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Wool People 11: Fabric and Texture. We’re celebrating independence and stamp collaboration with the thinking meaning release of Wool People 11 today! We always enjoy the chance our Wool People project offers to work alongside independent designers, both new and established — there’s a sense of thesis stamp, fresh energy and perspective in combing through the hundreds of submissions we receive for these collections and in essays, bringing the selected designs to life. This issue feels extra special because it incorporates our two newest yarns, Arbor and Vale. Next week we’ll do a feature on thesis, the Vale accessories and ten steps writing share the designers’ thoughts about working with our new laceweight. But before we delve into stamp the wonderful world of riddle paper guide, lace and kick off our Summer of Lace KAL, we want to talk about the Wool People 11 garments.

There are eight gorgeous sweaters in three different yarns, and what really stands out to us is the diversity of fabrics the designers have achieved in these wearable, flattering pieces. For cozy bundling in the light but warm stockinette that Shelter creates, Ann Klimpert and Andrea Mowry present Rivet and Ronan. Both of these long-length cardigans rely on Shelter’s airy, woolen-spun nature to stay versatile and hold their shape despite their large swathes of fabric. Rivet has a vintage feel, while Ronan’s is a totally modern silhouette with a collar in fluffy brioche. For those who like a trim and classic pullover, Mossbank and Bell give a twist to timeless layering pieces by using mostly reverse stockinette fabric. The pebbly texture of the purl side is thesis stamp, a great way to embry riddle research paper, set off softly rounded cables in a woolen-spun yarn, as Ann McCauley chose to do with Bell. Kerry Robb was inspired by the back side of her swatch in our Newsprint marl, realizing that the bumps blend the contrasting colors into an inviting heathery haze. Loft in garter stitch is total comfort fabric, and triangular shawls like Nancy Whitman’s Level are comfort wear. For cool summer evenings when you want to date stamp, linger outdoors, this graphic layer is the remedy.

Level’s inventive construction and a dab of intarsia make the format about knitting sprightlier than usual for a garter triangle. If you’ve got a summer road trip planned, we think light and packable Loft shawls make good travel companions as knitting projects and as finished pieces. One reason we’ve been so excited to add Arbor to thesis stamp, our core yarn line is courseworks of, that it’s entirely different from our woolen-spun yarns. Besides being stronger, denser, and smoother, Arbor is rounder . Thesis Date Stamp. Its third ply makes the joad essay yarn cylindrical rather than helical, and its tighter twist keeps those three plies completely engaged in a happy menage. Arbor’s stitches don’t blend in amongst their neighbors; they stand proud and individual. And that means we can knit fabrics with more dimension and more vivid texture.

Four of thesis, our Wool People designers put Arbor through its paces with very different approaches. Melissa Wehrle uses a simple all-over texture of knits and purls to create a waffly fabric for critical Harlowe, and a relaxed gauge allows the sweater to drape beautifully. Yoko Hatta’s sculptural Akiko cardigan shows the yarn’s affinity for cables and contrasts moss stitch fronts with a clean plane of fluid stockinette on the back. Olga Buraya-Kefelian opts for a modern, high-impact ribbing treatment to elevate her Boundary mock turtleneck. And Emily Greene pulls out all the stops with panels of directional half-twisted rib in her Divide pullover. Are you ready to thesis date, swatch some new fabrics to add to your closet? We hope you find inspiration in the talent and vision of the Wool People designers. Take some time with the research paper new lookbook and let us know what’s calling your name! Our latest collection, BT Yokes, offers even the stamp most seasoned colorwork knitter lots of opportunity for experimentation.

We had fun playing with color options for Schulz, a unisex pullover designed by Michele Wang. Critical Thinking. Try Cinnabar or Thistle for a bright pop of vintage nostalgia, or a neutral like Cast Iron or Pumpernickel for a slightly more subdued effect. These are just a few ideas — we can#8217;t wait to see what you come up with! The colorways as shown in the photo above: 1 — Almanac (C1), Fossil (C2) Cast Iron (C3) 3 — Thistle (C1), Fossil (C2) Cast Iron (C3) 5 — Pumpernickel (C1), Fossil (C2) Cast Iron (C3) 7 — Hayloft (C1), Fossil (C2) Cast Iron (C3) 8 — Cinnabar (C1), Fossil (C2) Cast Iron (C3) Sunbursts, trees and thesis date stamp stars, reindeer and snowflakes, mutable landscapes of blended color. In vivid hues or in essay writing, natural sheep shades, figural or geometric in design, the yoke sweaters of the North Atlantic are distinctive and enduring. The story of their creation in the 20 th century is thesis date stamp, one of enterprise and favorite essays canny marketing as knitters leveraged traditional skills to date, make ends meet in a rapidly changing and newly global economy. The Icelandic lopapeysa, the Scandinavian and Shetland yokes, and critical skills meaning the sweaters of the Bohus Stickning cooperative in Sweden may all have their roots in a Greenlandic ornamental accessory called the nuilarmiut that has nothing to do with knitting — it’s an element of traditional formalwear made of glass beads that cover the shoulders and bust in a large collar of brightly patterned geometric designs.

The nuilarmiut’s appearance in a 1930 Danish film and, later, on members of the Danish royal family seems to have inspired several Scandinavian knitwear designers to imitate the effect in wool. Three of the earliest known circular yoke patterns bore the name “Eskimo,” suggesting their common inspiration. In the date stamp 1940s, the Bohus Stickning company in Sweden made the yoke sweater a mid-century status symbol. Riddle. The designers’ innovative and masterful color play broke entirely with traditional motifs and thesis date stamp methods to create subtly shifting forms and juxtaposed hues, all rendered at extremely fine gauge in luxurious angora-blend yarns. Bohus sweaters were worn by royalty and cultural icons — and commanded prices to match.

The knitters’ earnings supported many families during an economically difficult time. Cottage industries in Shetland and Iceland were also quick to capitalize on joad essay, the international taste for thesis date stamp yokes, channeling their potent knitting histories to create garments that became lucrative exports more accessible to the average pocket book. The strategic position of the patterning on a circular yoke serves two purposes. Embry Research Paper Guide. The designs ring the thesis date stamp throat and shoulders like jewelry, drawing attention to the face. The plain body and term format about sleeves heighten this effect while slyly achieving a second end: all that unadorned fabric is easy and relatively speedy knitting. In the case of the famous Shetland yokes, many of thesis date stamp, which featured tree and star designs borrowed from neighboring Norway, the jumper bodies and sleeves were knit by machine and ten steps essay writing then passed to the handknitters for the colorwork portion.

The sweaters could then be completed at a cracking pace to achieve a successful commercial scale, and the knitters could develop one beautiful variation after another by skillfully shading both the background and foreground colors. The Bohus sweaters were always knit entirely by hand, but even at 8 or 9 stitches to the inch, the plain bodies allowed the most accomplished knitters to complete a couture garment in just a few weeks. Icelandic production knitters still work by hand, but take advantage of their native sheep’s long-stapled fleeces to work at a loose large gauge that supports strong geometric motifs and rapid sweater completion. Date. Yokes have climbed to the height of fashion, plunged into outmoded fustiness, and ascended once again in recent decades. Across the North Atlantic, a resurgence of admiration for these powerful symbols of national identity has led younger generations to embrace them. Knitters around the world have been quick to courseworks of, appreciate the joy of crafting yokes; a basic circular yoke is one of the most foolproof sweaters to knit, and the possibilities for elaboration are endless. Brooklyn Tweed pays homage to the bold beauty and thesis variety of yoke designs in five sweaters and two accessories that tip the cap to history, but hew to term format about, modern fit principles and allow each designer to explore original ideas. In these pages you’ll find seamless construction (both bottom up and top down), stranded colorwork, cabled texture, and even a wink at thesis, classic cartoons. Welcome to BT Yokes. Winter is joad essay, lingering long in Portland this year, but we’re choosing to see these days of near-freezing drizzle as a prompt to make the date stamp most of our knitwear.

Warm weather still feels so far away that we’re more than happy to writing, contemplate casting on another sweater, especially with the lure of a just-right portion of decorative stitchwork. That’s what we love about yoke designs: their perfect balance of date, carefree stockinette seasoned with a dash of colorwork or textural patterning. They’re fun to knit, easy to integrate into any wardrobe, and endlessly inviting when we want to experiment with color or cables. To share our enthusiasm, we’re releasing our themed collection for 2017 today: BT Yokes. We drew inspiration from the sweaters of Iceland, Shetland, and Scandinavia — a history we enjoyed researching for a feature in our lookbook. Jared Flood’s Atlas (now sized for the whole family) nods to the lopapeysa; Veronik Avery elevates her Frostpeak colorwork with cunningly placed purl stitches, an idea pioneered by the Bohus Stickning designers of Sweden; Michele Wang’s Morse cowl stacks bands of small geometric motifs common to Shetland and Norway. The beauty of yokes has always been their versatility as a canvas for anything a designer can dream up, so we haven’t been too faithful in paper format, our interpretations of the form. Some garments apply inventive shaping principles (wait till you see Julie Hoover’s newest take on raglan decreases) and stamp motifs that owe more to Charlie Brown than to anything ever knit in the North Atlantic regions. Norah Gaughan’s flights of cabled fancy are iconic in and of critical skills meaning, themselves, and thesis date stamp her full powers are on essays, display in Tundra and Pyry. Thesis Date Stamp. A surprise storm system meant we had to be creative about critical thinking skills meaning, staging our photoshoot for BT Yokes, but is there a more perfect backdrop for a collection of cozy woolens than a fresh blanket of snow? We hope you’ll enjoy browsing the new lookbook and making the most of the knitting weather.

Greetings from wintry Portland! As we get ready to leaf over to 2017, we’ve enjoyed looking back on our work from the past year and remembering our favorite BT knitwear. Thesis Date. All of our office staff have weighed in with their picks of 2016, and a Top Ten have emerged. The striking poncho shape of the women’s version captured our hearts in embry research paper guide, particular — not to mention those luscious cables. Originally knit in Quarry as part of our Ganseys collection, this hat got a whole new look when we released our worsted-spun DK Arbor last fall. Thesis Date Stamp. Those cables really pop in a yarn built for stitch definition. Melissa Wehrle knocked it out of the courseworks of park with her modern interpretation of the Aran pullover in Wool People 10. Date. We love the traditional cables updated with the vented hem and essay writing slim sleeves.

We all agree: classic cabled shawl-collar cardigans forever. Stamp. Especially when they’re warm but light in joad essay, quick-knitting Quarry. Oh, those elegant lines! This beautiful cardigan is flattering on everyone. This quick and date satisfying knit uses Arbor to render the Tree of Life — one of our favorite traditional motifs — in stunning high definition. If you can part with it, this cowl makes a great gift. We love the tailored fit and the bold, simple patterning against a background of reverse stockinette. This layering piece is perfect for three-season wear, and the shawl collar really sets it apart. The intriguing fabric of this scarf is such a delightful opportunity to play with color and yarn weight combinations.

Maximum coziness, beautiful cables. We love the oversized fit cleverly adapted to eliminate bulk under the arms. What were your favorite Brooklyn Tweed patterns this year? Let us know in the comments! The season of twinkly lights, eggnog, and snowball fights is the most wonderful time of the year — for woolens! Some of essays, us are trying to calculate how many hours of sleep we can exchange for crafting time to eke out a few more handmade gifts; others are blissfully escaping the chaos by casting on a long-term project that has nothing to do with the holidays and stresses of the wider world. If you’re in either of these camps, or simply dreaming of your next adventure in knitting, we have a surprise for you today: BT Winter 17, dropping early this year!

Our house designers have decked the halls with twelve new garments and four accessories that use all four of Brooklyn Tweed’s core yarn lines. This collection includes our very first garment designs for Arbor, our worsted-spun DK Targhee wool. Stamp. We’re so excited to show you what this new yarn can do on a larger canvas! Jared Flood’s masculine Svenson pullover, Norah Gaughan’s Shoji cocoon cardigan, and ten steps essay Veronik Avery’s Nila lap-front pullover were designed to make the most of Arbor’s vivid stitch definition and drape. If you need gift-knitting inspiration, Winter 17 offers up several unisex accessories. Date Stamp. The Lancet hat can be worked in chunky Quarry for soft, tweedy, practically instant results or in format, Arbor for crisply defined chevrons and a full, nuanced palette. The Proof hat and Proof scarf can be paired for perfectly matched winter warmth.

If your world needs a meditative still point, the soothing stockinette of Julie Hoover’s Rivage coat or the hypnotic shifting textures of Michele Wang’s Binary scarf may do the trick. This collection is all about cozy comfort trimmed with distinctive details and innovative textures. We hope you’ll find something in the new lookbook to brighten the season for yourself and your loved ones. Happy knitting! We’ve loved following along with the Slow Fashion October movement this month and stamp thought we’d join in the fun with a group photo featuring our Portland office team in their handknits. Regardless of whether or not you participated in Slow Fashion October, we appreciate that there is a time set aside to have these conversations, which can be continued throughout the year. Paper. Read more about thesis, Slow Fashion October on the Fringe Association blog. We were so pleased to finally reveal the riddle paper his and hers collection for thesis date Fall 16; the courseworks of designs had been in thesis date stamp, development for almost a year and we eagerly anticipated their release into the wild.

We love designing menswear and courseworks of we’ve been gratified to hear your requests for more of it! Producing a dual collection like this required some new thinking about how to offer the date patterns for sale. We ultimately decided to bundle the patterns for joad essay which the two versions are similar enough not to require double effort on the part of the designer and thesis date stamp editing team, but to sell the others separately. We’ve gotten some questions about ten steps writing, why we didn’t bundle the two patterns for date stamp designs like Carver or Tamarack, which don’t differ markedly at first glance. We realize the details in embry research paper, the guts of a pattern that complicate the production effort may not be readily discernible when you’re viewing the modeled garment.

So, since we love to geek out over construction and fit at thesis stamp, any opportunity, we’ll turn the spotlight on Julie Hoover’s Cricket to talk about the planning that goes into ensuring a great fit and a longer garment life. (We’ll spare you the trigonometry. Joad Essay. Promise.) Cricket is thesis, a sporty crewneck with set-in sleeves and waist shaping for a tailored fit. Both versions have waist shaping — the women’s has the carefully weighted hourglass curve you’re used to seeing, while the men’s is narrower at the hips than at term format about abortion, the chest to create a trim silhouette that’s more flattering on most gents. Thesis. But even when you’re looking closely, the two Crickets look awfully similar. So why didn’t we package them together? The secret is in favorite essays, the shoulders. The human shoulder needs a lot of freedom to thesis stamp, move, both up and down and essay fore and thesis date stamp aft. When a sweater is designed to fit loosely, the shoulder doesn’t require any special treatment. You can knit a traditional drop shoulder with the sleeve projecting at a right angle, you can work a basic raglan with double decreases at each joining point every other round, you can decrease concentrically for a round yoke, and the ample ease will allow comfortable movement without distorting the sweater fabric.

But a slimmer fit complicates the situation. You can’t join a narrow sleeve to a narrow body at 90 degrees, because when you lower your arm the fabric will bind over your shoulder and bunch at your underarm. You can get away with a basic raglan scheme to an extent, relying on the elasticity of knitted fabric to give you the extra ease when and where you need it, but it’s hard to essay, achieve an anatomical fit and you put strain on the fabric. A round yoke worked with minimal ease will often look good across the thesis date stamp back, but leave a pooch of extra fabric near each underarm in the front as the about shoulders naturally round forward. Thesis Stamp. So when designers who really understand human anatomy create a tailored sweater, they often choose to modify the joad essay raglan shape, changing the rate of decrease to make the lines more sinuous.

They might hybridize a raglan style with a round yoke. But quite often they turn to date stamp, the set-in sleeve. The set-in sleeve, with its bell-shaped sleeve cap and armscye shaped like an exponential equation graph, gives the designer total control over the amount of fabric assigned to the body and to courseworks of, the sleeve. But deploying it correctly requires quite a bit of know-how. A slim-fitting garment needs a taller, narrower sleeve cap, while one with more ease should have a shorter, broader curve. For Cricket, Julie designed the women’s version for a small amount of ease — 2-4 inches — but gave the guys a more relaxed fit with 4-6 inches.

Men typically have proportionally larger shoulders and more mass through the sleeve cap area, which also affects how much fabric Julie allows there. Grading the curves of the armscye and the sleeve cap for a full range of well-fitting sizes requires a lot of thesis stamp, careful math on joad essay, the part of our tech editors. Thesis Stamp. When we double the joad essay number of sizes and change the geometry of those curves, we’re giving Robin and Sue the workload of two separate patterns — hence the decision to stamp, offer the two versions of Cricket separately. Where there’s a salient detail that differs between the unbundled his and hers patterns, we’ve given you options to mix and match features. The women’s Tamarack includes directions for paper format about the shawl collar shown on the men’s sample, for instance. Both Carvers have instructions for the turtleneck option or the crew neck, and the yardage estimate includes the extra yarn you’ll need to stamp, extend the ten steps essay writing ribbing. Wondering about further modifications to customize one of thesis date, these patterns?

Contribute to the collection thread in the Brooklyn Tweed Fan Club Ravelry group, where there’s an courseworks of, active community ready to discuss all kinds of pattern adaptations. And if you’re curious to learn more about what goes on behind the scenes at Brooklyn Tweed to bring these collections to life, watch this space for thesis an interview with Robin Melanson about her work as a tech editor. The tailoring trade is a bottomless well of inspiration. Attention to embry guide, detail, canny consideration of each fabric’s properties, pursuit of a perfect fit — at Brooklyn Tweed we hew to the same principles in our design work. Knowing we’d shoot this collection on the premises of Wildwood Company , a bespoke tailoring studio in downtown Portland, we took our inspiration from fine examples of classic menswear. Date. Our mission for Fall 2016 was to create pairs of about, designs — one for him and one for her — that spring from thesis date stamp, a single concept. In some instances, small adjustments to the fit distinguish the two versions; in other cases a shift in scale or a major alteration to the garment’s shape achieves distinct but related looks. Embry Riddle Research Guide. Three of the collection#8217;s patterns — Spearheads, Pavo, and Vika — bundle both versions as they are variations on the same pattern model.

Since each version of the remainder of the collection was written independently in order to account for thesis date the nuances of tailoring to fit bodies of differing proportions, each version of these patterns is favorite food, sold separately. Whether you’re in the mood to knit an understated pullover or a chunky statement piece, we’ve put together a collection that suits a wide range of fit and styling preferences. Thesis Date. Cables, texture, a splash of colorwork — it’s all here. Favorite Essays. All Fall 16 patterns are now available for thesis download on our website and on Ravelry. Thinking. You’ll notice we’ve updated our pattern layout, too — we hope you’ll find the date stamp new format clear and favorite essays supportive as you knit your next BT garment. We invite you to leaf through our new lookbook and stay awhile in thesis date stamp, the cool and favorite food tranquil atmosphere of Wildwood Company . Welcome, all, and welcome, fall! Welcome, Wool People! We’re thrilled to introduce a tenth collection of garments and accessories conceived by independent designers and stamp curated by favorite Brooklyn Tweed. This edition was the first opportunity for Wool People to make full use of our current stable of yarns, and we were particularly excited to see what the creative minds of the knitting world would imagine in Plains, our limited-edition laceweight Rambouillet. With half the collection being floaty lace accessories, it only seemed right to balance things out with the pleasing structure and heft of cables, so you’ll find chunky coats and mid-weight sweaters aplenty in this well-rounded collection. As the seasons are turning all around the globe, we love the thesis stamp thought of a knitter in New Zealand casting on a cozy cardi like Marylebone while another here in term format about, Portland is starting a lace crescent like Haro or Lunette to wear over tees and sundresses (or getting a jumpstart on a new cableknit wardrobe staple for next fall!).

Our contributors are a wonderful mix of new and thesis stamp familiar faces from around the planet. One of our favorite aspects of Wool People is the term paper format open submission call that puts budding design talent on thesis date, the same stage with established luminaries. Over the next few weeks we’ll be posting brief interviews with the designers whose work is appearing in Wool People for the first time, and we hope you#8217;ll enjoy getting to know them. Term Paper Format. We also look forward to sharing some scenes from Saco River Dyehouse, one of our partners in thesis date, producing Plains, to show you more about this yarn’s journey to your needles. Enjoy the collection!

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How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days that’s after the date resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. Term Format? An effective nursing resume summary is concise and easy to read. It correlates the candidate’s experience with the job description in question. And it piques the reader’s interest to thesis the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume.

That’s right, 6 seconds. You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all. Well, this particular study only ten steps essay writing, studied the initial review of the date resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate. They want to courseworks of know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question. So they look at the job title and the dates of employment. Recruiters also focused on the employers and education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to date stamp professionals in the healthcare field. We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and critical thinking meaning certifications in addition to these other attributes.

But that doesn’t change the date fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention. If recruiters see some or all of courseworks of what they’re looking for in an stamp initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look. Even then, the resume may only critical thinking skills, receive 20 seconds total. You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Thesis? Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it.

And that’s important because it sets the favorite tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and easy to thesis date stamp read. The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for. This is why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, you’re playing to the realities of the ten steps essay review process. Most summaries are written in paragraph form.

This is date, fine for conveying large volumes of information in about, a more compact space, but it assumes that the reviewer is actually going to take the time to read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from picking up on the key points or distract them from thesis stamp even reviewing it at all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the reviewer to quickly scan this section and easily pick up on the keywords and points you’re making. You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to the site where the rest of the information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in joad essay, bold print and then provide bullets for the rest of the information you’re seeking to convey. What should be included in your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and thesis date stamp there is courseworks of, no exact science as to what to include. Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and stamp the specifics of their job search.

The only essay, certainty is that you should always due your best to match your skills and the information you convey on thesis stamp, your resume with the meaning qualifications and job description in thesis stamp, question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. A summary of essay writing your qualifications for the job in question. A sense of thesis date your work or management style. Paper Format About Abortion? Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for the job and/or company. Professional achievements. Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for thesis date, previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from previous employers.

When considering what to write in your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. Essays? You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, you’ll want to ensure that the rest of your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in question. Thesis Date? So you don’t necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume.

As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and diverse job duties to favorite food convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem. Below is one example of a summary: Registered Nurse with over thesis stamp, 7 years of critical care experience. Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and abortion intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Thesis Stamp? Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as.

8 Things Every Nurse Ought to favorite Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for thesis date stamp, nursing jobs. We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an ten steps essay writing LPN for 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an thesis date stamp LPN would be best to research guide feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the stamp fact that I don’t have a license yet? Is it appropriate to say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee!

There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming you’re looking for embry research paper guide, RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. Stamp? In the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume, list the RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017. As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). Food Essays? From there, try your best to thesis date highlight how your experience relates to the qualifications and requirements for the specific job your applying for.

And remember, always be looking for ways to explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for you. I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an courseworks of Experienced Nurse? I am working on my resume and do not know how to tailor it in regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. Thesis Date? I have had one other job since then and essay writing currently seeking another. So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced. However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for.

For example, if you have 1 year of experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to include details about thesis clinical rotations in the ICU during your schooling, in addition to your experience in courseworks of, LTC. I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and thesis date stamp only recently graduated from the LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is going to effect me finding a good job. I have tried to courseworks of construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far. Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated!

I am struggling in writing my resume. Thesis Stamp? I am not sure how to favorite essays present myself. Thesis Date Stamp? My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in courseworks of, charge of all the medical needs for a camp, including managing all aspects of the clinic. I also have worked at date several doctor clinics and in the early days of term paper abortion my career, I was an thesis date ICU nurse at abortion several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of nurse management. Suggestions on date, how to summarize myself? Thanks for the inquiry, Jean. Joad Essay? There’s no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to transition into a new area of the field. My recommendation would be to review each job posting for hints about qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to your past experience. You can also research the thesis stamp employer posting the courseworks of job to see if there is some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with. You can also review the job descriptions for similar jobs of many different employers to find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for the type of position you’re interested in.

There’s a good chance that if a qualification is important to thesis date one employer, it’s important to joad essay others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to thesis help solve the problems an employer is facing; how you are the best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to draw on, and that’s a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps!

I’m a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to joad essay summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in thesis date stamp, your work history. For example: Worked for critical, various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of thesis date stamp charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches.

Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out term abortion each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article! Helps a lot =) Thanks for letting us know; we’re glad to hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578;

Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to date stamp apply to courseworks of medsurg positions as well. Date Stamp? What should I highlight in my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question. Here is an paper article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. There’s a bit about summaries there. In addition to what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. Stamp? As always, review the paper abortion job listing, learn about the employer and thesis stamp the challenges the employer faces. Then, try to courseworks of highlight anything in your experience that might align. I hope this helps!

Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in med/surg. Thanks for the inquiry, Kayla. Date Stamp? I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary.

Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what they’re looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for nursing resume. Term Format About? Most would say that it’s best to keep the resume to thesis 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an riddle research article with some more considerations on the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in stamp, the medical settings since I graduated in 2005. Joad Essay? I worked in family doctor’s office as over all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to stamp stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and CNA of 4 yrs.

Now, I started working as an ten steps essay RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care. I really want to be a dialysis nurse. Thesis Stamp? I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in essays, 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to thesis your situation and primary goal. If you’re interested in becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into the major dialysis services, Fresenius and riddle DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and thesis date stamp many aspects of your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in that area I have worked in paper format, cardiac telemetry and psyche. I did do peritoneal dialysis on the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description. Please advise how to open the door into a new arena of nursing.

Thank you so very kindly, El. Thesis Stamp? Towne. Thanks for embry riddle paper guide, the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start. Thesis? You also have some relative experience in the field. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Next, you might consider inquiring with the larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. Riddle Research Paper? The ratings for thesis date stamp, these employers on Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of essays experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience. Thesis Date Stamp? That said, the job market for RNs is essay, very hot in 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers.

I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the thesis date stamp NCLEX. My nursing experience is courseworks of, limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. I am struggling how to thesis date stamp relate my past experience with nursing to make me stand out in critical skills, my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in other industries to thesis nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career. Your promotion, leadership, team-work and other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. I hope this information helps!

What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still. Set to graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the courseworks of titles of ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at my most recent employer?

Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and Tuesday. Thesis Date Stamp? Later it was determined there was a definite need for riddle research paper, consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility. Date? Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and management and every Monday I functioned in joad essay, the role of Wound Nurse. Is it best to break each job into its own summary and bullet list? I’m in over my head trying to figure out the thesis best way to present myself in a resume now, including the profile.

Thanks for the inquiry. This is joad essay, a great problem to have for your nursing resume! I agree it’s difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the time-frame they were performed. In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and thesis date break each into favorite food essays, it’s own summary and bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles. Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.)

Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of thesis space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and courseworks of tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an ADON, and X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the thesis date summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and get the reader to spend more time reviewing the rest of the writing resume and date stamp the actual accomplishments. It’s also an excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the riddle research paper guide required qualifications for the job. Date Stamp? So, if the food job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns.

When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to thesis date stamp add awards you were nominated for but did not receive? Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. I would say that it depends on how well you can quantify the food nomination. Thesis? For example: One of five Staff Nurses out of paper guide 160 to be nominated for date stamp, the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to be nominated. If you’re able to do this, or something like it, then adding the essay writing nomination to your resume could be useful. I hope this helps!! Thank you. Thesis Stamp? Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no?

I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for joad essay, a BSN or will the supporting information under education provide enough information? That’s a tough one. I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of a BSN. To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to stamp include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either.

Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on resumes. I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is paper format about, no different.

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Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and thesis date stamp, Exploitation in thinking skills an Aging America (2003) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks.

E lder mistreatment is a recognized social problem of uncertain, though probably increasing, magnitude. Based on the best available estimates, between 1 and 2 million Americans 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by someone on whom they depended for care or protection (Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988; Pavlik et al., 2001). The number of cases of elder mistreatment will undoubtedly increase over the next several decades, as the population ages. Yet little is known about its characteristics, causes, or consequences or about effective means of prevention or management. This report is meant to point the way toward better understanding of the nature and scope of the problem, a necessary condition for the development of informed policies and programs. After summarizing the date stamp, social context within which the field has developed, this chapter assesses the present state of knowledge, identifies some of the problems that must be addressed if the field is to move forward, and locates the problem of elder mistreatment in a larger set of challenges confronting an aging society. AN AGING AND VULNERABLE POPULATION. The aging of the population of the term paper about abortion, United States is thesis date a well-recognized demographic fact. The life expectancy of people born in the United States has been rising throughout the past century. Skills? The proportion of the stamp, population age 65 and older has increased dramatically since 1950.

Between 1950 and 2000, the total population of the country increased by 87 percent, the. population age 65 and older increased by 188 percent, and the population 85 and older increased by 635 percent (Eberhardt et al., 2001, Hetzel and Smith, 2001). Over this same period, the life expectancy of about abortion people at age 65 increased from thesis stamp 13.9 to 17.9 years (Natonal Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data, 2001). These trends will likely be accentuated by the aging of the post-WWII baby boom generation. The U.S. Bureau of the Census predicts that by 2030, the population over age 65 will nearly triple to more than 70 million people, and older people will make up more than 20 percent of the population (up from 12.3 percent in 1990) (Population Projections Program, 2000). It is heartening that large proportions of the nation’s older people are living without substantial disability. Among people age 75 and older in 1999, 70 percent described their health as good or excellent (Eberhardt et al., 2001).

Inevitably, however, the aging of the favorite food essays, population is date also associated with increases in age-related diseases and disabilities. Of the estimated 12.8 million Americans reporting need for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLseating, dressing, bathing, transferring between the bed and a chair, toileting, controlling bladder and bowel) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLspreparing meals, performing housework, taking drugs, going on errands, managing finances, using a telephone), 57 percent (7.3 million people) were over ten steps essay writing the age of 65 (Administration on Aging, 1997). Dementia is present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of persons age 65 and older and date, 30 to 39 percent of persons age 85 and older (Rice et al., 2001; Henderson, 1998). Among people age 85 and older in 1999, 33 percent reported themselves to riddle paper guide, be in fair or poor health, 84 percent had disabilities involving mobility (unpublished data Natonal Center for Health Statistics, 2002), and 16 percent had Alzheimer’s disease (Brookmeyer et al., 1998). Given the date, projected growth in the elderly population, long-term care for meaning, elderly people with disabilities has become an increasingly urgent policy concern (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Stone, 2000). The settings in which long-term care is provided depend on a variety of factors, including the older person’s needs and preferences, the availability of thesis date stamp informal support, and the source of reimbursement for care. An increasing number of critical meaning elderly people reside outside traditional home settings in highly restrictive institutional environments (such as skilled or intermediate nursing facilities) or in less restrictive community-based residential settings, such as assisted living facilities, board and care homes, and adult foster homes.

Among the 34 million persons over age 65 in date stamp 1995, 5 percent were nursing home residents, and 12 percent lived in the community setting with ADL or IADL limitations. The number of nursing home residents increased between 19731974 and 1999 from writing 961,500 to 1,469,500 among those age 65 and older, and from 413,6000 to stamp, 757,100 among those 85 and older (Eberhardt et al., 2001). In 1999, another 500,000 elderly people were living in. assisted living facilities (Hawes et al., 1999). Among people age 85 and over, 21 percent were in nursing homes in joad essay 1995 and 49 percent were community residents with long-term care needs (Alecxih et al., 1997). The nursing home population tends to thesis date stamp, be older and more severely disabled than elders residing elsewhere, with about half of the residents being 85 or older and courseworks of, about half having five ADL limitations, in 1996 (Stone, 2000); still, four out of five elderly persons with ADL or IADL impairments lived in date stamp the community setting (Alecxih et al., 1997).

Approximately 17 percent of guide these community-dwelling older persons are considered severely disabled, with limitations in date three or more ADLs. Of those ADL-impaired elderly people living in community settings, 37 percent report that they need help but do not receive it or receive less help than is needed (Stone, 2000). Most long-term care for community-dwelling elders is joad essay provided in a traditional home setting, either in date stamp an older person’s own home, with or without a spouse, or in the home of a close relative. The 1994 National Long Term Care Survey indicated that more than 7 million Americans, mainly family members, provided 120 million hours of care to courseworks of, elders with functional disabilities living in the community. However, the nature and character of the informal networks now providing long-term care services may change (Stone, 2000). Date Stamp? The potential pool of adult children who can serve as caregivers is favorite essays already decreasing, as a result of date a variety of demographic trends, including divorce, smaller families, and increased workforce participation (Himes et al., 1996). These factors increase the pressures on families caring for their elderly relatives and also are likely to increase the courseworks of, demand for thesis stamp, institutional care. These trends highlight the growing challenge of ensuring the safety and protecting the other interests of elderly people in the diverse settings in which long-term care is embry riddle paper guide provided.

No matter where they reside, older people are vulnerable not only to the infirmities and suffering associated with disease and disability, but also to neglect, victimization, and stamp, exploitation by others, including their caregivers. In this respect, protecting older people from mistreatment is an important element of the broad challenge of ensuring quality services in long-term care. While elder mistreatment has attracted sustained efforts from practitioners and some interest from policy makers over the past two decades, it has not received concomitant attention from researchers or from the agencies that provide research funding. Guide? No major foundation has identified this field as one of its priorities, and thesis date, the federal investment has been modest at best. For example, fewer than 15 studies on elder mistreatment have been funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) since 1990, and support from other agencies has been even less substantial. As a result, elder mistreatment research has thus far been confined to a small community of. investigators who have produced a modest body of knowledge concerning the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of elder mistreatment. Preventive and remedial interventions have been unsystematic, episodic, and poorly evaluated.

In recognition of these deficiencies, the paper format, National Institute on Aging requested the National Research Council to commission this study as the first step in an effort to thesis stamp, broaden and deepen knowledge about the joad essay, mistreatment of thesis date elders. Support was also provided by the Office of embry research paper Behavioral and Social Science Research on Women’s Health of the National Institutes of Health and thesis, the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. This report presents a research agenda for consideration by the National Institute on paper guide Aging and other potential sponsors of thesis research on elder mistreatmenta term we explain more fully in Chapter 2. Research on elder mistreatment is in an early stage, reflecting its relatively recent recognition as a distinctand importantsocial problem. The prevailing understanding of the problem, and joad essay, the social response to date, it, have gradually emerged over the past half-century, shaped by evolving social responses to child protection and family violence as well as by an intensifying concern about neglect and about, victimization of stamp vulnerable elderly people.

Family discord and mistreatment of its vulnerable members were outside the public domain for thinking skills, much of this country’s history. Responsibility for assisting families in need was assumed mainly by religious organizations and private charitable institutions. Although many states established asylums for people with mental illness during the 18th and 19th centuries, thereby providing some custodial protection for dependent or neglected adults, there was no legal basis for intervention into families until the late 19th century, when industrialization, immigration, and urbanization exacerbated family problems, including poverty and internal conflict, and also exposed them to public viewespecially when its victims were children. The emergence of the juvenile court in the early part of the 20th century represented a significant assertion of collective responsibility for protecting and “saving” children who had become ungovernable by their parents; over the following decades, the jurisdiction of the juvenile courts gradually reached children who were neglected or abused by their parents (Platt, 1969). The legal foundation for modern policies and programs for elder protection was put in place after World War II, particularly during a burst of national energy geared toward remediation of endemic social problems during the 1970s. Although the threads of child protection, adult protection, and family violence were intertwined in the history of that period, they are summarized separately below. The current system for protection of elders and other vulnerable adults grew from the child protection system, which itself is only about 40 years old in its modern form.

The seminal event in thesis stamp the formation of the modern child protection system was the publication of an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association by a team of physicians at the University of Colorado, who proclaimed the existence of a “battered child syndrome” (Kempe et al., 1962). Pediatrician Henry Kempe, the leader of the food, group and founder of the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and thesis, Neglect, spearheaded a movement to adopt mandated reporting laws. These laws, which were quickly adopted in all 50 states, rested on the premise that the abused child was an aberrant problem (amounting to several hundred egregious cases each year in the United States), and on the belief that the problem could be solved if health professionals brought those cases to the attention of joad essay social service authorities. Although initial federal action did not occur until significantly later, with the adoption of the Child Abuse Prevention and stamp, Treatment Act of 1974 (Nelson, 1984), that legislation also required states to adopt mandated reporting and investigation as the primary strategy for protecting children. Drawing on their parens patriae authority to thinking, protect helpless citizens, a few states developed new public welfare programs during the 1940s and 1950s to protect adults who could not manage their own resources or protect themselves from harm. Thesis Date? New adult protective services units were established not only to joad essay, provide social services, but also to provide legal services, such as guardianship. Aroused by thesis date these state innovations, federal interest in the problem first appeared in the 1960s.

Legislation was directed at all adults who were seen as defenseless and susceptible to embry riddle guide, being hurt by others. In 1962 Congress passed the Public Welfare Amendments to the Social Security Act, authorizing payments to the states to establish protective services for “persons with physical and/or mental limitations, who were unable to manage their own affairs . Thesis Stamp? . . or who were neglected or exploited” (U.S. Joad Essay? Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1966). One of the demonstration projects funded by date this new program was operated by a team at joad essay, the Benjamin Rose Institute in Cleveland under Margaret Blenkner and her associates (Blenkner et al., 1974; Anetzberger et al., 2000). She matched a group of elders receiving protective services with a group from the date, community who were receiving traditional services, finding that those who were receiving protective services had a higher mortality rate and higher nursing home placement rate than those who were receiving. traditional services. This study raised important questions: Was the courseworks of, higher risk attributable to thesis, the intervention or to selection bias, and if the former, what aspect of the intervention increased the risk?

Was it the nursing home placement? Notwithstanding this puzzling finding from the Blenkner study and other studies questioning the cost-effectiveness of protective services (Wolfe, this volume), advocates for the system continued to press for broader congressional action. Eventually, in 1974, Congress amended the Social Security Act to writing, require states to establish protective service units for adults with mental and physical impairments, who are unable to manage on thesis date stamp their own, and who were victims or were being exploited or neglected. Funding for paper about, the protective services was to date, come from social services block grants (SSBG) given by the federal government to skills, the states. Until this time, most SSBG funds had been used exclusively for child protective services. This new federal program directed the states to provide protective services to adults who, “as a result of physical or mental limitations, are unable to act in their own behalf; are seriously limited in the management of their affairs; are neglected or exploited; or are living in unsafe or hazardous conditions.” A number of states then codified this federal mandate and, by 1978, 20 states had legislation establishing adult protection units as part of their social services agencies. This trend was accompanied by increasing use of SSBG dollars for adult protection: in 1980, 38 states reported that 83.3 million SSBG dollars were spent for adult protective services.

As SSBG appropriations declined during the 1980s, however, funding for adult protective services declined; by 1985, it had declined by thesis date stamp 42 percent. Scarce attention was paid to the problem of elder abuse before 1978 except for some intermittent articles published in British and joad essay, American medical and social services journals. In the late 1970s, the national spotlight was directed for thesis date stamp, the first time at what was characterized as systematic mistreatment of elderly people. Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings, calling attention to the “hidden problem” of elder abuse in food the nation’s families, including what one witness characterized as “granny battering” (Wolfe, this volume). Although the Pepper hearings did not lead immediately to federal action or funding, they stimulated additional state action. As the state response continued to evolve in the early 1980s, many states required reporting of abuse, bringing the problem within the stamp, purview of adult protective services. By 1985, 46 states had designated a responsible agency.

Meanwhile, Congressman Pepper continued to agitate for a federal response to elder mistreatment. Critical Thinking? In a 1981 report (Pepper. and Okar, 1981), he stated that elder abuse was increasing and thesis date stamp, recommended that Congress act immediately to help the states identify and essay writing, assist elder abuse victims. Thesis Date? Again, however, Pepper’s plea was unheeded by the Congress. Meaning? Finally, in 1989, Pepper succeeded in including creation of a national center on elder abuse as an stamp amendment to the Older Americans Act. Although various versions of a national center followed, the current National Center on Elder Abuse was established in courseworks of 1998. In retrospect, it appears that elder mistreatment became identified as a national concern when it was conceptualized as an “aging” issue, rather than as an undifferentiated component of adult protection. Thesis Date? This also helped to broaden the constituencies interested in research and food essays, program development to include gerontologists and the expanding network of service providers and advocates for the elderly.

The Pepper hearings also cast the problem of elder abuse in a particular lightas a complication of caregiving. The emerging image was that of an impaired victim, usually an elderly parent being cared for by an thesis date stamp adult caregiver who wasn’t able to manage the caregiving because of stresses in life, on the job, and in the family. Even though it is only a partial explanation of elder mistreatment, this picture seemed to resonate with Congress and the media (Wolfe, this volume). Emerging Conceptions of Family Violence. The evolving understanding of elder mistreatment as a social problem has more recently been shaped by another imagethe trapped victim of family violence. Spouse abuse and other varieties of intimate partner violence have received increasing professional and ten steps essay writing, political attention since the 1980s, leading to a wide variety of interventions and a substantial investment in research (National Research Council, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998).

Prevention, protection, and punishment are necessary components of a comprehensive social response, requiring the thesis stamp, participation and food, coordination of thesis date a broad array of public agencies. As the consciousness of health professionals has been raised, family violence has been embraced as a public health problem, thereby recruiting researchers and advocates in injury prevention and public health to ten steps essay, the field (Institute of stamp Medicine, 1999). Many of the preventive and protective tools developed in the context of critical meaning intimate partner violence have now been directed to stamp, violence against elders. Bringing elder mistreatment into the domain of family violence widens the courseworks of, angle of the lens and thereby brings new ideas about etiology and prevention into view. Date? However, it also exposes some tensions between social services agencies, with their traditional helping orientation, and many family violence specialists, with their greater emphasis on criminalization and punishment of perpetrators. Evolving conceptions of elder mistreatment, and abortion, the appropriate social responses to it, will also be shaped, inevitably, by the deep concerns that have emerged over the past decade in the field of stamp child protection. In 1990, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and essays, Neglect issued a highly publicized and rarely disputed declaration of a national emergency in the child protection system. Thesis Date Stamp? By that time, the number of joad essay cases reported annually to state and county social service and law enforcement agencies in thesis date the United States approached 3 milliona number enormously discrepant from the term paper format abortion, 1962 estimate of thesis stamp Kempe et al. of approximately 300 cases annually.

Moreover, the advisory board found that, by state social service agencies’ own admission, many children officially found to have been maltreated received no services other than the investigation itself. The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect (1990) attributed the emergency to the errant design of the child protection system itself: the system has become preoccupied by investigation (rather than prevention and treatment), and community responsibility for ensuring the safety of dependent children has effectively, if unintentionally, been diverted to a small social service agency. In response, the board (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and format, Neglect, 1993) proposed a new national strategy designed to rely on voluntary action to thesis date stamp, make child protection a part of everyday life (see Melton and Barry, 1994, Melton et al., 2001, for edited books articulating the courseworks of, social science foundation for this approach). As Wolfe notes in his paper in this volume, several states have attempted to deemphasize investigation in thesis their state child protection statutes, and some major foundations have undertaken initiatives to demonstrate the feasibility of a neighborhood-based, largely voluntary, and largely preventive and supportive child protection system. Nonetheless, modal practice is largely unchanged, and ten steps, the enormity of the problem remains (Melton, 2002).

The tensions in child protection policy (as well as the number of reported cases) have intensified as the scope of problems defined as child maltreatment has expanded. Although the thesis, modern system was created in favorite food response to the image of battered children, neglect has long been the modal reason for referral to child protection (Peddle and Wang, 2001), and most such cases involve complex social and economic problems, not willful neglect (Pelton, 1994). Similarly, the thesis date, biggest increase in reporting occurred when sexual abuse was “discovered” early in the 1980s (Weisberg, 1984), and criminal prosecution became a common feature in the child protection system. Recognition of the frequent linkage between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment (see Carter et al., 1999) has also challenged the child protection system, which generally (except to some degree in cases of. sexual abuse and severe physical abuse) has not adopted the “perpetrator-victim” model commonly embraced by advocates for battered women (Melton and Andrews, 2000).

There are some signs of an uneasy rapprochement between the two systems (see, e.g., Schechter and Edleson, 1999), as some child protection authorities have adopted safety planning, a feature of victim empowerment in programs for battered women, as a potentially useful element of intervention in embry riddle research paper guide cases of child maltreatment. Even this development, however, has illustrated the field’s vulnerability to thesis date stamp, unintended side effects. For example, a legislative determination in Minnesota that exposure of children to intimate partner violence is per se evidence of child neglect led to an immediate doubling of referrals to child protective services, a huge increase in guide expenditures, and increased stress and loss of confidentiality for women and their families living in shelters (Edleson, 2000). It was also speculated that this policy, soon retracted by the legislature, deterred some battered women from seeking protection for themselves and their children. These tensions and thesis, policy adaptations in the field of child protection appear to be highly relevant to elder protection at this moment in the evolution of research and public policy in this nascent field. As discussed further in writing Chapter 6, adult protection services agencies grapple daily with the tensions between investigation and date stamp, service, and prosecution and courseworks of, protection. Agency caseloads reflect the highly diverse problems within their jurisdictions, ranging from intentional partner violence to far more numerous cases of caregiver neglect (as well as problems not arising in thesis child protection, such as financial exploitation). The recent history of child protection offers many lessons for specialists in elder mistreatment. Prevailing conceptions of elder mistreatment draw on a diverse array of images (the forgotten and helpless nursing home resident, the battered granny, the stressed caregiver, the abusing spouse).

Moreover, the joad essay, system of adult protection that has emerged to respond to these varied problems (as well as other problems relating to date, adults with disabilities) is based on ideas and structures borrowed from policy and practice in child maltreatment and, more recently, intimate partner violence. Yet prevailing policies and practices in these adjacent domains are not fully applicable to elder mistreatment and have been controversial on ten steps writing their own terms. Repeatedly, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine panels have called attention to the need for sustained and aggressive research on the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of date these problems and on the effects of interventions (National Research Council, 1993, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). Joad Essay? In so doing, they. have noted that very little is known about the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of elder mistreatment, and thesis date stamp, that almost nothing is known about the effects of interventions. Courseworks Of? Although the stamp, body of evidence remains sparse, researchers have recently begun to raise doubts about the cost-effectiveness of current interventions (Dyer et al., 1999; Harrell et al., 2002; Pavlik et al., 2001; Hajjar and Duthie, 2001; Wolf and Li, 1999). Overall, the joad essay, national response to elder mistreatment still remains weak and thesis date stamp, incomplete.

Adult protection is a poorly funded system, and Congressman Pepper’s single-minded emphasis on the abuse, exploitation, and neglect of vulnerable elderly people has not been sustained by paper abortion his successors in Congress or by a public preoccupied with youthfulness and ill at date, ease with aging. As a result, elder mistreatment remains hidden, poorly characterized, and critical thinking skills, largely unaddressedmore than two decades after the thesis date stamp, Pepper hearings first exposed it to joad essay, public view. It is long past time to thesis, move the field forward in joad essay a careful and systematic way, drawing on the knowledge already generated in thesis date the domains of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence, while remedying the weaknesses that have so far plagued the field. Although there is a sizable body of unpublished reports and commentary on elder mistreatment, fewer than 50 peer-reviewed articles based on empirical research have been published in the field. (A summary of these studies appears in Appendix A.) Although these studies provide a foundation for further work, it is not a strong one. Embry Riddle Research? National Research Council (1993) and Institute of Medicine reports (2001; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998) and other authoritative reviews (e.g., Pillemer, 2001; National Institute of Justice, 2000) have repeatedly lamented the weakness of the research base for designing programs and informing policy on the wide variety of overlapping problems, ranging from granny battering to neglect by nursing homes, that are grouped under the rubric of elder mistreatment. Thesis Stamp? A systematic program of research is critical thinking skills meaning needed to better describe the many facets of the problem and to thesis stamp, explore their causes and favorite food, consequences.

Understanding the nature and scope of the problem is prerequisite to designing and thesis, implementing solutions. In the favorite food essays, absence of the necessary research, interventions have been designed and implemented in date stamp the dark, so to speak. Almost every state has required reporting of suspected cases of elder mistreatment, but little is known about the effects of these requirements (National Research Council and courseworks of, Institute of Medicine, 1998). A few states and date stamp, localities have mounted some creative interventions, but these few initiatives have been poorly evaluated. It has often been said that elder. mistreatment, as a field of research, is at about the same embryonic stage of courseworks of development as child mistreatment was about 30-40 years ago. Some of the weaknesses of elder mistreatment research are summarized below. Unclear and Inconsistent Definitions. The first major difficulty in analyzing results from previous research on elder abuse and neglect results from the poor definition of the term “elder abuse.” To some extent, this problem is stamp a reflection of conceptual confusion: What type of behavior or condition is denoted by the concept of “abuse”? To some extent, it is also traceable to the variations and ambiguities of the state statutes that direct or authorize interventions in cases of elder abuse or neglect. Term Format About Abortion? (The statutes are discussed in Chapter 2.) However, researchers have often exacerbated the problem by failing to define or operationalize their terms in a clear and objective way.

For example, many researchers refer to the entire range of problems experienced by elders as “abuse,” including lack of proper housing, untreated medical conditions, and lack of social services. Most of the studies are weakened by their undifferentiated treatment of various types of date abuse and neglect. That is, all forms of mistreatment are lumped together, despite evidence that the forms of term paper format abuse and neglect differ substantially. In some studies, for example, it is difficult to determine whether financial exploitation is included in the research definition. Studies are especially weakened by their inclusion of the category “self-abuse” or “self-neglect.” As discussed below, these terms refer to a category of conditions that has little in common with the conditions that bear on abuse and neglect of elder persons by stamp other people. Researchers have also diverged widely in their definitions of the pertinent component terms and ten steps, have frequently used confusing and unclear definitions. For example, some researchers have used the thesis date stamp, term “abuse” tautologically; for example, one group of joad essay researchers defined elder abuse as “an abusive action inflicted by the abusers on adults 60 years of age or older.” Another group called elder neglect and abuse “a generic term that refers to the neglect and/or physical, psychological, or financial abuse of the date, older person.” Furthermore, definitions have differed so widely from joad essay study to study that the results of research are almost impossible to compare.

While one set of investigators calls “withholding of personal care” physical abuse, a second researcher calls it active neglect; a third subsumes such actions under physical neglect; and thesis date stamp, yet a fourth considers such behaviors to critical, be “psychological neglect.” Similarly, some researchers define physical abuse in terms of actions: hitting, pushing, choking, etc. Others, however, use lists of injuries to define physical elder abuse, such as cuts, fractures, bruises, and burns. The development of better definitions of thesis date mistreatment of the elderly should be an extremely high priority for researchers. In particular, it is critical to differentiate among various types of mistreatment. Thinking? Researchers must be clear and thesis stamp, explicit regarding what is included and excluded from the category of elder abuse in order to conduct any meaningful meta-analyses. The panel addresses this problem in the next chapter. Related to the definitional issue is that of measurement. Joad Essay? This is an equally vexing problem, since the definitions of the varying elements of elder abuse must be operationalized through the design and administration of a research instrument. Many studies have not developed separate research instruments at all; instead, they have simply analyzed the forms used by agencies. These forms are not designed for research and rarely provide data of the type and quality to be of use to thesis, researchers. Or studies use as a “measure” of abuse whether a professional has identified an ten steps elderly person as “abused”thereby embracing without further clarification the discretionary judgments of date stamp clinicians and caseworkers applying the ambiguous statutory definitions.

Few attempts have been made to create reliable and valid instruments for the studies. Even when research instruments have been used, researchers have used highly varying approaches. An example to ten steps essay writing, illustrate this point may be in order. Thesis? Researcher A includes physical abuse in her definition of elder abuse. She is using the Conflict Tactics Scale, which measures physical acting out in response to conflict. She then proceeds to define physical abuse as a single incident in which the elder is hit, bit, punched, kicked, threatened with a weapon, or has a weapon used on him or her. Researcher B also includes physical abuse in his definition of elder abuse. However, he has developed his own scale, similar to the Conflict Tactics Scale but more broadly constructed, so that it measures any assaultive behavior of hitting, biting, kicking, punching, threatening with a weapon, or using a weapon regardless of the riddle research paper guide, reason for date, the behavior. Furthermore, he decides that there must be at least two episodes of this behavior for joad essay, it to be called physical abuse except for those items dealing with weapons, in stamp which case one incident is sufficient.

Thus both researchers have included physical abuse in their studiesindeed, it may be the sole focus of each researcher’s studybut the guide, measure of date physical abuse differs across the two studies. This problem arises for all of the joad essay, types of elder mistreatment typically investigated, including neglect and financial exploitation. The lack of definitional consistency poses issues for interpretation and understanding across. studies, including determining prevalence and risk factors. Thesis Date Stamp? However, even if researchers embraced a common set of definitions for the elements of elder mistreatment and operationalized them the same way, that would still leave the problem of critical thinking meaning determining whether the instruments actually measure what they purport to thesis stamp, measure (validity) and meaning, whether they can be reliably administered. At the present time, no measure of elder mistreatment has been validated, nor has any instrument been embraced by the field as a definitive measure of mistreatment, even within a narrow sphere. All this suggests that researchers, policy makers, and other consumers of research on elder mistreatment must pay careful attention to the definitions and measures of any studies on which they rely.

In most cases, the date stamp, measures will not be comparable. Incompleteness of Professional Accounts. Since the earliest stages of elder abuse research, surveys of professionals have been used to shed light on the prevalence of elder abuse and on risk factors. Investigators typically mail surveys to professionals and paraprofessionals, asking them about contacts with cases of elder abuse or neglect during a given time period. To provide a typical example, in a survey on elder abuse funded by the Administration on Aging, a sample of professionals, including administrators and direct service workers from 16 types of agencies, was surveyed in each of joad essay Pennsylvania’s 67 counties. Overall, one-half of the responding agencies reported encountering elder abuse, ranging from over 90 percent of domestic violence agencies, to stamp, less than 30 percent for law enforcement, emergency services, medical clinics, and drug/alcohol agencies (Fiegener et al., 1989).

Similarly, a survey of skills meaning Alabama physicians and registered and licensed practical nurses found that 38 percent of the physicians and 53 percent of the nurses had seen cases of elder abuse in the previous year (Clark-Daniels et al., 1990). At best, studies of professional experience provide impressionistic estimates and date stamp, opinions about the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of elder mistreatment. Although such data may be useful for joad essay, generating hypotheses for further research, they do not provide a sound basis for designing programs or formulating policies. Elder mistreatment researchers have also relied on thesis date stamp samples of cases that have come to the formal attention of a social agency or reporting authority. For example, records of patients at hospitals or social service agencies have been reviewed, and the percentage of elderly persons judged to have been abused is established. Term Paper Format About? A more controlled version of this kind of study provides agency caseworkers or health professionals with a standardized assessment tool, which they are trained to fill out for clients. The “Three Model Projects on Elder Abuse,” funded by the Administration on Aging, used such methods (Wolf et al., 1984). In both types of studies, however, researchers obtained data from professional accounts of thesis date stamp mistreatment rather than from interviews with victims themselves. It is widely recognized that reported cases are highly selective samples, and that there is a large reservoir of unreported and undetected cases of elder mistreatment about which very little is known. Although unreported cases may be similar to reported cases, they also may be quite different. Samples of reported cases may suggest common patterns and correlates of mistreatment, especially when paired with a control group, but the data must be interpreted with great care.

Most important , the question of the extent of elder mistreatment cannot be answered by studies of reported cases. There are major problems with focusing on reported cases: The studies are primarily based on cases uncovered through surveys of community professionalspublic health nurses, social workers, legal aid lawyers, etc. Essay Writing? They are thus cases that have come to public attention in one way or another. However, we know from other studies of family violence using nonclinical populations that only a fraction of cases involving serious mistreatment comes to public attention and that these cases are not necessarily representative of the problem at large. (In relation to child abuse, for example, see the 1995 Gallup Poll, finding that far more of America’s children are victims of thesis date stamp physical and sexual abuse than officially reportedGallup Poll, 1995.) Similarly, in most cases, the research data on elder mistreatment have not come directly from riddle research paper guide victims, but instead from professionals and outside observers.

Such secondhand knowledge may distort the actual dynamics of thesis stamp mistreatment by favorite essays failing to present the problems and their effects, as the actual participants perceive them. Case reports have little value in studying some forms of mistreatment that are rarely reported to adult protective services agencies, such as mistreatment in institutional settings. Because elder mistreatment studies have relied so heavily on reports from professionals, crucial data about abuse situations have been missed. Community professionals in general do not collect data useful to thesis date stamp, researchers and embry research paper guide, policy makers. Thus, previous research using agency records has rarely been able to obtain detailed information about family history, attitudes, and consequences of mistreatment and other issues.

Some researchers (e.g., Lachs et al., 1997a) have made effective use of these weak datasets by matching cases with higher-quality datasets. In an effort to generate a national estimate of the occurrence of elder abuse and neglect based on case-identification by professional “sentinels,” the thesis, National Center of Elder Abuse, in conjunction with Westat, Inc., conducted the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998). Favorite Essays? In this study, modeled after recent incidence studies of child abuse, the researchers identified a nationally representative sample of 20 counties in 15 states; for each county sampled, they collected data from the local APS agency as well as approximately 1100 professional “sentinels” having frequent contact with the elderly. In 1996, according to thesis, the projections based on food essays this study, about 450,000 persons age 60 or older experienced abuse or neglect in family settings, about 16 percent of thesis date stamp whom were in the APS report files. It is generally acknowledged that these findings detect only the most overt cases and thus significantly underestimate the incidence of elder mistreatment. Studies of professionals and agency records are justified in critical skills meaning those situations in which investigators specifically want to date stamp, know how professionals view elder mistreatment. But researchers have too often used these professional surveys to estimate the incidence or prevalence of food elder mistreatment, or to thesis date, establish its causes. They are not appropriate for thinking meaning, these purposes. Future research in this area should go beyond archival data and stamp, should rely to embry riddle paper guide, a much greater extent on elder persons’ accounts of their experiences and on their perceptions regarding their own security. Data on the extent of thesis elder mistreatment in the general population are sparse. Representative sample surveys of embry paper guide community populations are urgently needed.

Over the past two decades, knowledge about violence in families and the victimization of children and other vulnerable people has improved significantly. A major advance has been the date, fielding of major population-based victimization surveys that have helped to establish reliable prevalence estimates of select problems, such as intimate partner violence and child physical and sexual abuse. Similar progress has not occurred in joad essay the field of elder mistreatment. In the earliest research about two decades ago, studies were generally conducted on thesis date small, nonrandom samples, with little generalizabilty to paper format abortion, the population. Thesis Date Stamp? Furthermore, research in the field was conducted independently by investigators from different disciplines, using different methods and without recognizing the critical thinking, problems faced by other investigators. Thesis? For example, the medical community focused on clinical signs and joad essay, symptoms that could not be explained by disease markers, and this was a daunting task. Very often, older adults who had multiple chronic diseases or conditions might have symptoms that could mask or mimic mistreatment. Using a patient-based approach to study elder mistreatment is thesis date stamp also fraught with potential for sample bias, in that if an older adult does not have a doctor or. does not come to the emergency department, mistreatment cannot be evaluated. Although some population surveys have subsequently been fielded, many of critical thinking skills them have excluded from the sample potential respondents who may be at high risk for abuse or neglecte.g., older adults with profound dementia, severe hearing or speech impediments, or advanced problems with mobility who are unable to participate in survey research. Although some investigators have tried to use proxy respondents, this method poses even more challenging issues, because the proxy may be implicating him or herself in mistreatment.

Prevalence information (for one community in the United States) was best established by Pillemer and stamp, Finkelhor (1988), who used a stratified random sample of community dwelling older persons (65 or older) in the Boston metropolitan area. A two-stage interview process was used: screening to determine if the person was a victim of mistreatment (defined to include physical abuse and psychological abuse and neglect but excluding financial abuse), followed by in-depth interviews by telephone or in person. Embry Riddle Paper? Since 1988, there has been no effort in the United States to obtain better prevalence data using large-scale random samples on either a locally or nationally representative sample. However, four such studies have been undertaken in Canada (Podnieks, 1992), the United Kingdom (Ogg and Bennett, 1992), Finland (Kivela et al., 1992), and The Netherlands (Comijs et al., 1998). Despite using different methods, these studies each reported that the prevalence of elder abuse falls in the 3-5 percent range. (It should be noted, however, that the scope and date, content of the definitions used in these studies vary, particularly with regard to financial abuse.) Despite attempts to riddle paper, estimate incidence and prevalence in other ways, random sample surveys of the elderly population alone allow for a more accurate assessment of the rate of elder mistreatment. In the United States, a national survey is urgently needed to estimate the prevalence of different types of elder mistreatment in thesis date the general population, and in specific regions and writing, subgroups, as well as the thesis stamp, co-occurrence of different forms of mistreatment (see Chapter 4). Prospective studies are powerful designs, in that they can overcome the recall bias inherent in retrospective studies based on guide self-reported mistreatment. Studies of date stamp this kind are urgently needed: to date, no prospective study of elder abuse has been conducted.

However, in a pioneering study, Lachs and colleagues retrospectively linked Adult Protective Services data to a prospective studythe New Haven EPESE study (Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly) as the basis for this research, one of four cohorts funded by NIA (Lachs et al., 1996). In inception year 1982, the study sample consisted of 2,812 community-dwelling older adults over age 65. A manual record matching of EPESE and Connecticut ombudsman/elderly protective service records was done to determine if any cohort members had been seen by ombudsmen over an 11-year follow-up period from cohort inception (1982-1992 inclusive). Ten Steps Essay? After cohort members who were seen by thesis date protective services for the elderly were identified, weighted survival curves from cohort inception were constructed for three subgroups of subjects: (1) those found to have sustained verified elder mistreatment (abuse, neglect, or exploitation) by another party (i.e., nonself-neglect), (2) those seen by protective services for corroborated self-neglect, or (3) other members of the cohort who had no contact with elderly protective services. Much of the data on risk factors and consequences of joad essay elder mistreatment are drawn from studies of clinical case samples. However, few of these studies have used controlled designs. For this reason, generalizations made from the existing studies are necessarily suspect. For example, some investigators have asserted that the abused elderly tend to be physically or mentally impaired or both. However, without a comparison group, it is impossible to know if they are more or less impaired than other persons.

Several studies have attempted to go beyond previous efforts by thesis interviewing the victims themselves and joad essay, including a control group of nonabused elderly persons (Bristowe and Collins, 1989; Paveza et al., 1992; Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988). These are still few and far between, however. Thesis Date Stamp? Interestingly, although a number of controlled studies were conducted in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are virtually no examples of more recent case-control studies of elder mistreatment. Lack of Systematic Evaluation Studies. There has been almost no effort to evaluate intervention programs for elder abuse. Certainly, no study has as yet attempted a randomized control group design in this area. Joad Essay? Any kind of experimental demonstration project is rare. Little is thesis stamp known about the relative effectiveness of various programs. Due to such shortcomings, existing studies have not provided adequate data needed to answer three important public policy questions about embry paper guide elder abuse and neglect: First, is the date, problem of sufficient magnitude to warrant large-scale public concern, including such measures as mandatory reporting laws and protective services?

Better data on the true prevalence of essays elder mistreatment are needed in thesis stamp deciding what action government ought to take. Second, what are the characteristics of locations, conditions, situations, and relationships in which the elderly are most vulnerable to mistreatment? To design and implement intervention programs, policy makers and service providers must learn more about the factors that increase or decrease the risk of mistreatment and embry research, the conditions that ensure safety. Third, what interventions prevent elder mistreatment and thesis date, ameliorate its effects? Extensive evaluation research using scientifically sound research designs is critically needed. IMPEDIMENTS TO ELDER MISTREATMENT RESEARCH.

Why is courseworks of knowledge about elder mistreatment so underdeveloped? What accounts for the paucity of sound research in this important area? The panel has identified a number of explanatory factors. Many investigators believe that victims and family members are not suitable respondents for interview studies of elder mistreatment, because they are not reliable respondents, because they are not willing to be interviewed, or because they are incapable of giving the necessary consent. In fact, many victims are more than willing to thesis date stamp, be interviewed and are reliable respondents able to give the necessary consent. Surveys including such respondents have uncovered serious cases of food essays mistreatment, and a variety of studies have been conducted in which victims have been interviewed. In general, methods that have been used successfully to investigate other forms of thesis stamp family violence have not been applied to research on courseworks of elder mistreatment. Gerontologists who study elder mistreatment have tended to thesis, follow their interests in family caregiving and have seen the problem in this context.

However, because much elder mistreatment does not occur in family caregiving situations, this has been a serious limitation. Furthermore, the technology for studying family violence has been developed and refined not by gerontologists, but by child abuse and intimate partner researchers. Elder mistreatment researchers have not been trained in methods of studying other forms of ten steps essay writing family violence, including sampling methodologies and measurement techniques. One example of date stamp this problem is the lack of favorite studies using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1978; Straus and Gelles, 1990, 1992) to study elder mistreatment. Regardless of the occasional controversy over the scale, it is a hallmark instrument that has been used in thesis stamp scores of studies of child abuse. and intimate partner abuse. It is to some extent the embry riddle paper guide, state of the date, art, but some elder mistreatment researchers do not seem to be aware of it. It is very difficult to obtain access to perpetrators of mistreatment. In intimate partner studies, a number of researchers have used treatment programs for batterers as sources of research subjects.

These do not exist for elder mistreatment. The exclusion of some victims can seriously bias samples. The problem is most evident when residents of institutions are excluded altogether from population samples. However, even within the targeted study population (whether community dwelling or residing in institutions), exclusion criteria based on favorite food cognitive deficiencies can seriously skew the findings. There is some anecdotal evidence that institutional review boards have interpreted the thesis, Common Rule (the governing regulations on research ethics) in an unduly restrictive fashion, impeding potentially valuable research on elder mistreatment (see Chapter 8). Few investigators have been drawn to this field of inquiry.

Reviews of the literature reflect the same small set of names time and again, with few new researchers selecting and remaining in courseworks of this field. One of the reasons for this situation is that so little funding has been available for thesis date stamp, research on elder mistreatment. Favorite? Although more outstanding investigators might have attracted more funding, dedicated funding also could attract more and better investigators. Thesis Stamp? Although the total federal contribution to research on elder mistreatment is uncertain, expenditures by NIA, the lead agency for aging research, have totaled $10 million during the last 12 years (19902001). Annual expenditures have increased from less than $300,000 per year in 1990 to over $1.3 million in 2001; this is a modest sum even in comparison to the underfunded domain of child abuse research, on which federal agencies spend $3.8 million each year. The existing body of research is largely descriptive and pragmatic, taking the concepts and definitions used in practice or in statutes as given, rather than deriving the concepts and courseworks of, measures from theoretical premises or hypotheses. The atheoretical nature of the research is reflected in the tendency to lump all forms of stamp mistreatment within a single category.

Individuals who have attempted to conduct research on elder abuse report that they have sometimes been hindered by a lack of cooperation from agencies responsible for identifying and treating victims of meaning mistreatment. Adult protective services programs and other elder abuse service programs have been characteristically reluctant to assist researchers in thesis stamp research activities, and especially research that involves interviews with victims and their families. Ten Steps? Reasons for lack of agency cooperation include a desire to protect their clients’ privacy and to prevent additional disruption in their lives, fear of evaluation research, and a shortage of staff time to devote to research. Although every state has enacted a statute authorizing or directing intervention in date stamp cases involving vulnerable adults, including the elderly, these statutes vary widely in almost every respect (see Appendix B and tables in Chapter 2). They specify different ages or circumstance under which a victim is eligible for favorite, protective services, often differentiating between in-home and institutional abuse.

They also vary in definitions of abuse, classification of abuse as civil or criminal, whether reporting is mandatory or voluntary, and the remedies or resources available when abuse is thesis stamp documented. Each of the statutes defines conditions or circumstances that warrant intervention. The statutes typically define abuse or mistreatment as a series of broad categories, such as physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, sexual abuse or exploitation, and fiduciary abuse or exploitation, as well as neglect. However, not all states include all of these categories, and others are sometimes added. For example, some states do not include psychological abuse within the term paper, definition, while others add more specific forms of mistreatment such as “unreasonable confinement” or “abandonment.” Moreover, statutes sometimes distinguish between degrees of mistreatment according to the perpetrator’s culpability or state of thesis stamp mind; for example, the law may distinguish among willful infliction of physical abuse, negligently causing physical injury, and failure to prevent it. In addition to variations in the types of mistreatment included in paper about abortion the statutory definition, the statutes also differ substantially in defining the common categories. Thesis Stamp? For example, the definition of emotional abuse in ten steps essay several states includes “ridiculing or demeaning an infirm adult, making derogatory remarks to an infirm adult or cursing or threatening to inflict physical or emotional harm on an infirm adult,” whereas other states require proof of “extreme emotional distress or harm” (see Appendix B). These statutory variations in definitions and obligations create innumerable opportunities for thesis stamp, confusion and lack of comparability, especially if reported cases are being studied.

When data are reported to some central repository, unless the repository has imposed a specific definition for each of the forms of abuse, the paper, same statutory element will trigger reports in different categories of cases in different states. Interpretation of combined statistics is treacherous, even if the only objective is to thesis stamp, compare trends across states. Keeping in mind the embry research paper, impediments to thesis date stamp, research identified in this chapter, the panel decided to concentrate its attention on the tasks that are most urgently needed to propel the field forward. Chapter 2 addresses the prob- lem of inconsistencies in definition and measurement that have thus far characterized research on joad essay elder mistreatment. Thesis Date? Chapter 3 sketches a theoretical framework that may be useful in organizing research on the phenomenology and etiology of elder mistreatment in paper format different settings and thesis date stamp, contexts. Chapter 4 addresses the challenge of measuring the joad essay, occurrence of elder mistreatment in the population, highlighting important epidemiological considerations in elder mistreatment research. Chapter 5 summarizes what is thesis date now known about risk factors for elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for future research. Chapter 6 addresses research needed to improve screening and embry, case identification in clinical settings.

Chapter 7 reviews policies and programs aiming to prevent or respond to elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for stamp, future research. Chapter 8 addresses concerns about protecting human subjects in paper elder mistreatment research, and Chapter 9 identifies some necessary conditions for moving the field forward. The panel’s conclusions and recommendations are presented in Table 1-1. TABLE 1-1 Conclusions and Recommendations Regarding Elder Mistreatment Research. Conclusion or Recommendation. Basic research on thesis date stamp the phenomenology of thinking meaning elder mistreatment is a critical early step in the further development of the thesis date stamp, field. The development of joad essay widely accepted operational definitions and validated and thesis, standardized measurement methods for essay writing, the elements of elder mistreatment is urgently needed to date, move the field forward. The panel recommends systematic, theory-driven longitudinal research, both qualitative and quantitative, exploring the changing dynamics of elder people’s relationships and the risk of mistreatment, as they are affected by embry riddle research changing health status, social embeddedness, and caregiving and living arrangements, in both domestic and institutional contexts.

Population-based surveys of elder mistreatment occurrence are feasible and thesis date, should be given a high priority by funding agencies. Preparatory funding should be provided to develop and test measures for courseworks of, identifying elder mistreatment. Funding agencies should give priority to date, the design and fielding of national prevalence and term format, incidence studies of elder mistreatment. These studies should include both a large-scale, independent study of prevalence and modular add-ons to other surveys of aging populations. In addition to improved household and geographically referent sampling techniques, new methods of sampling and identifying elder mistreatment victims in the community should be developed in order to improve the thesis date stamp, validity and comprehensiveness of elder mistreatment occurrence estimates.

Supplemental modules pertaining to elder mistreatment should be included in existing comprehensive geographic health and social surveys, including ongoing longitudinal studies of aging populations. Once the measurement issues have been satisfactorily addressed, a comprehensive national prevalence study of elder mistreatment should be undertaken. Conclusion or Recommendation. Research is needed on the phenomenology and clinical course of term format elder mistreatment. The occurrence of elder mistreatment in institutional settings, including hospitals, long-term care and date stamp, assisted living situations, is all but uncharacterized and needs new study sampling and detection methods. Studies examining risk indicators and risk and protective factors for different types of essay writing elder mistreatment are urgently needed.

A particularly critical need exists for such studies in institutional settings. Thesis Stamp? Research on risk and protective factors should take into consideration the clinical course of joad essay elder mistreatment. Advances in measurement in thesis date risk and protective factor research are needed. Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings: Chapter 6. Substantial research is needed to improve and develop new methods of screening for possible elder mistreatment in a range of joad essay clinical settings. Research is stamp needed on the process of designating cases as incidents of mistreatment in order to improve criteria, investigative methods, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes.

Research assessing the capacity of older persons with cognitive impairments to provide accurate testimony is needed for improving the accuracy of case identification, not only in clinical settings, but also in legal settings, including prosecutorial decision making and formal adjudication. Research is needed to help illuminate the characteristics of common injuries, such as their etiology, natural course, distribution, and severity so that the process of essay writing identifying cases of date elder mistreatment can become more accurate and joad essay, reliable. Research on the effects of elder mistreatment interventions is thesis date urgently needed. Existing interventions to prevent or ameliorate elder mistreatment should be evaluated, and agencies funding new intervention programs should require and fund a scientifically adequate evaluation as a component of each grant. Conclusion or Recommendation.

The panel strongly recommends systematic studies of reporting practices and paper, the effects of reporting, taking maximum advantage of the opportunity for comparisons of practices and outcomes in states with and without mandated reporting. Research is needed on the effectiveness of adult protective services interventions, ideally in study designs that compare outcomes in cases in which services were provided with those in which eligible recipients declined offered services or other cases in which mistreatment of an date stamp equivalent nature has been identified. Prosecutorial response to elder mistreatment is an understudied area that should receive heightened attention by the National Institute of Justice and courseworks of, other funders of thesis date stamp criminal justice research. Research about the use of civil justice interventions and their effectiveness in preventing exploitation and other harm to elders should be jointly sponsored by the National Institute of Justice and the Administration on Aging. The panel strongly encourages government agencies and private sponsors of elder mistreatment programs to give priority to courseworks of, interventions that emphasize specialized professional training and interdisciplinary collaboration. All new initiatives should include sufficient funding for evaluation. Investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) need clearer guidance (without rigid rules) concerning two issues that tend to stamp, recur in elder mistreatment research: conditions under which research can properly go forward with participants whose decisional capacity is impaired, and the proper responses to evidence of mistreatment elicited during the course of the study. The panel recommends that the National Institute of Aging, in collaboration with the favorite food essays, Office of Human Research Protections and thesis date, other sponsors of elder mistreatment research, undertake a consensus project to develop ethical guidelines and provide necessary clarification. Whenever feasible, investigators should consult representative members of the populations being studied (elder persons and caregivers, nursing home residents and staff, etc.) to ten steps essay, ascertain their perspectives and preferences regarding the proper responses to evidence of mistreatment (and the related ethical issues raised by the proposed research), and should take this information into account in developing the protocol. Conclusion or Recommendation. Elder mistreatment reporting statutes should be amended to exempt researchers from their mandatory requirements.

NIH should issue certificates of confidentiality designed to insulate elder mistreatment researchers from any legal obligation to disclose possible cases of mistreatment that otherwise may arise under state law, including tort “duty to protect” obligations as well as reporting statutes. Issuance of these certificates should be predicated on the assumption that IRBs will carefully scrutinize the thesis, protocols to ensure that participants are protected from riddle paper guide harm and that, under appropriate circumstances, IRBs will permit investigators to take voluntary steps to protect subjects in danger. An adequate long-term funding commitment to research on elder mistreatment must be made by stamp relevant federal, state, and private agencies to essay, support research careers and to develop the next generation of investigators in the field. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Since the date stamp, late 1970s when Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings on the mistreatment of the elderly, policy makers and practitioners have sought ways to protect older Americans from physical, psychological, and financial abuse. Yet, during the last 20 years fewer than 50 articles have addressed the favorite essays, shameful problem that abusers—and sometimes the abused themselves—want to thesis, conceal.

Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America takes a giant step toward broadening our understanding of the term format abortion, mistreatment of the elderly and thesis stamp, recommends specific research and funding strategies that can be used to deepen it. Favorite Food Essays? The book includes a discussion of the conceptual, methodological, and logistical issues needed to thesis stamp, create a solid research base as well as the ethical concerns that must be considered when working with older subjects. It also looks at problems in determination of a report’s reliability and the role of physicians, EMTs, and others who are among the first to recognize situations of mistreatment. Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America will be of interest to anyone concerned about the elderly and ways to intervene when abuse is suspected, including family members, caregivers, and advocates for the elderly. It will also be of ten steps essay writing interest to researchers, research sponsors, and policy makers who need to know how to advance our knowledge of this problem. Front Matter i–xvi Executive Summary 1–8 1. Introduction 9–33 2. Concepts, Definitions, and thesis date, Guidelines for Measurement 34–59 3. A Theoretical Model of Elder Mistreatment 60–70 4. The Occurrence of Elder Mistreatment 71–87 5. Risk Factors for Elder Mistreatment 88–103 6. Joad Essay? Screening and Case Identification in date stamp Clinical Settings 104–120 7. Evaluating Interventions 121–139 8. Research Ethics 140–149 9. Moving Forward 150–152 References 153–164 Appendix A: Elder Mistreatment Measures and Studies 165–180 Appendix B: Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect Definitions Under State Law 181–237 Appendix C: Elder Abuse and Neglect: History and Concepts 238–248 Appendix D: Biographical Sketches 249–258 10. Elder Mistreatment: Epidemiological Assessment Methodology 259–302 11. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research on Elder Abuse and Neglect 303–338 12.

The Clinical and Medical Forensics of Elder Abuse and Neglect 339–381 13. Financial Abuse of the Elderly in Domestic Settings 382–445 14. Elder Abuse in Residential Long-Term Care Settings: What Is Known and What Information Is Needed? 446–500 15. Elder Abuse Intervention: Lessons from Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Initiatives 501–526 Index 527–552. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the courseworks of, OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.

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