 194 Homework? You should always include a cover letter with your resume which is where your pitch should go. Putting a pitch at the top of your resume is (or at essay, least should be) redundant. In regards to hobbies and personal interests, I find that to be a bit of ps ms a gray area. Professionally I don’t think that should make a difference to on death of a salesman whether or not someone is hired. Ps Ms? Their life outside of the job is case of andrea yates essay, their own business. Ps Ms 194 Homework? On the flip side you want to hire someone that fits with your team and common interests can be an easy way to have a conversation and sample lab abstract, find out a bit about someone’s personality.
I disagree with you, DrBdan on step #5. Generally speaking, you are right – this should most certainly be shouted out at in your cover letter – thats the blurb that is ps ms 194 homework, going to critical essay get the potential employer to read your resume, period. However, if you can do two different blurbs, having it at 194 homework, the top of your resume will 1 – reinforce the critical meaning idea, and ps ms 194 homework, 2 – show your employer that you didn’t just copy and paste a blurb from the web, because you were able to organize your skills in two different ways. I think its a great idea to replace the mission statement with a pitch. I want to globalization add that finding a job while employed seems to 194 homework be much easier than finding one when unemployed. I setup a linkedin.com page and have been using it heavily. Every time I meet someone whether we are in Boston or Bangalore I send them an invite.
Slowly but surely my network is thinking skills meaning, growing and people are coming to ME to see if I will work for them rather than the other way around. Resumes get you in the door but if you can be proactive while you are employed you can create your own safety net! I am so glad to see resume/cv related advice, but how do you get all that data together to start with? I’ve often been told to provide anecdotal evidence, but I can never remember any when called upon! Stephen’s comment that “an interview is a much better way to show how interesting of a person you are” is right on. Remember, resumes get you interviews, and interviews get you jobs. Write the best resume you can, but don’t neglect interview prep. I once interviewed a person who sounded absolutely perfect on ps ms 194 homework his resume, but in his interview he was an arrogant jerk, and we never talked to him again. We hired someone with a resume that was “marginal” because of her limited experience, but in her interview it was clear she would be a terrific fit for our department. Lab Abstract? (And she was.) As a resume reviewer, I think personal interests are generally not helpful unless they demonstrate some personality trait relevant to the job — for example, if you run marathons, it gives me a sense that you are capable of setting goals and ps ms 194 homework, sticking to them. Please don’t tell me you do yoga.
I do yoga. Critical Meaning? Most of the ps ms 194 homework people in of andrea essay my office do yoga. It probably makes you a better worker. But it’s not going to start a conversation or get you the job. If you can make it interesting — “Recently completed 108 sun salutations in one day to ps ms raise money for victims of domestic violence” — now that gets my attention. Which also ties in to book instructions Minimum Wage’s question — serving on the board of any organization definitely counts as relevant for a lot of jobs. It (hopefully) shows that you’re willing to ps ms pitch in when people need help, and that you’ve probably been in of andrea situations where you had to 194 homework solve problems or make decisions as a team. You could have a whole section of your resume for “Leadership Positions” that may or may not include anything from skills meaning, your paid employment. Hey Simple Dollar, I keep ending up here from like 10 different places (MyMoneyBlog, this time it’s CodeProject!), good job on the market.
There’s a line from the Tao Te Ching: “good speaking leaves nothing to pick at”, however, the fact that everyone is picking at the same thing (chaired committees and objective) gives me the ps ms impression that what you’ve written is very good. So good that “we” only want to “fix” two things to make it perfect. So congrats! :) I will add my two cents to “Objective” discussion: Write a good objective or leave it out . If you don’t think that you can write a good one, leave it out. I like mine, it’s brief, it’s distinct, it says that I’m here and about essay, I’m going there. The same things go for personal interests. My interests include Magic: the Gathering Pro Tour Competitor. This isn’t small potatoes, this is big money, I got a free flight to 194 homework Geneva! I’ve won money at an amateur open event and I’m one of the top-ranked players in Canada (in Limited).
In a brain field, this is on auschwitz camp, a relevant hobby. Though I can understand the personalized resume, I rarely customize the 194 homework resume b/c I’m usually looking for the same type of job. Book Report Instructions? As a computer consultant, the 71 different buzzwords and TLAs on my two page resume are all quite specific. I usually just spend extra time (1+ hours) to customize the cover letter. Interesting about the font type (Georgia) but you don’t reference the font size. What is ps ms, considered a readable font size? Font size = minimum 12. Objective. hmmm what if the employer is filling 6 different positions and HR gets ALL the sample lab abstract resumes. Ps Ms 194 Homework? Which resume goes with which job? Objective: Programmer (Job Title) or using a profile instead of an objective? Minimum Wage: with 25 years of work experience you have a truckload of transferable skills (hard and soft skills).
The biggest part of making a resume work is sample lab abstract, publishing it. I would absolutely work to get a website or publish through a networking company such as LinkedIn. I’ve not had to send my resume to anyone in years. Definitely agree with point # 0 2. Do not use Microsoft Templates to ensure that your resume stands out from the crowd and be sure to research the job before applying for it and this way you will be able to 194 homework create a customized resume which is cognizant to the needs of the job and hence ensure at least a interview. Every time I write a resume, I don’t feel good about it. About Globalization Essay? But when there’s a call for an interview, I think there’s a hope for me. My resume is 194 homework, not too bad. Case Yates? But what is a value of good resume without the skill for an interview.
So, I basically think, a good resume is ps ms 194 homework, useless without a good skill for an interview. Resume constructing tips found here really great. Definitely i will follow some of them.Thanks for essays camp, sharing useful information for job seekers. Whatever your taste, this is a great story! Bingo!
I love this blog…just bookmarked it. Keep it coming. These tips helped me to make perfect resume and i got my job finally, all credits goes to 194 homework you..thanks a Lot. Any experienced resume reviewer can advise on the best way to name a resume? Thanks. Heya i’m for report, the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful it helped me. out a lot.
I hope to give something back and aid others. like you helped me. Good information. Ps Ms 194 Homework? Lucky me I ran across your website by accident (stumbleupon). I have saved as a favorite for later!
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Top 10 Tricky Science Questions: Biology. Teaching Biology, you come across some great tricky science questions - Why is the Sky Blue? and ps ms 194 homework Why does Helium Make your Voice go Funny? are two of the most common. I try to teach my pupils that science is not so much about of andrea, getting answers, but about asking questions. 194 Homework! This hub comprises 10 of the best biology questions I have been asked by my students during their biology lessons in the past year. We shall investigate some of the pressing questions of our age: What IS brain-freeze? Why DO we get spots?
WHY do we get dizzy? As time goes on, each topic will gain a link to a hub that expands on the topic in much greater depth. So sit back and enjoy this ride through my top 10 tricky biology science questions. Sphenopalatine ganglioneuralgia (or 'brain-freeze') is a painful condition similar to a migraine, that arises due to your bodys natural reaction to cold temperatures. When you get cold, your body undergoes a series of changes designed to prevent heat loss. One of these adaptations is the constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstriction) close to the surface of the skin. With less blood flowing near to your skin, less heat is lost to globalization essay the surroundings and you stay warmer for longer. When something really cold hits the back of ps ms, your mouth, the blood vesselts in case essay, your palate rapidly constrict. When you swallow, the ps ms 194 homework cold goes away and essay the same blood vessels rapidly dilate back to their original size. All of this is a perfectly normal physiological response to ps ms 194 homework the cold. The pain is caused by case essay, a misinterpretation of this constriction/dilation by the trigeminal nerve - a major facial nerve that is ps ms positioned very close to your palate.
The pain seems to come from your forehead because of the location of the trigeminal nerve (shown in the diagram) What is your favourite science subject? We sense pain due to the transmission of a specific signal to the brain via the spinal cord. Pain relief medications work by about, preventing this 'pain signal' from reaching the brain. There are two main types of painkillers that are commonly used: the 'aspirin medicines' and the 'narcotic medicines.' The Aspirin-type painkillers block the ps ms 194 homework body's prostaglandins - molecules responsible for pain and swelling.
Blocking prostaglandins blocks the book report signal at ps ms 194 homework the source of the pain, as well as reducing swelling. The Narcotic-type medicines block the pain messages in the spinal cord and the brain, and are typically used for on auschwitz concentration camp, much more severe pain relief. Each group of painkiller is comprised of numerous sub-types, each with slightly different modes of action. This can allow certain pain relief medicines to be combined safely. Whether you are male or female, spots, pimples, and acne are all down to a sensitivity to the hormone testosterone. This hormone can trigger the overproduction of sebum - an oily substance that waterproofs your hair and skin. When sebum gets trapped, this can lead to a spot forming. Your skin is 194 homework like a conveyor belt, constantly renewing itself. As new cells are produced in the lowest layers of your skin (the dermis), old cells are shed from the surface. If some of these dead skin cells happens to block a pore, sebum can build up inside the hair follicle.
Blackheads occur when the blockage is lab abstract near the sufrace. The accumulated sebum can react with the oxygen in the air and turns black (a similar process to an apple going brown). Ps Ms 194 Homework! The technical term is an 'open comedone.' Whiteheads occur beneath a layer of skin. Of Andrea Yates! This prevents the sebum from ps ms 194 homework, reacting with the on auschwitz air and so it stays white. Whiteheads are 'closed comedones.' Red acne spots are the result of an infection. Trapped sebum provides the ps ms ideal breeding ground for about globalization, bacteria which can multiply and cause an inflammed pustule.
There is no evidence that diet affects acne, as it is ps ms 194 homework caused by the presence of of andrea essay, testosterone. This also explains why teens and pregnant women develop acne - both sets of people are subject to hormone imbalances. The classic rumble associated with hunger is less to do with the stomach and more to do with our large intestine. A rumbling tummy is 194 homework a combination of liquid and gas plus a small space. Food does not move down our digestive system by sample lab abstract, gravity - if that were the case, astronauts would not survive in space. Instead, muscle contractions in the gut wall called peristalsis both churn up the food and move it through the system. These muscle contractions occur right the way through the digestive system, from the ps ms 194 homework oesophagus to the stomach to the intestines and out the other end. When air gets trapped in the folds and bends of the small intestine, the liquid sloshing around can create a rumble - amplified by the small space of the small intestine. Case Of Andrea! The reason we associate a rumbling tummy with hunger is that the rumbling is louder the less food is ps ms 194 homework present in the intestine.
An enduring tricky biology question, the actual hiccup is a strong contraction of the diaphragm - the analysis of a salesman organ responsible for our breathing. Just after the contraction we start to inhale which causes the glottis (a partioning wall between the windpipe and oesophagus) closes the ps ms windpipe, causing the 'hic' sound. But what sets them off? There are actually over 100 physiological causes for a hiccup! The most common reasons are: Acid reflux Irritation of the thorax Irritation of the phrenic nerve (the nerve that controls the diaphragm) Did you know that falling out of bed kills 450 people a year in the US?, Ants claim another 30 lives and vending machines kill around 13 people; Safety is essays a relative term. An x-ray is a form of high energy radiation with a wavelength about 194 homework, 10,000 times shorter than that of visible light. The danger with x-rays is that they can knock electrons away from atoms, creating ions; this is of andrea essay why x-rays are called 'ionising radiation'. Ps Ms! Ions are much more reactive than atoms and can shoot about your body damaging important molecules like DNA. This can cause mutation, or even cancer, if the dose is high enough.
But that is the globalization key - ' if the dose is high enough .' The increase in radiation your body receives during an x-ray is equivalent to ps ms the extra radiation you are exposed to during a trans-atlantic flight. Medical x-rays are now very safe (the technician is in greater danger than you are due to the frequency of possible exposure), and much safer than being cut open every time a doctor needs to look inside you. How Does a Fish Breathe Underwater? Fish don't 'breathe' underwater, but they still need to absorb oxygen and remove oxygen in a process known as gas exchange. The gills of a fish are made up of an arch which splits into filaments lined with lamellae - small, blood-vessel lined discs. This makes the essays on auschwitz camp gills extremely blood-rich giving a bright red colour. The more active a fish is, the more oxygen it needs, so the more lamellae it has. A fish extracts the oxygen it needs from the water by diffusion. Water moves into the mouth and flows over and through the ps ms gills. Book Diorama Instructions! The water contains a high concentration of oxygen compared to the blood which causes oxygen to diffuse into the blood (carbon dioxide is ps ms 194 homework the opposite - high concentration in blood, low in water, so it diffuses out). About Globalization Essay! Fish must maintain a 'countercurrent system of flow' as diffusion only works if there is less oxygen in the blood than there is in the water.
Dizziness is caused when the brain receives conflicting signals from different sensors. The vestibular system is an intricate network of fluid-filled channels found in ps ms 194 homework, our inner ear and is responsible for our perception of gravity and report instructions motion. 194 Homework! When we spin around, we set the fluid in thinking skills meaning, the semicircular canal spinning. If we stop suddenly, our eyes and ps ms 194 homework other sense organs immediately send a signal to the brain that the body has stopped moving. The fluid in our vestibular system, however, keeps spinning and about globalization essay so sends a signal to the brain that the head is moving. The sensation of ps ms, 'dizziness' occurs due to the conflict between these two signals. The brain accepts both signals as true and so decides that the head is spinning, whilst the body is stationary.
Neurons are a speciailised cell-type that transmits information around our body at high speed. They are the information highway of our bodies and work in a similar way to an electric circuit. These highly specialised cells exhibit a number of adaptations to help them do their job: Dendrites: increase the surface area of the neuron to maximise the number of possible synaptic connections. Myelin Sheath: a fatty tissue that insulates the nerve in case, a similar way to the insulation on an electrical wire.
Nodes of Ranvier: gaps in the myelin that allow the signal to 194 homework 'jump' from node to node, increasing the speed of sample, transmission. It should be obvious that neurons do not work in ps ms 194 homework, isolation - many are needed to transmit a signal to its destination. The more often a series or collection of neurons are caused to fire, the easier and easier it becomes for that same pattern to be repeated: this is the case yates basis of learning. Another extremely popular biology question! Goosebumps are a relic from our ancestrally hairy days. and are now next to useless. The theory behind this physiological response is twofold: Firstly, air is a poor conductor of heat. When cold our ancestors would fluff up their fur, trapping air and ps ms reducing heatloss. Skills! The video shows how our hairs are raised. Secondly, many mammals fluff up their fur to appear larger and scarier when threatened or displaying during mating rituals.
This is why we get goosebumps when scared. Biology genetics teaching learning resources by D G Mackean. A huge collection The Biology Corner. A biology resource site for teachers and students. Top 10 Tricky Science Questions: Answered. by Rhys Baker 65. Fun Science Experiments Parents Can Do With Kids at 194 homework Home.
by Levictus Marcus Saarith 0. Respiratory Physiology - Introduction. by Chanaka Kahathuduwa 2. Blood Color in Humans and Animals: Meaning and Function. by Linda Crampton 38. Animals Using Solar Energy for Photosynthesis or Electric Power. by Linda Crampton 22. Blood of the Irish: What DNA Tells Us About the Ancestry of People in Ireland. by Marie McKeown 200. The 5 Main Differences Between Alligators and Crocodiles.
by Paul Goodman 36. Shivam Udhan 11 days ago. Really great information. Thank you very much.. Thank u for sharing. wow! you've done great job.
These questions are hard to answer but, you sort in a scientific way. Great job. I give time on science as much as I could do too. Wonderful!! helpful to learn. Maryam Amjid 14 months ago. very good question and their answer very best and about also improve more. Ps Ms 194 Homework! BEST OF LUCK. Ana Maria Orantes 3 years ago from Miami Florida. Hello miss TSSscienties. I like your questions.
The explanation of each body problems is good. Of Andrea Yates Essay! Thank you for sharing your knowledge. Do you know why people see double. I like your hub. 194 Homework! You are fantastic lady. Amanda Littlejohn 4 years ago. Oooo, what a lovely read that was! Some great questions really well answered in a way that makes even the complex science easy to understand. You clearly have a great gift for communicating biological concepts and processes. I also like the way you start out by saying that science is more about asking questions than it is about finding answers. Thinking! I so agree with you - and not just science but all education, maybe even life itself!
I get the idea that you are a teacher? I hope your pupils realize just what a good teacher they've got. Patricia Scott 5 years ago from ps ms, sunny Florida. Science is a never ending source of instructions, discovery. Ps Ms 194 Homework! I love to read and reread science entries like this. This would be a fun series of questions to give kids to do for 'challenge activities.' Thanks for lab abstract, sharing this. I will be back to ps ms 194 homework read more of your writings. Just one additional question you might add..why do we get a back freeze? Pinned and essays on auschwitz concentration voted up.
Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. @Robin: That's great! The more we can nurture an inquisitive nature the 194 homework better! I hope she finds it interesting :) Robin Edmondson 5 years ago from San Francisco. I love all of thinking skills, your science Hubs; I'm a huge fan. I will be reading this one to our third grader as she is always asking these sorts of 194 homework, questions!
Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. @TDAPharm: I'm glad you enjoyed the critical thinking hub. Ps Ms 194 Homework! Regarding the precise categorisation of the medications, this is yates essay only a broad hub and is not intended for experts. For me to 194 homework justify another category I would have to go into the pharmacodynamics of different drugs. I did mention in the text that different drugs under these two broad categories work in critical analysis of a, different ways. :) TDAPharm 5 years ago from 194 homework, Massachusetts. I like the hub, these are always interesting subjects! Just one thing, I would not throw paracetamol/acetaminophen under aspirin.
While both work on the arachadonic pathway to book report instructions help pain, it does target specific sites. In addition, the pharmacology is ps ms 194 homework different and of andrea yates as such only serves as an analgesic and 194 homework antipyretic, while lacking the diorama instructions anti inflammatory properties of 194 homework, NSAIDs. Lastly, these agents you mentioned treat nociceptive pain, and about globalization essay are not mainstays of ps ms 194 homework, neuropathic pain. Sorry to be a stickler, just something that caught my attention. However,again, good hub and book report I like the brain freeze part! Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. I'm glad you enjoyed it Mmargie! Thanks for ps ms, the share - hopefully your followers will enjoy it just as much :)
Mmargie1966 5 years ago from Gainesville, GA. Excellent! Shared this one :) Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. @cocopreme: Wow! High praise indeed :) I'm glad you found my hub interesting and engaging. Candace Bacon 5 years ago from Far, far away.
Biology has never been my favorite science subject, but you present it in an interesting and engaging way. It is clear and easy to understand. You make me want to learn more about how our bodies work. Great hub! Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. @Melovy and critical analysis of a Horatio: I'm very glad you enjoyed it :) Horatio Plot 5 years ago from 194 homework, Bedfordshire, England. Gosh. Great Hub.
Excellent info for critical thinking meaning, kids of all ages. Yvonne Spence 5 years ago from ps ms, UK. A very interesting hub, that I can see I will be pointing my children towards in the near future as I am sure they will also enjoy it. Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. That is fantastic!
Gotta love it when the ads sync up that well :) IAmForbidden 5 years ago from critical of a salesman, Neverland - where children never grow up. Excellent hub packed with useful information. By the way, we have here an ice-crushed flavored drink called Slurpee. I love the ads which said, want to have a brainfreeze?
Rhys Baker 5 years ago from Peterborough, UK. Thanks to 194 homework all for the great comments - I'm glad you enjoyed it. If I have piqued your interest about sample, even one facet of biology, I have done my job. alliemacb 5 years ago from Scotland. Brilliant. I had no idea there was a technical term for brain freeze. When I was young, I used to daydream my way through biology class.
Now I wish I had paid attention because it's just fascinating. Ps Ms 194 Homework! Voted up and awesome. Amy Gillie 5 years ago from Indiana. This is fabulous! Some questions that I believe most people have, even if they have never asked. I'm sharing this and voted up!
Dan Robbins 5 years ago from Ohio. Wow! This is about globalization essay awesome and very interesting. Ps Ms 194 Homework! I love this kind of stuff. Thanks for the extra wrinkles in essay, my brain! Voted UP! and interesting! Nettlemere 5 years ago from Burnley, Lancashire, UK. That's a great hub - really easy to ps ms 194 homework understand, but packed with solid information. Marcy Goodfleisch 5 years ago from Planet Earth. These are such interesting facts to know!
You've explained everything concisely and understandably - I really enjoyed the whole hub, in every way. Lab Abstract! I think people will enjoy learning the answers to these questions. Voted up, useful and interesting. Robie Benve 5 years ago from Ohio. Great questions and smartly answered! Even if now I have an itchy curiosity about how those 30 people die every year because of ants. Liz Elias 5 years ago from Oakley, CA. Very well done, indeed! I've always been fascinated by the study of physiology.
It was my favorite subject in high school, while geology was my favorite in college. I put geology in your poll, as physiology was not included, but really it's a tossup--they both continue to ps ms 194 homework intigue me. Voted up, useful, interesting and shared. Nare Gevorgyan 5 years ago. Excellent!
Such a thorough research and clear explanations. Great job! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and thinking respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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alfie homework kohn published by the Teachers.Net community. Editor in Chief. Regular contributor to the Gazette. © 2007 by Alfie Kohn. Reprinted from NAESP Principal January/February 2007 with the 194 homework, author's permission. February 1, 2008. It becomes even more curious, for that matter, in light of three other facts: The negative effects of homework are well known. They include children’s frustration and essay exhaustion, lack of time for other activities, and possible loss of interest in learning. Many parents lament the ps ms, impact of homework on their relationship with their children; they may also resent having to play the role of enforcer and worry that they will be criticized either for not being involved enough with the homework or for becoming too involved. Case Of Andrea! The positive effects of ps ms, homework are largely mythical. In preparation for a book on the topic, I’ve spent a lot of essays concentration, time sifting through the research.
The results are nothing short of stunning. Ps Ms! For starters, there is absolutely no evidence of any academic benefit from assigning homework in elementary or middle school. For younger students, in analysis salesman fact, there isn’t even a correlation between whether children do homework (or how much they do) and any meaningful measure of achievement. At the high school level, the correlation is ps ms 194 homework, weak and tends to disappear when more sophisticated statistical measures are applied. Meanwhile, no study has ever substantiated the belief that homework builds character or teaches good study habits.
More homework is being piled on children despite the absence of its value. Over the essay, last quarter-century the burden has increased most for the youngest children, for whom the evidence of 194 homework, positive effects isn’t just dubious; it’s nonexistent. It’s not as though most teachers decide now and report instructions then that a certain lesson really ought to continue after school is over because meaningful learning is ps ms, so likely to result from such an assignment that it warrants the intrusion on family time. Homework in critical analysis essay most schools isn’t limited to those occasions when it seems appropriate and important. Rather, the point of departure seems to be: “We’ve decided ahead of time that children will have to do something every night (or several times a week). Ps Ms! Later on we’ll figure out what to sample, make them do.” What parents and ps ms 194 homework teachers need is support from administrators who are willing to challenge the conventional wisdom. Concentration Camp! They need principals who question the slogans that pass for arguments: that homework creates a link between school and family (as if there weren’t more constructive ways to make that connection!), or that it “reinforces” what students were taught in class (a word that denotes the repetition of rote behaviors, not the development of ps ms 194 homework, understanding), or that it teaches children self-discipline and responsibility (a claim for which absolutely no evidence exists). Critical Skills Meaning! Above all, principals need to help their faculties see that the most important criterion for 194 homework judging decisions about homework (or other policies, for lab abstract that matter) is the impact they’re likely to have on 194 homework students’ attitudes about what they’re doing. Yates! “Most of what homework is doing is driving kids away from learning,” says education professor Harvey Daniels. Let’s face it: Most children dread homework, or at best see it as something to be gotten through. 194 Homework! Thus, even if it did provide other benefits, they would have to be weighed against its likely effect on kids’ love of of andrea, learning. So what’s a thoughtful principal to 194 homework, do?
Educate yourself and book report diorama instructions share what you’ve learned with teachers, parents, and central office administrators. Make sure you know what the research really says – that there is no reason to believe that children would be at any disadvantage in terms of their academic learning or life skills if they had much less homework, or even none at all. Ps Ms 194 Homework! Whatever decisions are made should be based on fact rather than folk wisdom. Rethink standardized “homework policies.” Requiring teachers to give a certain number of minutes of homework every day, or to make assignments on the same schedule every week (for example, x minutes of math on Tuesdays and Thursdays) is a frank admission that homework isn’t justified by a given lesson, much less is on auschwitz concentration camp, it a response to what specific kids need at a specific time. Such policies sacrifice thoughtful instruction in order to ps ms, achieve predictability, and globalization they manage to do a disservice not only to students but, when imposed from above, to teachers as well. Reduce the amount – but don’t stop there.
Many parents are understandably upset with how much time their children have to spend on homework. At a minimum, make sure that teachers aren’t exceeding district guidelines and that they aren’t chronically underestimating how long it takes students to complete the assignments. (As one mother told me, “It’s cheating to say this is 20 minutes of homework if only your fastest kid can complete it in that time.”) Then work on 194 homework reducing the amount of homework irrespective of on auschwitz concentration camp, such guidelines and expectations so that families, not schools, decide how they will spend most of their evenings. Quantity, however, is not the only issue that needs to be addressed. Ps Ms! Some assignments, frankly, aren’t worth even five minutes of a student’s time. Too many first graders are forced to clip words from magazines that begin with a given letter of the alphabet. Too many fifth graders have to color in an endless list of factor pairs on graph paper.
Too many eighth graders spend their evenings inching their way through dull, overstuffed, committee-written textbooks, one chapter at a time. Teachers should be invited to reflect on whether any given example of homework will help students think deeply about questions that matter. Critical Essay On Death Salesman! What philosophy of teaching, what theory of ps ms, learning, lies behind each assignment? Does it seem to assume that children are meaning makers -- or empty vessels? Is learning regarded as a process that’s mostly active or passive? Is it about wrestling with ideas or mindlessly following directions?
Change the critical thinking skills meaning, default. Ultimately, it’s not enough just to have less homework or even better homework. We should change the fundamental expectation in our schools so that students are asked to take schoolwork home only when a there’s a reasonable likelihood that a particular assignment will be beneficial to most of 194 homework, them. When that’s not true, they should be free to spend their after-school hours as they choose. Camp! The bottom line: No homework except on those occasions when it’s truly necessary. This, of course, is ps ms, a reversal of the critical thinking meaning, current default state, which amounts to an endorsement of homework for its own sake, regardless of the 194 homework, content, a view that simply can’t be justified. Ask the kids. Find out what students think of homework and solicit their suggestions – perhaps by distributing anonymous questionnaires. Many adults simply assume that homework is thinking skills meaning, useful for ps ms promoting learning without even inquiring into the experience of the learners themselves! Do students find that homework really is critical meaning, useful?
Why or why not? Are certain kinds better than others? How does homework affect their desire to learn? What are its other effects on their lives, and on their families? Suggest that teachers assign only what they design. In most cases, students should be asked to do only what teachers are willing to create themselves, as opposed to prefabricated worksheets or generic exercises photocopied from textbooks. Also, it rarely makes sense to give the same assignment to all students in a class because it’s unlikely to be beneficial for 194 homework most of them. Those who already understand the concept will be wasting their time, and those who don’t understand will become increasingly frustrated. There is no perfect assignment that will stimulate every student because one size simply doesn’t fit all. On those days when homework really seems necessary, teachers should create several assignments fitted to sample lab abstract, different interests and capabilities. 194 Homework! But it’s better to critical thinking meaning, give no homework to 194 homework, anyone than the same homework to essays on auschwitz concentration camp, everyone.
Use homework as an opportunity to involve students in decision-making. One way to judge the quality of a classroom is by the extent to which students participate in ps ms making choices about their learning. The best teachers know that children learn how to make good decisions by making decisions, not by following directions. Students should have something to say about what they’re going to learn and the circumstances under which they’ll learn it, as well as how (and when) their learning will be evaluated, how the room will be set up, how conflicts will be resolved, and a lot more. Essays On Auschwitz Concentration Camp! What is true of education in ps ms 194 homework general is true of essay, homework in particular. At least two investigators have found that the most impressive teachers (as defined by 194 homework, various criteria) tend to of andrea, involve students in decisions about assignments rather than simply telling them what they’ll have to do at home. A reasonable first question for 194 homework a parent to ask upon seeing a homework assignment is case of andrea yates essay, “How much say did the kids have in 194 homework determining how this had to be done, and on what schedule, and whether it really needed to essays camp, be completed at home in ps ms 194 homework the first place?” A discussion about whether homework might be useful (and why) can be valuable in its own right.
If opinions are varied, the question of what to diorama, do when everyone doesn’t agree – take a vote? keep talking until we reach consensus? look for a compromise? – develops social skills as well as intellectual growth. And that growth occurs precisely because the teacher asked rather than told. Teachers who consult with their students on a regular basis would shake their heads vigorously were you to ps ms, suggest that kids will always say no to homework – or to anything else that requires effort. It’s just not true, they’ll tell you. When students are treated with respect, when the assignments are worth doing, most kids relish a challenge. If, on the other hand, students groan about, or try to avoid, homework, it’s generally because they get too much of it, or because it’s assigned thoughtlessly and continuously, or simply because they had nothing to say about it. The benefits of camp, even high-quality assignments are limited if students feel “done to” instead of ps ms 194 homework, “worked with.” Help teachers move away from grading. Your faculty may need your support, encouragement, and practical suggestions to help them abandon a model in which assignments are checked off or graded, where the point is to enforce compliance, and toward a model in which students explain and explore with one another what they’ve done -- what they liked and disliked about the book they read, what they’re struggling with, what new questions they came up with.
As the essay, eminent educator Martin Haberman observed, homework in the best classrooms “is not checked – it is ps ms 194 homework, shared.” If students conclude that there’s no point in spending time on assignments that aren’t going to be collected or somehow recorded, that’s not an argument for case of andrea essay setting up bribes and threats and a climate of distrust; it’s an indictment of the homework itself. Experiment. Ask teachers who are reluctant to rethink their long-standing reliance on traditional homework to see what happens if, during a given week or curriculum unit, they tried assigning none. Surely anyone who believes that homework is beneficial should be willing to ps ms, test that assumption by investigating the consequences of its absence. What are the effects of a moratorium on students’ achievement, on book their interest in 194 homework learning, on their moods and the resulting climate of the classroom? Likewise, the school as a whole can try out a new policy, such as the change in default that I’ve proposed, on a tentative basis before committing to it permanently. Principals deal with an endless series of crises; they’re called upon to resolve complaints, soothe wounded egos, negotiate solutions, try to keep everyone happy, and generally make the trains (or, rather, buses) run on analysis on death salesman time. In such a position there is a strong temptation to avoid new initiatives that call the status quo into question.
Considerable gumption is required to 194 homework, take on book diorama instructions an issue like homework, particularly during an era when phrases like “raising the bar” and “higher standards” are used to rationalize practices that range from foolish to inappropriate to hair-raising. But of course a principal’s ultimate obligation is to do what’s right by the children, to protect them from harmful mandates and practices that persist not because they’re valuable but merely because they’re traditional. For anyone willing to shake things up in order to do what makes sense, beginning a conversation about homework is a very good place to start. We are awash in articles and 194 homework books that claim homework is analysis on death, beneficial – or simply take the existence or value of ps ms 194 homework, homework for granted and essays camp merely offer suggestions for ps ms how it ought to be assigned, or what techniques parents should use to make children complete it. Here are some resources that question the conventional assumptions about the book diorama, subject in an effort to stimulate meaningful thinking and conversation. Barber, Bill. “Homework Does Not Belong on the Agenda for ps ms Educational Reform.” Educational Leadership , May 1986: 55-57. Bennett, Sara, and Nancy Kalish.
The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and thinking skills What We Can Do About It (New York: Crown, 2006). Buell, John. Closing the Book on ps ms 194 homework Homework: Enhancing Public Education and Freeing Family Time . (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004). Hinchey, Patricia. “Rethinking Homework.” MASCD [Missouri Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development] Fall Journal , December 1995: 13-17. Kohn, Alfie. The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2006). Kralovec, Etta, and John Buell.
The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning (Boston: Beacon Press, 2000). Samway, Katharine. “’And You Run and You Run to Catch Up with the Sun, But It’s Sinking.’” Language Arts 63 (1986): 352-57. Waldman, Ayelet. “Homework Hell.” Salon.com. October 22, 2005. © 2007 by critical analysis salesman, Alfie Kohn. Reprinted from NAESP Principal January/February 2007 with the author's permission. This article may be downloaded, reproduced, and distributed without permission as long as each copy includes this notice along with citation information (i.e., name of the periodical in 194 homework which it originally appeared, date of publication, and author's name).
Permission must be obtained in order to essays concentration camp, reprint this article in a published work or in order to offer it for sale in any form. For more information, please see www.alfiekohn.org. About Alfie Kohn. Alfie Kohn writes and 194 homework speaks widely on human behavior, education, and parenting. The latest of his eleven books are THE HOMEWORK MYTH: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing (2006) and UNCONDITIONAL PARENTING: Moving from Rewards and Punishments to Love and Reason (2005). Case Yates Essay! Of his earlier titles, the best known are PUNISHED BY REWARDS: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and 194 homework Other Bribes (1993), NO CONTEST: The Case Against Competition (1986), and THE SCHOOLS OUR CHILDREN DESERVE: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and Tougher Standards (1999).
Kohn has been described in Time magazine as perhaps the country's most outspoken critic of essays on auschwitz camp, education's fixation on grades [and] test scores. His criticisms of competition and rewards have helped to shape the thinking of educators -- as well as parents and managers -- across the country and abroad. Ps Ms 194 Homework! Kohn has been featured on hundreds of TV and radio programs, including the Today show and two appearances on Oprah; he has been profiled in the Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times , while his work has been described and debated in many other leading publications. Kohn lectures widely at globalization essay, universities and to school faculties, parent groups, and ps ms 194 homework corporations. Essays On Auschwitz Concentration! In addition to speaking at staff development seminars and keynoting national education conferences on ps ms 194 homework a regular basis, he conducts workshops for teachers and administrators on various topics. Among them: Motivation from the Inside Out: Rethinking Rewards, Assessment, and Learning and Beyond Bribes and Threats: Realistic Alternatives to Controlling Students' Behavior. On Auschwitz Concentration! The latter corresponds to his book BEYOND DISCIPLINE: From Compliance to Community (ASCD, 1996), which he describes as a modest attempt to overthrow the 194 homework, entire field of classroom management. Kohn's various books have been translated into Chinese, Japanese, Korean, German, Swedish, Dutch, Portuguese, Hebrew, Thai, Malaysian, and Italian.
He has also contributed to camp, publications ranging from the Journal of Education to Ladies Home Journal , and from the Nation to the Harvard Business Review (Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work). His efforts to make research in human behavior accessible to a general audience have also been published in the Atlantic Monthly , Parents , and Psychology Today . His many articles on education include eleven widely reprinted cover essays in Phi Delta Kappan : Caring Kids: The Role of the Schools (March 1991), Choices for Children: Why and How to ps ms 194 homework, Let Students Decide (Sept. 1993), The Truth About Self-Esteem (Dec. 1994), How Not to Teach Values: A Critical Look at about globalization essay, Character Education (Feb. Ps Ms! 1997), Only for My Kid: How Privileged Parents Undermine School Reform (April 1998), Fighting the Tests (Jan. 2001), The 500-Pound Gorilla (Oct. 2002), Test Today, Privatize Tomorrow (April 2004), Challenging Students -- And How to Have More of Them (Nov.
2004), Abusing Research (Sept. 2006), and Who's Cheating Whom? (Oct. 2007).
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colorado essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins. These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality.
In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and ps ms 194 homework priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. About Globalization! Samurai governments administered the ps ms 194 homework, country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to report, an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the ps ms, breakdown in civil order. Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the diorama, Japanese to change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers.
Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the 194 homework, period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history?
To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in essays concentration camp the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in ps ms the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples. If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the case of andrea essay, Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to 194 homework, join him in case essay attacking the ps ms, Taira.
The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the lab abstract, country for ps ms five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government. About Essay! Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to 194 homework, follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. Book Report! As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government.
The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to ps ms 194 homework, the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits. Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for essays on auschwitz Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun.
Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by ps ms the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Male members of the book report, H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 194 homework 1203 until 1333. Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace.
It never eliminated the meaning, imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the ps ms, aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Sample! Outcomes could be appealed.
Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the ps ms, battlefield. In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into globalization submitting to ps ms, his empire. Critical Thinking Meaning! Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons.
Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds). Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Ps Ms! Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent. They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to meaning, earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded.
Consider, for example, the ps ms, personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against analysis essay on death of a the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the 194 homework, Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Essays On Auschwitz Camp! Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money. Ps Ms! If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property.
At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on meaning government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and 194 homework change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for much of their income. Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income.
As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Report Instructions! Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to ps ms, attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and about be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them.
Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own. 194 Homework! For many Japanese, medieval warfare and case of andrea the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the 194 homework, teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in analysis essay salesman the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. 194 Homework! Amida had vowed to about globalization, save others before achieving enlightenment.
Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the 194 homework, phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the globalization, only hope for ps ms 194 homework mankind. Therefore, according to essay, Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary.
His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and ps ms 194 homework gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to case yates essay, his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and ps ms his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.
It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China. Lab Abstract! The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. 194 Homework! A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century. Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for women seeking divorces. Critical Thinking Skills! The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the ps ms 194 homework, best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest.
The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the sample, Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the ps ms, Buddhist influence of the critical thinking, medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. Ps Ms 194 Homework! It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of meaning twelfth-century warfare. But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the ps ms, tale many decades after the book diorama, war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of 194 homework impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in critical thinking meaning Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. Ps Ms! A notable exception is the about globalization, memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant.
Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against 194 homework the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work. Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and essays crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous.
The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . Ps Ms! These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors. Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the essay of a, shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the ps ms, legitimacy that they gained from the sample lab abstract, shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in 194 homework the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and skills crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and ps ms 194 homework official trade with China. Report Instructions! Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and ps ms a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the of andrea yates essay, Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings. Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of a Zen temple today).
His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the ps ms, emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to of andrea yates, accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the ps ms 194 homework, Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and critical thinking meaning that was the emperor of ps ms 194 homework China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear. Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the thinking skills meaning, political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to ps ms 194 homework, monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line.
Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. Essays Concentration Camp! But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure. 194 Homework! He ruled for critical thinking skills meaning over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. 194 Homework! He built the of andrea essay, Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out.
Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for ps ms architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture. In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Analysis Of A! Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and ps ms 194 homework other men of talent. Essays Concentration Camp! The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of ps ms culture too. Report Diorama Instructions! As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to ps ms 194 homework, create new cultural traditions.
Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the case of andrea yates essay, Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Ps Ms! Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is meaning credited with having made tea popular in Japan. By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in ps ms order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by globalization essay favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. Ps Ms! It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. Lab Abstract! He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices. Ps Ms! People began to speak of about a Way of Tea.
The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Ps Ms! Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea. Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. Essays Concentration Camp! It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. Ps Ms 194 Homework! In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of analysis essay on death of a Noh’s most important playwrights.
Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is ps ms leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of of andrea essay pride or lingering attachment. The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on 194 homework Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of case of andrea yates a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the ps ms, medieval period.
Markets began to develop around the country. Critical Essay On Death Of A Salesman! These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in ps ms 194 homework hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently. For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the skills, month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and ps ms were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and sample disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more.
In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in ps ms 194 homework the middle so they could be strung together in units of instructions 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over 194 homework, rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times. Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the critical essay on death of a salesman, Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for ps ms 194 homework more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and about globalization essay later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to ps ms, China in hopes of sample lab abstract obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and ps ms 194 homework sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the about globalization essay, tallies were turned away from Chinese ports.
On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period. 194 Homework! The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in about globalization essay Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers.
By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and ps ms 194 homework could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Diorama! Female writers of the ps ms, Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of concentration samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property. And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the ps ms, eldest son.
Married women were expected to join the family of their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the book report, early fourteenth century is ps ms one of the last important literary works by thinking a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. Ps Ms! By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and book diorama the Age of Warring States. From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in ps ms 194 homework a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War.
The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by essay leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Ps Ms 194 Homework! Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the about globalization, shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the ps ms 194 homework, Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is sample lab abstract known as the Age of Warring States.
During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates. The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to ps ms 194 homework, resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands.
Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by of a salesman buying and 194 homework selling goods amongst the on death of a, various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity. 194 Homework! They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well.
The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by critical Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the ps ms 194 homework, Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices.
Second, Europe’s existence forced the case of andrea yates, Japanese to change their view of the world. 194 Homework! Maps from the time reflect the shift from lab abstract seeing a world including only Japan, China, and 194 homework India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Essay! Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan. Three warlords succeeded in unifying the ps ms, country and bringing an sample lab abstract, end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to 194 homework, win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more. In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from analysis essay on death of a a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals.
He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out ps ms, new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of critical thinking Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to 194 homework, invade Korea. The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon globalization essay Hideyoshi’s death in 1598.
Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to ps ms, Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan. In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and case of andrea yates essay established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . Ps Ms 194 Homework! The unifiers’ policies, and book report the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado.
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