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Birth Control and Reproductive Health. Media Newspaper! 1. Short Essay On Population! The RH bill carries with it an oppressive punishment for people who will not comply with it, making disagreeing with it and terms, teaching something contrary to it a crime. Section 21 of the RH bill says that“the ff. We will write a custom essay sample. on disparities Birth Control and Reproductive Health or any similar. topic specifically for you. acts are prohibited: any health care service provider, whether public or private, who shall knowingly withhold information or impede the media newspaper terms, dissemination thereof, and/or intentionally provide incorrect information regarding programs and services on reproductive health including the owl purdue apap, right to informed choice and access to a full range of newspaper legal, medically-safe and effective family planning methods” BUT- who defines what is correct or incorrect here? The RH bill and essay, its proponents.

If the terms, RH bill proponents says that an very short on population IUD is media, not abortifacient, and abortion is essay on health disparities, not wrong, and that life does not begin at conception, all of which are totally wrong and against Christian principles, so when Christian health workers will teach about the newspaper terms, sanctity of life and owl purdue apap, that life begins at conception, and that sex should only be between married couples, we will be violating the RH bill and committing crimes once it becomes law. 2. The RH Bill undermines the media newspaper, institution of marriage. As Christians do not have any doctrine prohibiting ligation, you may think it may not be of concern to many Christians, but the RH bill considers a prohibited act (Sec 21) if a health worker ” refuses to perform voluntary ligation and vasectomy and other legal and medically-safe reproductive health care services on any person of legal age on the ground of lack of spousal consent or authorization”. Essay In Irony Prejudice! The Catholic and Muslim nurses and doctors who refuse to perform ligation or vasectomy, will be committing a crime. We do not malign or disdain Catholics on this matter. It is against media newspaper terms, their doctrine. BUT, for us, the RH bill terribly undermines marriage : the Bill puts into law that a woman or man does NOT have to have spousal consent or authorization to have a ligation or vasectomy. And if a health worker refuses to perform this procedure, on this particular groundof lack of spousal consent, he or she will be committing a crime.

Christian, Catholic and Muslim marriages will be affected by essay prejudice this. 3. Page 2 Birth Control and Reproductive Health Essay. The RH bill undermines parental authority and undermines the newspaper terms, family, which are against Christian principles. The RH Bill will punish those health workers (Sec. 21)who “refuse to short essay in india provide reproductive health care services to an abused minor, whose abused condition is certified by the proper official or personnel of the Department of media Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) or to a duly DSWD-certified abused pregnant minor on whose case no parental consent is necessary”.

What does it mean by “reproductive health care services to an abused pregnant minor”? Pregnant young women all the more need parental guidance and consent is necessary for whatever “reproductive health services” will be done on essay in harvard these young abused women! Why doesn’t the bill specify what “reproductive health services” will be done on such minors, who are already pregnant? Is this bill trying to hide the use of newspaper abortion or the essay in irony prejudice, use of abortifacient chemical contraceptives like the “emergency contraceptive” as “solutions” offered to an abused minor who is already pregnant? And all without a parent’s consent, which is totally unacceptable to Christian doctrine.

4. Terms! The RH bill has a conscientious objection provision, BUT, it negates it by REQUIRING by law “that the essay disparities, conscientious objector shall immediately refer the person seeking such care and services to newspaper terms another health care service provider within the same facility or one which is conveniently accessible”. (Sec. 21) So even if a Catholic or Muslim doctor refuses to written style perform a ligation, they are required to refer. People who conscientiously object must NOT be required to refer. They are already objecting. 5. The RH Bill will require Christian churches and schools to provide reproductive health care services to its employees. Newspaper! All abortifacient forms of birth control, those that prohibit the conceived embryo from implanting in the uterine wall, are unacceptable to Christian teachings.

The RH Bill will require employers to powerplan provide “reproductive health care services, supplies and devices to all workers, more particularly women workers. ” The RH bill will punish employers for not following section 17, which states: “all Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBAs) shall provide for the free delivery by the employer of reasonable quantity of reproductive health care services, supplies and devices to all workers, more particularly women workers. In establishments or enterprises where there are no CBAs or where the employees are unorganized, the employer shall have the same obligation. ” So employers are required to provide reproductive health care to its employees! Remember, this will become a law. This will affect Christian, Catholic and Muslim employers, even Christian churches and schools, because our churches and schools have employees. Remember, intrauterine devices and some birth control pills are abortifacient, meaning they prevent implantation of an already-conceived embryo. Life begins at conception, therefore anything that kills an embryo or prevents it from implanting causes an abortion or death of the human embryo. As Christians, we know that life begins at conception.

We reject any form of any birth control that kills a conceived life. 6. Contrary to claims by media RH bill proponents in Congress that abortion is essay written, not mentioned, the bill specifically mentions abortion in Sec. 4 in newspaper, its definition of essay prejudice terms: It lists as the fourth element of reproductive health care the “prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications”. You may say, but it prevents abortion, what’s wrong? But why must “management of post-abortion complications” be part of reproductive health? Abortion is a crime.

Why must the RH bill specifically mention management of post-abortion complications? It specifies “abortion” as the terms, cause of the complication. What this does is short essay in india, that it sets apart induced, illegal, morally wrong, criminal abortion as a procedure or cause necessitating management. Media Newspaper! Why not just make it a more general “provision of emergency obstetric care to owl purdue apap everyone who needs it”? The very fact that abortion is specified as the cause of the complication means that the RH bill condones abortion and gives it special treatment.

Abortion is murder of the unborn baby and a grievous sin before God. Newspaper! It is the shedding of innocent blood. It is a crime under Philippine laws. 7. The RH bill will teach the entire nation, especially the in irony prejudice, young people, its definitions of human sexuality, sex, sexual identity, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy and gender roles. They will also define contraception and abortion.

In Section 4, the RH bill defines “Reproductive health education” as “the process of acquiring complete, accurate and relevant information on all matters relating to the reproductive system, its functions and processes and human sexuality; and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy and gender roles. It also includes developing the necessary skills to be able to distinguish between facts and myths on sex and sexuality; and critically evaluate. and discuss the moral, religious, social and cultural dimensions of terms related sensitive issues such as contraception and abortion. ” Once again, who decides what is essay written, correct and What are facts? The Bill and its proponents determine that. And once it is a law, whatever they (the proponents and the Population Commission) define these things to be, will be what is correct and anyone who teaches otherwise will be committing crimes. And once again, abortion is mentioned. Abortion has nothing to do with “responsible parenthood” and “family planning”. 8. We reject the RH Bill It will teach our children and the entire country a sex education curriculum which its proponents have formulated. Newspaper Terms! The RH Bill says in Sec. 12, “Mandatory Age-Appropriate Reproductive Health Education. ”– “Reproductive Health Education in an age-appropriate manner shall be taught by adequately trained teachers starting from powerplan resume, Grade 5 up to Fourth Year High School….

The POPCOM, in coordination with the Department of media terms Education, shall formulate the Reproductive Health Education curriculum, which shall be common to both public and private schools and ulquiorra essay, shall include related population and media newspaper, development concepts in addition to owl purdue apap the following subjects and standards : Reproductive health and sexual rights; Reproductive health care and services; Attitudes, beliefs and media, values on sexual development, sexual behavior and on health care, sexual health; Proscription of the media terms, hazards of abortion and management of resume post-abortion complications; Responsible parenthood.. Use and application of natural and modern family planning methods to promote reproductive health, achieve desired family size and prevent unwanted, unplanned and mistimed pregnancies; Abstinence before marriage; Prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and other, STIs/STDs, prostate cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer and other gynecological disorders; Responsible sexuality; and Maternal, peri-natal and media newspaper terms, post-natal education, care and owl purdue apap, services. ” While prevention of AIDS and STDs, abstinence before marriage and responsible parenthood are good, there is nothing good with the media terms, government teaching “Attitudes, beliefs and values on written in harvard sexual development, sexual behavior and sexual health” to our children! Plus, once again they have managed to insert “abortion” again. What will be taught about the “hazards of abortion” ? Abortion is 100% fatal and newspaper, 100% hazardous to the unborn baby who has been aborted! Why must “management of post-abortion complications” be taught in sex education? 9. We reject the RH bill because it’s really. about written in harvard, money for contraceptive manufacturers and suppliers. The RH bill puts into law that contraceptives will be made into essential medicines . Sec. Terms! 10 says “Hormonal contraceptives, intrauterine devices, injectables and powerplan resume, other allied reproductive health products and supplies shall be considered under the category of essential medicines and supplies which shall form part of the National Drug Formulary and the same shall be included in the regular purchase of essential medicines and supplies of all national and local hospitals and other government health units. ” The RH bill only media newspaper terms lays the groundwork for government purchases of contraceptives, including some contraceptives that are abortifacient, which we reject. 10. We reject the RH bill because it encourages a two-child policy.

In Sec. Very On Population In India! 16, “Ideal Family Size” it says: “The State shall assist couples, parents and individuals to achieve their desired family size within the context of responsible parenthood for media sustainable development and encourage them to have two children as the ideal family size. Attaining the ideal family size is neither mandatory nor compulsory. No punitive action shall be imposed on parents having more than two children. ” While it says that it is not mandatory or compulsory, it will still become a law, meaning, the law will encourage this two-child policy. If it is written in the law, it will be part of legislated health policy. Previous versions of the RH Bill (the past HB 3773) even had a provision that government scholarships will only be extended to the first two children in a family. Surprisingly, it is no longer in the present bill. But what if this is put into the implementing rules and regulations? And people who will have large families will be stigmatized even if they are not punished. Care! Whatever is good in media terms, the bill is already legal and is being done.

Yes, women who aborted/killed their children must not be refused emergency obstetric care. But RA 8344, already penalizes the refusal of essay written in harvard hospitals and medical clinics to media terms administer appropriate initial medical treatment and support in emergency and serious cases. Women who have aborted/killed their babies are already given emergency obstetric care through this act. On Health Care! HIV-AIDS programs are already in place through RA 8504,the “Philippine AIDS Prevention and newspaper, Control Act of 1998?. The RH bill tries to short on population in india encompass so many health issues under it such that people who reject the media terms, RH bill are viewed as anti-women, anti-health, anti-HIV prevention and anti-development. But now we have shown you what is definitely worth rejecting in ulquiorra essay, the RH bill-it is the hidden agenda tucked into the RH bill, the oppressive nature of the bill toward those who reject it, the values it undermines and the questionable “values” it will try to media teach. Ulquiorra Essay! Say what? Davao Oriental Rep Thelma Almario said the newspaper, Philippines is a migrant country and that#8217;s why she was voting against the bill. “I wish that in my lifetime we will have enough Filipinos so we can #8216;Filipinize#8217; the whole world,#8221; she said. Pampanga Rep Dong Gonzales, who has 12 siblings, shared his life story.

After a lengthy explanation, he voted no. “My parents told me to say no before they passed on,” he said, drawing laughter from the crowd. Citing the communist movement, Anad party-list Jun Alcover voted a #8220;double no#8221; to the RH Bill, saying that it will #8220;destroy choice and divide the nation. #8221; Association of Laborers and Employees (ALE) partylist Rep Catalina Bagasina invoked Typhoon #8220;Pablo#8221; when he voted against essay written in harvard, the bill. “The recent natural calamities are a sign that the RH Bill is bad,” she said. Meanwhile, Sarangani Rep Manny Pacquiao, fresh from terms, his defeat to Mexican boxer Juan Miguel Marquez, said his resolve to vote no was strengthened by the Las Vegas fight. #8220;My wife cried. Some thought I was dead. Essay In Irony Pride! Kung akala nila isang buhay na naman ang nawala, what happened in Vegas strengthened my already firm belief in the sanctitiy of media newspaper lilfe,#8221; he said. #8220;Ang nangyari sa Vegas ang nagpaigting ng aking paniniwala na ang buhay ay sagrado. #8221; Pacquiao added. No to RH Bill Zamboanga City Rep Beng Climaco cited a familiar reason in owl purdue apap, explaining her no vote that maternal care for women is already addressed by the Magna Carta of Women, a law she co-authored. Media! But the most overwhelming reason cited by those who voted no is religion.

Manila Rep Amado Bagatsing perhaps best summed up the owl purdue apap, anti-RH bloc#8217;s arguments in terms, his speech: #8220;The RH Bill is anti-Catholic, anti-poor, against life and against the family. #8221; Cebu Rep Pablo Garcia, who, along with Cagayan Rep Rufus Rodriguez, led the charge against the measure during the period of amendments said, #8220;God is the source and giver of powerplan life. The RH Bill seeks to prevent and constrain the law of God from giving that life by the use of condoms, contraceptives, IUDs, tubal ligation and what have you,#8221; he said. Ilocos Norte Rep Imelda Marcos agreed. #8220;Any law against natural law or the media terms, fundamental law of God is against God,#8221; she said. In Irony Prejudice! Batangas Rep Tom Apacible offered his vote to Mother Mary: “I offer my vote to the Lady of Immaculate Conception and terms, the Lady of Guadalupe. ” Iloilo Rep Augusto Boboy Syjuco recited the entire apostles creed: “I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of very short essay on population heaven and earth and in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried. He descended into the dead. Newspaper Terms! On the in irony, third day he rose again from the dead. He ascended into heaven, and newspaper, seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. From thence he shall come to judge the essay on health care, living and the dead. Newspaper! I believe in the Holy Ghost. I believe in written, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body. And the life everlasting.

Amen. ” Quezon City Rep Bingbong Crisologo, on the other hand, cited another religion: “If we can respect Islam and give them special laws, can we not respect Catholicism and give it special laws? ” The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10354), informally known as the Reproductive Health Law or RH Bill, is a law in the Philippines, which guarantees universal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and media newspaper terms, maternal care. In Harvard! While there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and newspaper, child health, there is great debate on its mandate that the Philippine government and the private sector will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices such as condoms, birth control pills, andIUDs, as the government continues to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers. Passage of the legislation was controversial highly divisive, with experts, academics, religious institutions, and major political figures declaring their support or opposition while it was pending in the legislature. Heated debates and rallies both supporting and opposing the RH Bill took place nationwide. “The RH Bill is ulquiorra essay, wrong because it assumes that the Philippines is overpopulated. ” I agree. I, myself, have observed that the Philippine is NOT overpopulated. In fact, if you use your common sense and terms, think about it, you will realize a few things: 1. We are not overpopulated! Look at the mountains, the jungles, the caves and ulquiorra essay, the ocean floor. There are no people there! 2. If we were really overpopulated, we would have trouble travelling.

But if you go to EDSA, there’s no traffic. When you ride the MRT, it’s not packed with people. 3. Terms! Students in public schools are well educated because the teacher to student ratio is ulquiorra essay, very low. In fact, because of our low population the media newspaper, government can basically guarantee that all public school students are provided books, notebooks and written style, other school supplies. “The RH Bill is terms, wrong because it assumes that contraceptives are good for mankind and women. Prejudice Pride! ” 1. I agree, the RH Bill is not good for women because it might draw a woman away from media, her one, true, universal purpose – the uninterrupted production of healthy babies. 2. Furthermore, the essay in irony pride, role of women in media terms, society and essay in harvard style, the universe is to make babies.

That’s why God made women. That’s their sole purpose in life. Terms! They’re not good for anything else. Ever wonder why there are no women in the clergy? Because they’re not good enough. 3. Contraceptives would allow women to enjoy the ulquiorra essay, benefits of physical intimacy while maintaining a successful and productive career, if she so chooses. That is newspaper terms, so wrong. Only men should be able to essay in irony enjoy that privilege.

4. Media Newspaper! Women should get pregnant every single time they have sex and style, only immoral women enjoy sex without the media, possibility of conception. In fact, a better alternative would be for women, in general, to follow the example made by essay on population Mother Mary – to learn how to conceive without having sex. “The RH bill will put Filipinos at risk of extinction! ” 1. I agree. If we pass the RH bill, we will become extinct, like dinosaurs. The dinosaurs are all dead. If we don’t want to be extinct, we should not pass the RH Bill. I mean, do you really want to be a dinosaur? 2. In my opinion, it wouldn’t even be far-fetched to speculate that the most probable reason the dinosaurs became extinct was because they used contraceptives. 3. Population decline is just bad for nations.

Just look at the countries which have a declining population – Italy, Japan and Singapore. They’re in such a bad shape. The Philippines obviously has a better economy and has a higher literacy rate than these countries. In fact, many Italians, Japanese, and Singaporeans go to the Philippines for work. That only goes to show that a decline in population is bad for the economy. “Our population is our biggest asset! ” 1. In my opinion, people should make as many babies as they can because the population is not a problem. In fact, the more babies a person has, the more assets he has. Forget real estate properties, stock investments, or Jollibee franchises. The real secret to increased wealth is babies. 2. If you have 15 babies, you’re practically wealthy because babies are assets: 2. 1 If you need money, you can sell them.

2. 2 If you can keep them alive until they can walk, they can one day beg for money in the streets – they’re going to have to media terms anyway because there’s no way in hell you’ll be able to provide for on health all of them on newspaper your own. 3. If ever a person is not able to essay on health care feed the 15 babies he made, it’s the governments fault, because it’s the governments sole responsibility to media newspaper terms make sure that every Filipino baby is on health disparities, fed. 4. The best way a person can contribute to his country is to contribute to its population. “The RH Bill is wrong because it assumes that reproductive education and contraceptives will effectively reduce cases of abortion. ” 1. Reproductive/contraceptive education will have no effect on the number of abortion cases. In my opinion, these abortion cases will not lessen because women will continue to have abortions regardless of whether they are pregnant or not. 2. Media Terms! Abortions cannot be prevented. It’s just something that women naturally do.

Like shopping, for example. “The RH Bill is wrong because it will make people participate in extra-marital and pre-marital sex. ” 1. By approving the RH Bill, we as a nation, are practically encouraging our people to engage in immoral activities. Disparities! 2. We must protect our moral values and reject the RH Bill. Because, currently, not a single Filipino engages in pre-marital sex or extra-marital sex. Media Newspaper! As soon as this bill is approved, Filipino people will run the streets naked and start a national orgy! 3. The root cause of extra-marital and ulquiorra essay, pre-marital sex is one’s exposure to contraceptives. Newspaper! There is just something in contraceptives that people find very arousing. 4. In Western countries, men lure strange women into bed by showing them condoms. 5. If we ban condoms, absolutely no one would engage in pre-marital or extra-marital sex. Essay In Irony! “The RH Bill is wrong because it assumes that parents don’t teach their children about sex. ” 1. The truth is that parents talk to their children about sex all the time. It’s so not awkward.

The dad usually tells his children how he takes off all his clothes, does a sexy Tiger growl and makes sweet, sweet music with their mother’s body. 2. Also, a father usually advises his daughter that if she’s going to have sex with her boyfriend, she should use a condom. Media! Sometimes the father even drives the daughter to the boyfriend’s house and essay prejudice, waits for newspaper the couple to finish. 3. Filipino daughters don’t have sex without the father’s permission. Unwanted pregnancies or teen pregnancies never happen to Filipino girls. That’s why we do not need the RH Bill. “The RH Bill is a conspiracy. In Irony! ” 1. It’s lies, all lies! “The RH Bill is wrong because the media newspaper, priest said so, and priests are never wrong. ” The biggest reason why we should not pass the powerplan, RH Bill is because the media terms, priests told us that we shouldn’t.

As anyone should know, priests, men of the essay, clergy, should be the authority on sexual and reproductive matters because they have the most knowledge and experience with sex and reproduction. They are true sexperts – legendary masters of terms erotic affairs. Ulquiorra Essay! If you are a real Catholic, you would do everything they say, because they’re always right.

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Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is newspaper terms rarely used for these pursuits, however, and ulquiorra essay the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities.

For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and media terms the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the essay written style assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the media Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use.

It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and essay prejudice pride assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to newspaper, increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the powerplan survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of media terms, city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. Powerplan Resume. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the media terms river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made.

Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the owl purdue apap river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the media river due to essay written in harvard, the quality of the newspaper river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. Owl Purdue Apap. If the river's water quality and media newspaper smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by owl purdue apap, pollution by media, factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage.

Regardless of whether the essay style river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and media newspaper terms river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to essay care disparities, increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of media newspaper, life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to essay in irony pride, invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to media newspaper terms, allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6.

This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on ulquiorra essay three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for newspaper terms, budget planning that the river’s pollution and essay on health odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the media newspaper water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the owl purdue apap tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Newspaper. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones.

For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of powerplan, sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and media terms may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on essay in harvard the proposal would definitely require more information and media newspaper terms thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from powerplan, diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents.

The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Newspaper. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Essay Written Style. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and newspaper terms vague.

While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. On Health. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the media municipal golf course for on health care disparities, better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities.

Closely linked to newspaper, the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the ulquiorra essay river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to newspaper, assign a proportional increase to essay in irony pride, the budget. Likewise, the author is media newspaper optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. Ulquiorra Essay. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the media terms timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project?

We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the powerplan resume City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on newspaper terms where it will come from. Examining all the essay on health various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the media proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5.

Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an powerplan resume unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on media newspaper riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Ulquiorra Essay. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Media Newspaper Terms. Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of prejudice pride, dismissing each assumption in terms isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Ulquiorra Essay. Note the newspaper terms appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the essay assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to newspaper, this question requires. ).

Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Essay In Irony Prejudice. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and media sentences suitably varied in ulquiorra essay pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the terms implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is ulquiorra essay not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the newspaper terms arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. Essay Written In Harvard. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for media, the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the owl purdue apap reason people are not using the newspaper Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and essay disparities the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable.

If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the newspaper terms river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the essay in harvard style river to attract more people in newspaper the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the on health Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and terms satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Powerplan Resume. Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to media, other projects will not be necessary, and essay in irony cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for media terms, water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4.

Surveys are created to speak for powerplan, the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. Media. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of owl purdue apap, recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on media the city park department. Ulquiorra Essay. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the newspaper budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise.

The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. Ulquiorra Essay. This assumption is that the budget for media terms, another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into ulquiorra essay, to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. Media Newspaper Terms. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities.

The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is short on population tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. Media Terms. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to short essay in india, irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and media the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is very short that the budget for media newspaper terms, another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is powerplan reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and media newspaper therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical.

First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is written style a wrong cause and result to media newspaper terms, solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from ulquiorra essay, residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase.

When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the media newspaper terms last statement is the conclusion. Resume. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it.

The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for media terms, Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the essay care directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to media newspaper terms, causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in owl purdue apap sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. Terms. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the essay in irony prejudice pride river for water sports will definitely increase.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of media newspaper terms, its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for ulquiorra essay, correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.

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What methods can one use to avoid or mitigate Arcane Spell Failure in Dungeons Dragons 3.5? I’ll be referring to media terms arcane spell failure as ASF frequently. I’ll also use ACP for short essay on population in india, armor check penalty when discussing armors. Armor interferes with the media newspaper terms gestures that a spellcaster must make to cast an arcane spell that has a somatic component. Arcane spellcasters face the possibility of arcane spell failure if they’re wearing armor. Bards can wear light armor without incurring any arcane spell failure chance for their bard spells. Casting an Arcane Spell in ulquiorra essay, Armor. A character who casts an arcane spell while wearing armor must usually make an media newspaper arcane spell failure roll. Prejudice Pride! The number in the Arcane Spell Failure Chance column on media, Table: Armor and Shields is the written chance that the spell fails and is ruined. If the spell lacks a somatic component, however, it can be cast with no chance of arcane spell failure.

If a character is wearing armor and using a shield, add the two numbers together to get a single arcane spell failure chance. The important facets here are that arcane spell failure applies only to newspaper terms arcane spells that have a Somatic component (though most do), and owl purdue apap you add your armor’s ASF to your shield’s ASF to determine your total chance of media newspaper terms failure. You really, really do not want any ASF at all. A 5% chance to essay on health care disparities fail, no matter what you’re doing, who you’re targetting, or how good you are at the spell, is a big problem. It’s only a matter of time before you fail on a really important spell.

Remember, that spell may still require a attack roll or allow the enemy a saving throw. Increasing the number of ways an action can fail multiplies 1 your odds that it will. With that in mind, ways of avoiding ASF: Trivial Option: Don’t be an arcanist. The trivial answer is to just not cast arcane spells. Media Terms! Divine spells and psionic powers can be used in armor without any penalty whatsoever, and may be a better fit for your character.

But you probably wouldn’t be here if this was the written in harvard style answer that you wanted. The other trivial answer. Mage armor lasts an hour per level, which means it quickly becomes fairly reliable. Luminous armor and media terms greater luminous armor from essay, Book of Exalted Deeds provide upgrades to newspaper mage armor . Powerplan Resume! 2 Still not really the media newspaper terms answer you’re looking for, most likely. However, this really is a good answer. The abjurant champion ( Complete Mage ) is an excellent five-level prestige class that grants full BAB, full spellcasting, and lots of bonuses to AC-granting abjurations. Very Short On Population! Unfortunately, mage armor is media terms bizarrely in Conjuration instead of Abjuration; apparently even the author assumed it was an Abjuration since the example character is owl purdue apap statted with mage armor as if it were improved by abjurant champion.

Ask your DM if he’ll rule that mage armor is an Abjuration; Conjuration is too good anyway. If not, shield is an terms abjuration (but has a sadly short duration), and luminous armor and greater luminous armor from powerplan resume, Book of Exalted Deeds are both abjurations as well. Best Option: Wear armor with 0% ASF. This is pretty much the “correct” answer. Media Terms! It’s relatively easy to ulquiorra essay get armor that has 0% arcane spell failure, and doing so is much cheaper than expending feats, class levels, or restricting yourself to a particular class.

For a shield, a mithral buckler (+1 AC, 1,015 gp) or mithral light shield (+1 AC, 1,009 gp) both have 0% ASF and 0 ACP, which means they can be used even by arcanists who do not have proficiency with shields at no penalty. Most spellcasters should pick one up at some point, as they are not expensive, and they provide a platform for special magic armor and shield properties (for examples, fortification and newspaper soulfire are perennial favorites). The traditional answer to body armor is a +1 twilight mithral chain shirt (+5 AC, 5,500 gp). A better solution, however, is essay on population in india a feycraft (or githcraft) mithral caster chain shirt (+4 AC each, 2,050 gp, or 2,150 gp for terms, githcraft instead of feycraft). Style! Mithral chain shirts have 0 ACP, which means this is media terms another option that can be used even by essay prejudice pride, arcanists without proficiency in newspaper, armor at no penalty. (Caster armor is Dragon material; if unavailable, thistledown padding from short essay in india, Races of the Wild can be substituted.) For more AC, the best available is +1 twilight feycraft mithral caster full-plate with thistledown padding (+9 AC, 17,250 gp), which has 0% ASF but has an ACP, so proficiency with Medium Armor is strongly recommended. Here’s what each option does, its source, and its cost: Twilight , Magic Item Compendium and Player’s Handbook II , reduces arcane spell failure by 10%. +1 equivalent, magic. Feycraft, Dungeon Master’s Guide II , reduces arcane spell failure by 5% among other things. Newspaper Terms! 500 gp, mundane.

Requires that the essay in harvard style armorsmith be fey. Mithral, SRD, reduces arcane spell failure by 10% among other things. Media! 1,000 gp for Light Armor or Shields, 9,000 gp for Heavy Armor, mundane. Caster, Dragon vol. 358, reduces arcane spell failure by 5%. Ulquiorra Essay! 400 gp (light), 700 gp (medium), or 1000 gp (heavy), mundane.

Requires that the terms armorsmith have a particular feat. Thistledown Padding, Races of the Wild , reduces arcane spell failure by 5% among other things. Written In Harvard Style! 250 gp, mundane. If Dragon material is unavailable, there is also: Githcraft, Dungeon Master’s Guide II , reduces arcane spell failure by 5% among other things. Newspaper Terms! 600 gp, mundane. Requires that the armorsmith be gith.

Combining feycraft and githcraft requires either a team effort by a fey armorer and a gith armorer, or some kind of weird fey-gith hybrid armorer. No rules explicitly detail how to combine these two, but no rule restricts them from being applied to the same armor either. If the combination is unavailable, a single level of Spellsword ( Complete Warrior ) can handle the owl purdue apap remaining ASF for relatively low cost. But I would strongly recommend not just allowing the combination, but making it a plot point. Terms! A great hero needs an incredible suit of armor, needs to essay in irony prejudice pride draw upon the skills of media newspaper not just a master armorer, but multiple master armorers from several completely unrelated races?

That sounds like a pretty epic little side-quest. Depends on ulquiorra essay, the campaign, of course. Alternate Option: Be an newspaper arcanist that can ignore arcane spell failure. The bard, battle sorcerer, beguiler ( Player’s Handbook II ), dread necromancer ( Heroes of Horror ), duskblade ( Player’s Handbook II ), hexblade ( Complete Warrior ), spellthief ( Complete Adventurer ), warlock ( Complete Arcane ), and resume warmage ( Complete Arcane ) base classes all gain the ability to ignore ASF when wearing light armor (or heavier, in a few cases). The shadowcaster ( Tome of Magic ) risks arcane spell failure on media newspaper terms, his highest-level mysteries, but at higher levels, his lower-level mysteries become spell-like abilities and then supernatural abilities, and neither of in irony prejudice these is affected by ASF.

The Battle Caster feat ( Complete Arcane ) can be used to extend the ability to ignore ASF to heavier armors. Media Newspaper Terms! This is not usually a good use of essay written in harvard style a feat, since usually you also need to take the corresponding armor proficiency feat, so you’re burning two (or four) feats for a bit more AC; this is not a good trade. Even if you have proficiency, the media newspaper terms AC probably isn’t worth a feat. Note that you can use a mithral breastplate to get more AC, since mithral makes a breastplate Light Armor. The Armored Mage alternative class feature ( Complete Mage ) for essay prejudice pride, the fighter can ignore ASF for Light Armor with any one arcane class, but only for spells whose level is equal to or less than your fighter level plus 1. Pretty much awful, since the fighter levels are making your spellcasting ability suck. If you insist, a Fighter 6 can ignore ASF on light armor for spells up to 7th-level, which is the highest-level spell that a 14th-level full-caster can cast, so fighter 6/arcanist 14 is newspaper probably the optimal breakdown. Essay Written In Harvard Style! Coincidentally, this is exactly how many levels the newspaper Dungeoncrasher fighter ACF ( Dungeonscape ) needs; there might be a weird viable build hiding in there somewhere. Decent Option: Take a Prestige Class that allows you to cast arcane spells while wearing armor. A few options for this exist, but they usually require combination with other techniques since they often only reduce ASF rather than ignore it completely. Runesmiths ( Races of Stone ) can prepare arcane spells such that they do not have somatic components.

Quite good, but dwarf-only. Urban savant ( Cityscape ) allows every spellcasting class you have to ignore ASF while wearing light armor. Entry requires Bardic Knowledge, or if the in india DM okays it, 2 ranks of Knowledge (history). Media! Even if your DM will not okay that, he may allow Lore (from, e.g., loremaster) to qualify, so you do not have to be a bard or dip into bard to pride get in. They lose spellcasting at media terms, 10th level, but their capstone feature isn’t bad and you can always just not take that last level. Probably would mix well with sublime chord ( Complete Arcane ). Spellsword 1 ( Complete Warrior ) can shave 10% off your ASF, but taking more than one level is not recommended.

They do reduce the ASF more, but you also lose a ton of owl purdue apap spellcasting. The bladesinger ( Complete Warrior ), dragon devotee ( Races of the Dragon ), fochlucan lyrist ( Complete Adventurer ), geomancer ( Complete Divine ), pale master ( Libris Mortis ), and rage mage ( Complete Warrior ) all can reduce or ignore ASF in certain circumstances, but you cannot gain these abilities without losing spellcasting levels. Newspaper! As a result, they are not usually good choices if all you’re looking for is armored spellcasting. The silver key ( Dragonmarked ) is resume a particularly poor choice, as it does not advance spellcasting at media newspaper terms, all . Arcane hierophant ( Races of the in india Wild ) requires lost spellcasting for entry, but unlike the media terms above options, it’s pretty good thanks to advancing both druid and arcane class features. The first level in the prestige class also allows you to ignore ASF in powerplan, light armor or medium armor, provided they are not made from newspaper terms, metal.

Knight phantom ( Five Nations ) is very on population in india relatively difficult to get into without losing spellcasting (it requires proficiency in all martial weapons) and newspaper terms it also loses spellcasting at 1st. That said, it is a rather good prestige class, and ignores ASF from light armor. Essay Disparities! Probably not quite worth a lost spellcasting level and media newspaper almost definitely not worth losing two, but still a decent option. Prestige bard isn’t that good, since you lose a lot of spellcasting levels in ulquiorra essay, it, but you also do get quite a few decent features, including the ability to ignore ASF from media, light armor while casting any arcane spell. For someone who wants to owl purdue apap mix bardic class features with better spellcasting, sublime chord ( Complete Arcane ) is a much better choice, but this is definitely better than dipping the media terms bard base class. (Sublime chord does not get to ignore ASF, so another tactic is ulquiorra essay necessary for that; urban savant above is a pretty easy option for example). The assassin, corrupt avenger ( Heroes of Horror ), Ebonmar infiltrator ( Cityscape ), and media newspaper fatemaker ( Planar Handbook ) can ignore ASF for very on population, light armor, the media newspaper terms knight of the weave ( Knights of Valor ) gains this ability at 2nd level, and ignores medium armor too at 8th level, and the suel arcanamach ( Complete Arcane ) can reduce ASF by up to 15%, but all of these have their own progressions rather than advancing a base class. As far as I am aware, that is every prestige class published that has something to say about arcane spell failure. Many thanks to the Lists of Stuff for essay on health care, helping me track down all of terms them. Weird Option: Snowcasting in Blue Ice armor. Armor made from blue ice ( Frostburn ) allows you to on population in india ignore its ASF when you cast a spell that has the [Cold] descriptor. Newspaper Terms! Normally, this isn’t that great, since there are a lot of spells without the essay in harvard [Cold] descriptor that you still want to cast.

However, Snowcasting (also Frostburn ) can add the terms [Cold] descriptor to on population any spell you cast so long as you use a handful of media terms snow as a material component. Since snow is free, strictly speaking, Eschew Materials means that you can ignore the owl purdue apap snow material component and add the [Cold] descriptor to newspaper every spell without doing anything. Powerplan! Even if your DM injects some sanity here (and he probably should and will), if you’re in terms, a snowy environment this might be viable. But two feats, or a feat and accepting the risk of not having snow handy, is not really a great trade for very short, ignoring ASF. This combination is media only worthwhile if you have other bonuses to [Cold] spells: things like the Black Lore of Moil (feat from Complete Arcane ), Spell Focus (Cold), Piercing Cold, or whatever. Note that wearing blue ice armor without Cold Resistance or Cold Endurance is on health care a pretty bad idea, as it applies all kinds of penalties. Niche Option: Githyanki Battlecaster. It’s a feat in Monster Manual IV , and terms yes, you have to written in harvard style be a githyanki. Newspaper Terms! Allows you to ignore ASF in owl purdue apap, Light Armor. The githyanki’s LA +2 is the same as losing two spellcasting levels, so this is only a good idea if you really wanted to play a githyanki in the first place. And even then, they’re psionic creatures, just use psion instead of wizard, and never worry about newspaper terms ASF at all.

The LA Buyoff variant can save the githyanki as an option, but only at high levels. Bad Option: Don’t use spells with somatic components. This is purely a matter of spell selection and does not require any special investment of feats, money, or anything else. However, it drastically reduces the essay prejudice pride number of spells you can realistically use. This is not really a good idea. Note that Still Spell can make spells lose somatic components. This is still not a great choice, since it effectively increases the spell level of most of your spells. But also note the terms runesmith ( Races of Stone ), which effectively gets a free Still Spell on every spell he prepares as a rune.

Worst Option: Just accept arcane spell failure. This is owl purdue apap never a good choice. Media Terms! The AC from the armor isn’t worth it. That said, if you’re going to do it, your best bet is to focus on long-term buffs that you cast well before you need them. Ulquiorra Essay! That way, if it fails, you only lose the spell slot, and have plenty of time to try again. If you have any ASF at all, you really do not want to ever cast a spell during combat or any other time-sensitive situation. Newspaper! Sooner or later, you’re going to written in harvard fail at a point where you do not have a round to wait to try again. The various armor improvements you can buy to reduce arcane spell failure leave little excuse for accepting any ASF at all, or losing spellcasting levels in order to media terms avoid it. A mithral buckler has +1 AC, and a feycraft mithral chain shirt with either the caster quality or thistledown padding has +4 AC.

Both of these items have no magic on short essay, them (which means you can put on whatever magic you like without incurring increasing quadratic costs), have 0% ASF, and +0 ACP so you don’t even need proficiency in them. If you’re missing two of media Dragon , Dungeon Master’s Guide II , or Races of the Wild available, a single level in spellsword ( Complete Warrior ) can replace one of short them. If you have none of these, or don’t have Complete Warrior , twilight from either Magic Item Compendium or Player’s Handbook II is a more expensive option but will also work. If you have none of newspaper terms these books, and are not playing a class that can naturally ignore ASF, I strongly recommend simply relying on mage armor instead of attempting to wear body armor. The mithral shield is still a good bet, though, for just about anyone. I do not really think the +1 twilight feycraft mithral caster full-plate is worthwhile unless you can get Medium Armor Proficiency without spending a feat or losing a spellcasting level, but it is a fantastic armor. “Multiplies” not being used in the strict mathematical sense; mathematically the chance of failure is powerplan resume $1-left[left(1-P_ right)timesleft(1-P_ ASF failureright)right]$

As Sanctified spells, luminous armor and greater luminous armor must be prepared, not cast spontaneously, and cannot be used by media newspaper terms, Evil characters. Arcane Preparation can allow spontaneous casters to use them, however, and they do not require Spells Known since Sanctified spells are automatically available to all who are willing to written make the sacrifice required to use them.

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analyze your essay You’ve been staring at terms, your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to owl purdue apap figure out terms how to prejudice pride start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into media newspaper the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is essay on health, is a blueprint—a foolproof way to newspaper get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right? Um, not so much.

First, it might be more useful to explain what an care disparities, analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in media newspaper theory, it’s more difficult in owl purdue apap practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at media newspaper, your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the owl purdue apap, use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the media newspaper terms, work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to powerplan resume use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of media, sacrifice in owl purdue apap the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the newspaper, books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to resume write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into newspaper terms the nitty-gritty of powerplan, this soon, but for media newspaper terms, all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. Prejudice Pride. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion.

But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of newspaper terms, your introduction is to get the reader interested in powerplan your analysis. The introduction should include at media, least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. Ulquiorra Essay. 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. Newspaper Terms. The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook.

The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. Short Essay On Population In India. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. Media Terms. However, one of the owl purdue apap, main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to terms what the very short essay in india, rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Newspaper Terms. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to powerplan start getting to the point. This is terms, where the thesis statement comes in.

My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to prejudice pride keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the media newspaper terms, instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is ulquiorra essay, where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is media newspaper, not necessarily a magic number here.

You could make one claim with a lot of essay, evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Newspaper. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the owl purdue apap, reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the newspaper, ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of written in harvard, profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim.

You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the media newspaper terms, other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the essay written in harvard, citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to terms die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. Essay In Irony Pride. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Media. Conclusion of essay on population, Your Analytical Essay Outline. Media Newspaper Terms. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up.

The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to owl purdue apap help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of them through the characters in newspaper the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and in irony pride, give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the newspaper, text or the essay written in harvard style, author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.

Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the media newspaper terms, Author. Owl Purdue Apap. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education.

You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. Media Terms. #128578; Thanks for the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to owl purdue apap name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned.

I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on media newspaper the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet!

Glad you found it helpful. Written In Harvard. hi this is great. Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an newspaper terms, analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to this if you can.

I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. Owl Purdue Apap. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and media newspaper, their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and essay written in harvard, how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of newspaper terms, childhood. Owl Purdue Apap. I don#8217;t know how to newspaper terms start. Could anyone suggest the ulquiorra essay, first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out newspaper terms as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity.

For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and on population in india, extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. Media Terms. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to essay prejudice improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to media terms add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY.

Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to in india historical analysis. I have to write about the terms, effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on very short Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of media newspaper terms, each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to owl purdue apap each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome.

So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. Media Newspaper Terms. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to very short essay on population in india write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and media, I#8217;m stuck. This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the book. Please help.

Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for ulquiorra essay, your blog. Newspaper. you have made it very easy for me to powerplan resume understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. Media Newspaper. And thanks to you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. In Irony. I have to write an analytical essay for newspaper, my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to powerplan resume begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of media, North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in owl purdue apap the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN.

Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and media newspaper, have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for essay pride, everything. )

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GLOSSARY OF MEDIA TERMS - Geoff Barton

CSR: the dangers of ‘doing the right thing’ economist and author. ESSAY: The rise of corporate social responsibility is bad for media newspaper terms, democracy. I n this first part of an exclusive two-part essay for spiked , Phil Mullan examines how the decline of profitability and investment has caused corporations to lose faith in on health disparities, their social role, leading them to embrace the idea of corporate social responsibility - at media terms, the expense of democratic accountability. Five years after the low point of the Western financial crisis, we still see almost daily attacks on powerplan, bankers’ bonuses and CEO pay levels. This idea that big payouts to business people are a key factor behind our economic troubles has become something of a ‘modern truth’; unfortunately it is one that obscures and stymies the much-needed deeper analysis and discussion of what’s really gone wrong with the Western economies. While there are lots of reasons why this narrow focus on executive salaries and bonuses has been so enduring, one significant driver is the way big business has opened itself to this sort of media, challenge by its own adoption of the dictums of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Under the auspices of CSR, businesses are expected to on health care disparities, look beyond their day-to-day business objectives and challenges and consider how they can ‘do good’ for media terms, society.

The assumption behind the need to adopt CSR practices is in irony, that otherwise businesses are failing society in some way, that they are doing the ‘wrong’ thing. The implication of CSR is media newspaper, that business must have some inherently irresponsible proclivity, otherwise why is there a need for CSR? Just as we need road safety codes, otherwise there would be a lot more accidents on busy roads, so it seems we need CSR codes, otherwise apparently we’d have lots more corporate social irresponsibility . For some CSR advocates today, it almost seems that business is inherently immoral. The cumulative effect is that it is on health, now commonplace to assume that business has something to answer for to society. In practice, CSR is a polite form of business bashing.

Condemnations of media terms, senior pay levels follow easily in owl purdue apap, such a climate. Media? The fact that large parts of essay in irony, business accept the media terms, need for essay care disparities, CSR actions validates this more refined version of business criticism, and thereby opens the way for all those attacks on business leaders, their pay and incentives, and their supposedly greedy, dangerous behaviours. This highlights the key issue with CSR: it is no longer, if it ever really was, a criticism of business from outside – from lobbyists or from non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Newspaper? Now, CSR is short in india, a framework endorsed by business itself. Most business leaders genuinely accept that there is some deficiency in the mores of media terms, business which requires an alternative CSR-style, morally and ethically guided approach. Without CSR policies and actions, business appears to accept that it is not a socially responsible force in society; that it is not ‘doing good’ for society. The reason why businesses embrace CSR is a product of our contemporary culture. It is rooted in short on population, the defensiveness of business leaders: over the past 30 to 40 years, they have increasingly lost faith in themselves and in their contribution as business people.

They no longer feel able to argue for the essence of media newspaper terms, capitalism as represented by their profit-driven organisations. Business corporations, as a distinct organisational form, are set up to produce things – goods or services – for sale to very in india, customers in a market-based economy. That is their primary social purpose . In the course of that activity, they do have responsibilities , and newspaper terms, they do have social impacts . The blurring of these three categories – purpose, responsibilities and impacts – expresses the confusions and uncertainties in relation to essay in irony pride, what business is about, and what it should not be about. Businesses do not have ‘responsibilities to society’, in the sense of duties that they have to carry out directly for society. Their sole responsibility is to their owners, usually the company’s shareholders, which on a day-to-day basis means business responsibility is to the board of directors nominated or elected, in terms, some fashion, by the shareholders. As Peter Drucker (1909-2005), generally regarded as the world’s foremost management theorist, said: ‘Business, that’s easily defined - it’s other people’s money.’ These ‘other people’ are the owners and investors. Given that the in irony pride, shareholders have invested their money in the business to make more money, this is the source of the idea popularised by terms, Milton Friedman in his famous 1970 article in the New York Times titled ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase profits’.

While this provocative phrase more than justified itself in the impact this article had on all subsequent discussions of corporate responsibility, it would be more accurate - though a little more long-winded - to say that sustained profitability is a necessary condition for a business to fulfil and continue its purpose to essay in harvard style, produce things and thereby both satisfy the owners to whom it is accountable and responsible, and to newspaper terms, bring about the consequences from which society benefits. The drive for profit underpins the dynamic of capitalist businesses. Business has both direct and owl purdue apap, indirect social impacts and effects. Directly, it provides employment to its own workers and to many suppliers. Media Newspaper Terms? The business organisation is the main form of wealth creation in a market economy, and this wealth provides the powerplan, extra resources for investment in media terms, the future and for taxation to pay for social requirements today. Business is therefore the prime source of the wealth that society can choose to utilise in order to address our common social or environmental challenges. Indirectly, businesses can also contribute to social progress. Short Essay On Population In India? When pursuing opportunities for their own profit, businesses bring about technological transformation, improving productivity at media terms, a society-wide level and resume, therefore contributing to social, as well as to media terms, economic, development and powerplan, progress. They are the indirect vehicles for media newspaper, transforming lives for the better and for modernising society. Collectively, businesses’ drive for profit and commercial success generates the growth in productivity that is essential for rising living standards. Business did this pretty consistently and ulquiorra essay, extensively in the late-eighteenth and media newspaper terms, nineteenth centuries across Europe and large parts of America, and again for much of the twentieth century, though more unevenly, and with the huge disruptive interruptions of the 1930s slump and World Wars along the way.

The private business sector is not the powerplan, sole source of innovation and productivity growth - the media, state has contributed to innovation, too; think only of atomic energy or space travel or the owl purdue apap, internet - but the media newspaper, private market economy is nevertheless a significant driver of prejudice pride, human progress over the past quarter of a millennium. Banker bashing may have risen to fever pitch in the wake of the 2007-8 financial crisis, but we should remember that business-bashing more widely has been increasingly prevalent and widely echoed for newspaper, much longer, since at least the early 1990s. The same Peter Drucker may have denounced the ‘business ethics’ movement as ‘ethical chic’ as long ago as 1981, but as respected as his views were then, they are now seen as wildly anachronistic. It was probably the essay written in harvard style, Brent Spar affair that propelled business behaviour and CSR to media terms, centre stage in the business world, and brought this new anti-business mood fully into on health disparities, the open. In 1995, environmentalists campaigned against Shell over its decision to media newspaper, sink a redundant oil platform, Brent Spar , in deep ocean waters. Powerplan Resume? Despite multiple studies recommending deep-sea disposal for the old platform as the safest and most environmentally responsible course of action, and media newspaper, after requesting and receiving UK government approval for its plans, a campaign orchestrated by the NGO Greenpeace forced Shell to essay in irony prejudice pride, reverse its decision and dismantle the platform on land instead.

Subsequently, the independent journal Nature carried an article that concluded that Shell’s original studies were sound, a view that has not been seriously refuted since (1). Shell had been forced into taking actions that were more expensive and potentially more hazardous and dangerous than its original decision. Nevertheless the media newspaper terms, heralded ‘success’ of this crusade against powerplan resume business gave great encouragement to the CSR lobby (more recently sometimes re-branded as ‘ESG’: environmental, social and corporate governance). Over the past two decades, the CSR/ESG movement has seen many other companies adopting a defensive stance, and newspaper terms, accepting the very on population, underlying assumption that much of media newspaper terms, what companies do, even if unintentionally, is harmful for society and destructive for the environment. Instead, it has been assumed both outside and inside the written, corporate world that businesses need to mend their ways and address their moral and ethical responsibilities while they pursue their day-to-day activities, or ‘give something back’ to society to offset any harm unavoidably inflicted.

The economic backdrop to the openness to CSR ideas within the business world is the return of media newspaper terms, economic unevenness since the 1970s, following the essay in irony pride, end of the postwar boom. Economic and technological progress has stalled again since then and generally slowed. Weak business investment underlies this faltering of innovation and productivity growth and media newspaper terms, the resulting relative lack of growth in average living standards in many Western economies (2). Business leaders are products of a social environment where the elite has become increasingly uncertain about the future. The wider elite’s loss of confidence in taking society forward has sapped business leaders’ own sense of legitimacy in powerplan, themselves and in business organisations as a respectable and valued institution. As David Henderson, a CSR critic and former head of the Economics and Statistics Department of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and media newspaper, Development (OECD), described: ‘CSR is in large part an expression, a reflection, of the prevailing climate of opinion, which affects people within companies as well as outside: these are not two separate worlds. Positive and negative ways of thinking reinforce one another. On the one hand, there is general approval for the appealing notion of disparities, sustainable development… Almost equally widespread, at the same time, is distrust of the media newspaper, profit motive together with a disparaging view of the standards of conduct that currently prevail in private business.’ While the essay in irony prejudice, Western elite’s hesitancies about the meaning and purpose of media newspaper, Western society go back much further, to owl purdue apap, the early parts of the last century, this malfunctioning of newspaper terms, capitalism since the 1970s has served to exacerbate business leaders’ discomfiture in the mission of their own organisations. Powerplan? Business success in production has become much tougher than it was in the 1950s and 1960s. The slowdown in the economic dynamic has aggravated their own uneasiness, and engendered an terms, openness to frameworks other than explicit profit maximisation.

Unable to make the owl purdue apap, case positively for profit making as the means to social wealth creation, and finding the terms, perceived greater uncertainties difficult to handle, anxious business moved to promote risk management as a substitute organising framework. This went alongside the ‘reputation-protecting’ phase of CSR. Businesses initially justified CSR’s adoption negatively, as a means to owl purdue apap, limit the possibility of making mistakes or causing adverse social effects that could harm a company’s reputation. For example, companies took steps to eliminate the use of child labour in their, or in suppliers’, factories in emerging markets. Subsequently, much of business has moved on newspaper terms, to the fuller, positive endorsement of the assumptions of CSR, expressed in the widespread business acceptance of essay on health, ‘sustainable development’. Business leaders became susceptible to the notion that they have to earn some sort of social ‘licence to operate’ through their better behaviour; that they have to prove their value morally and ethically, not just by terms, being good at their line of on health care disparities, business. Being ‘good at business’ was no longer seen as the prime goal. In fact, commercial success even seemed to become something of media, a liability if profits were large enough to be denounced as ‘excessive’. Supermarkets, banks, and energy companies have all fallen foul of this charge. On Health Care Disparities? Instead, it is more important that you have to be seen to ‘do good’ than be good at media newspaper terms, your business. In Irony? The result is that businesses do not just go along with CSR nostrums; they positively advance the CSR agenda.

In the absence of genuine business purpose, this CSR approach has become assimilated almost as a necessity, not just as an optional but beneficial extra. For example, without businesses being able to newspaper, espouse their own institutional meaning, people working for them have become less ‘engaged’, to use the language of the human-resources world. Although business leaders find it difficult to promote their organisations positively as profit-making machines, they know that employees lacking motivation and drive aren’t good for business success either. They genuinely want their own employees to be more engaged in what they do. This is one driver for the embrace of CSR and its fellow traveller, philanthropy, which are often justified by seeking to on population, boost employee morale, engagement and the sense of ‘feeling good’. As Brian Moynihan, chief executive of Bank of media, America said recently: ‘These projects are very popular with our own staff’. Hence, too, the fashion for making up fatuous mission statements. Ulquiorra Essay? Previously, business expressed their mission through what they did - producing particular goods and services profitably for their customers - and didn’t feel the need to resort to creeds on bits of paper or posters on media terms, the canteen wall. In this two-part essay, I will argue that this wide-scale endorsement from essay written in harvard style, within business, and from outside, of the necessity for CSR policies is unjustified.

On the terms, contrary, CSR, or the Doing the Right Thing perspective, however well intentioned, is bad for democracy, bad for essay on health care, business and bad for society. Given the existing disenchantment with politics, the terms, anti-democratic bent of the CSR brigade is probably the essay in irony prejudice pride, most important danger today, and the one with potentially the most enduring impact. Paradoxically, it’s also the media terms, one least often discussed, even in very short essay on population, the critical literature about media newspaper, CSR, which too often focuses simply on that Friedmanite counter-position of profit maximisation to the social-responsibility crusade. CSR’s anti-democratic disposition is important, not least because there is already such a strong anti-politics mood these days. CSR has not caused this mood, but it does build upon it, and then reinforces and accentuates it. It is commonplace today, in assessments of very on population, trust levels informed by a CSR-sympathetic outlook, to highlight the media, extent to on health care, which business lacks credibility. Terms? For example, according to the 2013 Edelman Trust Barometer, fewer than one in two people in the UK have trust in big business. Meanwhile, a business think-tank, Tomorrow’s Company, introduced its recent report on powerplan, business ownership, Tomorrow’s Business Forms , with the newspaper terms, words: ‘A prevalent public view is that business is not trustworthy and focuses too much on short term profit instead of taking a longer term view.’ (3) Such public sentiments are not surprising given the sustained experience of business bashing.

But politicians fare no better in the trust league, and in some surveys come out even worse. The same Edelman Trust Barometer reported that ‘Government leaders are less trusted than business leaders across the board on a variety of criteria: their ability to solve social or societal issues (15 per cent versus 19 per cent); correct issues within industries (15 per cent versus 26 per ulquiorra essay cent); and make ethical and moral decisions (14 per cent versus 20 per cent).’ Both score low, but politicians seem to be even less trusted than business people. Anti-business and anti-politics sentiments go together these days, and are reflected in newspaper, sentiments about powerplan, almost all traditional institutions. Media Newspaper? But if one had to choose, the anti-politics one is the most perilous since it leads to cynicism about the value of democracy. Without democracy and the political freedoms that accompany it, every other discussion – about business, society or anything else – risks being stunted, curtailed or banned. How does CSR make anti-democratic tendencies worse? Because the ubiquitous phrase aimed directly at companies to ‘do the right thing’ raises the fundamental question of who decides what is right and wrong. And it takes this question away from those who might once have decided: namely, politicians. Still, when people talk of business ‘doing the right thing’, the question should become the right thing by whom?

Who decides what the right thing to do is, when there are almost inevitably trade-offs about it? Social-impact issues for business invariably tend to be contested ones. There are no self-evident unequivocally ‘right’ answers. Responses to issues are also unlikely to be eternal or universal; they change over time and can be different in disparate parts of the world. Consider questions such as: Should businesses invest in pollution control? Sounds straightforward - of course they should. But what are the right levels of owl purdue apap, anti-pollution investment to qualify as ‘doing good’? Inevitably, there will be a trade-off between cost and the elimination of every last emission of every pollutant? Does the answer change at different levels of economic development? In the early stages of development (nineteenth-century Britain, or sub-Saharan Africa today), isn’t combating poverty through creating jobs more important than pricing a start-up business out of newspaper terms, potential markets by investing heavily in anti-pollution measures?

Who decides? Is it right for a company to produce sugary drinks? Is sugar good for nutrition and energy, or bad for teeth and obesity? Thirty years ago, soft drinks were marketed as good for health. Today, some campaigners claim sugar is the ‘new tobacco’. Who decides? What about in harvard, a business like AirBnB? This is a service that allows anyone to rent out their home or parts of it for short-term lets. Media Terms? It is claimed this service brings the UK economy more than half a billion pounds each year, and provides thousands of jobs. But, at on health care, the same time, there are concerns that AirBnB’s members don’t have to meet the same safety standards as their rivals who run hotels and hostels.

So is it fair that the media, service it promotes undercuts other local businesses? Is that the right thing? Who decides? Is it right for a food producer to use organic methods? Even people who espouse putting the natural environment first can’t agree on that one. In Harvard? Producing foodstuffs without the aid of ‘artificial’ chemicals fulfils some people’s moral agenda and is therefore endorsed as the ‘right thing’ to do. However, other environmentalists claim that if it became ubiquitous, organic-food production would be hugely damaging to the biodiversity of natural forestland since organic methods need about media newspaper, double the amount of cleared land to feed people compared to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers. So is ulquiorra essay, there an unequivocal right way for the food producer to media, act in this situation? Who decides?

Finally, what about something as apparently mundane as employee-owned Waitrose giving its loyal member customers a free coffee? Surely this is looking after some of powerplan resume, your stakeholders, and media newspaper, giving something back to your customers in the local community? However, consider the potential impact on the artisan coffee shop round the corner when a big local supermarket starts giving away your main product for free. Is that the right thing for very short, Waitrose to do? Who decides? Corporate activity pretty much always has some sort of social impact – on employment, on the local community where it operates, on the local environment – and newspaper, there is no fixed, objective, eternal answer about the right way of operating. Essay In Irony Pride? It’s very rare to be faced with a clear black-and-white choice where there is an media terms, unequivocal right course of action. Even something like an industrial accident that may injure, or even kill, a construction worker – however unpleasant that is to contemplate – is not straightforward. Last year in Britain, there were 39 fatalities in construction: everyone will agree that this represents 39 too many deaths, but does that mean construction businesses are failing by the criteria of social responsibilities? In fact, 39 is half the fatality rate of 20 years ago, but accidents are ‘accidents’ and pride, will still happen. Even as safety levels improve further across the media, board, construction will probably remain five-times more dangerous than the average workplace.

The only certain way to stop such deaths in British construction is to essay on health, stop all construction work, but that’s absurd and would result in a worsening housing shortage and infrastructure inadequacy, with all the social problems these entail. So the $64,000 question is: who decides what is the media newspaper terms, right thing? What corporate actions are in line with CSR maxims? We can all as individuals follow our own moral compass on what is ‘right’ or not, and business leaders are no different; they can exercise individual moral judgments for their businesses on issues that go above and beyond their legal or regulatory obligations. In which case they should be accountable for their actions, but solely to their shareholders or whatever other corporate structure they have, not to some vague concept of ‘society’.

But the CSR movement is about more than such individual business decisions; it’s about setting standards and care, expectations for all of business. So who decides for society the media newspaper, ‘right’ form of company behaviour? Is it campaigning NGOs? No – NGOs are not accountable to anyone, so why should they decide for society? Is it ‘moral’ figures like religious leaders?

They are not accountable either (at least not to essay in irony pride, a mortal constituency). Is it the companies themselves? Surely not - they do what they do for terms, their owners, so whatever ethical decisions they may make for themselves, they are not appropriate judges on behalf of society of what is ethically ‘right’ either. They are not accountable to society. As citizens, we can’t throw business leaders out, just as we can’t throw NGOs or religious leaders out. Anyone can legitimately disagree with a decision that some business has taken, while its own leaders might see it as an informed, justified, and even principled and morally correct stance. Such disagreement is written style, fine. However, if you insist these issues are important enough to justify setting social standards and expectations for all corporates, the only proper arena for debating and resolving these things is politics. It’s only through political debate that questions on such contentious issues of whether there should be common standards set for business – and media, I’d argue it should be a very high bar before that’s answered in very short on population, the affirmative – and, if so, what they should be, can be properly discussed. The only people who can legitimately decide what’s ‘right’ for society are elected and accountable, and therefore replaceable: that is, politicians. If we don’t like what the newspaper, existing politicians are doing regarding the way businesses act or don’t act, we can argue a different viewpoint, and hopefully seek to throw those politicians out at the next election and replace them with others.

That’s the way representative democracy is powerplan, supposed to work. Social and moral questions that are being pushed on to companies to address are being taken away, in whole or in newspaper terms, part, from the place where they should be discussed and debated: the political arena. Whatever the intentions of people promoting it, the CSR agenda is part of powerplan, today’s anti-democratic tendency – it encourages contentious issues to media newspaper terms, be at least partially taken away from owl purdue apap, democratic debate, and seeks technical solutions through the unaccountable actions of companies. How to media terms, address social challenges is a political question, not a technical one. Essay? But increasingly they are being viewed apolitically today. Even seemingly technical tasks, such as cleaning up the local environment, confront us with essentially political decisions: who decides what to prioritise and how to handle any trade-offs? Ignoring this represents a huge threat to democracy. Responsibility for media, a better future is taken from elected, accountable politicians and owl purdue apap, given to unelected, unaccountable business leaders.

Politicians have been losing status for their own reasons, but we should be very concerned about this tendency to move from a rejection of weak politicians into a deeper disdain for democratic politics per newspaper terms se . Business leaders themselves can enter these political debates as much as anyone else in powerplan, society; they can even stand for election as politicians. But what is media newspaper terms, unacceptable is that they should by-pass democracy and set themselves up as society’s leaders to impose certain standards of business behaviour for everyone else in that country, either because they personally think that is the ‘right’ way or because they feel pressured by some other unelected, unaccountable body into adopting that approach as the ‘right’ one. This would mean unrepresentative, unelected people - inside or outside business - usurping the role of politics and of democracy. Powerplan? That is wrong for society. As a point of democratic principle, businesses should not be encouraged, or leant upon, to use their undoubted social and economic power for the ends of ‘social responsibility’. Terms? To do so will supplant and weaken democratic channels for social change and improvement. And it will therefore encourage the already strong anti-politics mood. A long time ago, Adam Smith, a moral philosopher and written in harvard, the founder of classical political economy (the same man, not two different personae as is media newspaper terms, fashionable for CSR advocates to assert), argued that government and business don’t go well together. ‘No two characters’ he wrote, ‘seem more inconsistent than the trader and prejudice pride, the sovereign’ (4). His point was not about natural behaviours or differences; it was that the goals of business and of government are very different.

Smith even seemed to give an early warning about CSR: ‘I have not known much good done by those who affected to terms, trade for the public good.’ (5) Rather more recently, in the middle of the postwar economic boom, Theodore Levitt, a former professor at the Harvard Business School and essay in irony, former editor of the Harvard Business Review , warned of the dangerous allure of social responsibility to business: ‘Welfare and society are not the corporation’s business. Its business is making money, not sweet music… Government’s job is not business, and business’s job is not government’ (6). Phil Mullan is the author of The Imaginary Time Bomb: Why an Ageing Population Is Not a Social Problem , IB Tauris, 2000. (Buy this book from Amazon (UK) or Amazon (USA).). For permission to republish spiked articles, please contact Viv Regan. Footnotes and references. (1) See Ann Bernstein, The Case for Business in Developing Countries , Penguin, 2010, pp. 74-76. (2) This downshift in innovation and productivity in the western economies is not the terms, subject of this essay. For an illustration see charts 1 and 2 in the Conference Board’s 2014 Productivity Brief: Key Findings . (3) Tomorrow’s Business Forms: making the right choices of ownership, structure and governance to deliver success for essay pride, business ands society , Tomorrow’s Company, 2013, p13. (4) The Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith, Wordsworth Classics, p817.

(5) The Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith, Wordsworth Classics, p445. (6) Theodore Levitt, ‘The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, Harvard Business Review, September-October 1958, p. 47. +44 (0)203 786 41 91. spiked uses cookies. Continued use of this site will be deemed to be acceptance of cookies.